India - Flood project - GDS

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India - Flood project - GDS

  1. 1. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services National workshop on Climate Smart disaster Risk Management at New Delhi on 7th April 2010
  2. 2. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services The Flood scenario in Eastern Uttar Pradesh: • 15-18 districts of East UP get affected by floods almost every year. • Floods are caused due to release of water from Nepal, excess rain in Tarai region. • The terrain has gentle slope form north-west towards south- east. • The average height of the north-west part is about 95.5 meter ASL while the south-east part is about 85 meter ASL. • Due to its proximity to the Himalayas, rainfall in the area is much higher than other parts. 2
  3. 3. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services The Project intervention (Design of DRR): • Project was not pre-designed, it has evolved with finding solutions and trials with community. • The project approach has been ‘community based disaster risk management’. • The focus has been on- – To enable & capacitate the community; – To evolve community based coping mechanism; GDS believes in the principle that “sufferer is the first responder” 3
  4. 4. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Situation/Problem Analysis: The poor and the women are the most vulnerable- the extent of vulnerability as well as coping capacity directly proportional to the socio-economic and gender status of the people.  Agriculture is the main source of livelihood;  Majority of farmers are small and marginal.  Flood destroys not only the Kharif (monsoon season) crop but also delays the next Rabi (winter season) crop due to water locking and water logging.  People’s interest and investment in agriculture declining.  Seasonal male migration is rampant 4
  5. 5. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Situation/Problem Analysis:  During floods gender discrimination is clearly visible  Women particularly the elderly eat and drink less to avoid going to toilet  Drinking water sources get submerged;  Conditions highly favourable for outbreak of epidemics;  People have accepted floods as destiny and resigned to their fate;  Dependency on relief assistance 5
  6. 6. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services The Model Finalization process: • Initiated with problem identification, analysis and prioritization. • Micro planning process initiated in villages with community participation. • Interventions designed for flood mitigation were based on specific problems identified during micro planning process. • Continuous process of participatory reviewing and deriving learning carried out- leading to timely refinement/fine-tuning in the implementation design 6
  7. 7. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services GDS’s Disaster (Flood) Risk Reduction Management Model: SALIENT FEATURES- • Safeguarding life and livelihoods due to floods; • To bring about a change in the mind set- that ‘floods are destiny’, leading to proactive preparedness by the suffering community • Community owned and managed Preparedness and Response systems; • Advocacy for Policy and Practice change on flood related issues. 7
  8. 8. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services GDS’s Disaster (Flood) Risk Reduction Management Model : Formation of Village Level Disaster Management Groups (DMGs); Village Flood Preparedness Plan (Micro-plan); Institutional capacity building of DMGs; Capacity building of sector specific volunteers; Categorization of compulsory and need based components. 8
  9. 9. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Components finalization: Compulsory components: Need based components: • Cultivation of pre- flood • Arrangement of boats Paddy; • Preparation at household • Safe drinking water; level • Household list; • Temporary shelter • Mock drills (Rescue); • Health camps • Toilet on raised ground; • Safe storage of fodder • Livestock vaccination; • Flood response Centre • Awareness on health, • Veterinary health camps hygiene & sanitation; • Trained Health worker (Swasthya sakhi ). 9
  10. 10. Agriculture Intervention: DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services  Agriculture is the only source of livelihood.  Paddy is the principal crop grown in 85% +in the area in kharif season.  Most of the varieties grown take 120-135 days to mature.  Crop has to face either flood or drought. Strategy was to bring change in cropping time & crop variety:  Identified a variety NDR-97;  Matures in 90 days ;  Can tolerate hot summer;  Paddy crops harvested in August. Year No. of farmers Coverage (acre) 2002 26 (8 villages) 10 2003 326 (32 villages) 144 2004 8265 2005 2005 25000 6300 2006 35000(approx) -------- 2007 20 districts (UP & Bihar)
  11. 11. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Integration of Climate Change with DRM • Monsoons in the year 2007 broke all norms and trends- heavy rains in early July caused massive floods almost six weeks before the ‘normal’ time for floods • While most components of the DRM model stood to the test, the agriculture safeguarding component (pre-flood paddy) was knocked completely off the course! • It forced us to give serious consideration to the phenomenon of ‘Climate Change’ and to look out for ways to make our DRM and livelihoods interventions ‘climate change smart’
  12. 12. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Integration of Climate Change with DRM • Towards integrating the ‘climate change’ dimension, we have undertaken a study to comprehend the issues and nuances related to climate change • The focus has been on the effects of climate change on livelihoods (especially, agriculture)
  13. 13. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Study on Climate Change Phenomenon • The study has looked into the following aspects – Changes in climatic pattern – Impact on life and livelihoods – Coping Strategies – Demands • The method comprises of – FGDs and key informant interviews with community to understand their perspective on the issue – Taking inputs from scientists and subject matter experts
  14. 14. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Changes in climate trends 1. Rainfall:  Late arrival and early end  Change in intensity and timing- becoming increasingly erratic  Decline in winter rains
  15. 15. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Rainfall Variations Maharajganj District (mm) Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar April May 1. Rainfall 2004 19 -4 -61 -63 42 -100 -100 124 -100 -100 178 119 2005 -52 -23 -28 -57 3 -100 -100 133 -58 -37 -29 2006 67 -31 -58 -33 -96 -100 -100 -100 -100 -60 21 148 2007 -74 16 -16 -76 -100 451 -67 215 -2 2008 -24 -35 -69 -83 -71 -100 2009 -71 -53 -52 -92 -71 -100 -55 Source: IMD, Pune
  16. 16. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Changes in climate trends 2. Seasons • Change in duration of the seasons • Summer are very hot and dry • Winter are concentrated and short • Fogs lasts throughout the day
  17. 17. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Changes in climate trends 3. Wind • Weak Pachuva and strong Purva • Absence of “loo”
  18. 18. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Changes in climate trends 4. Floods • Change in the period of arrival • Persistent water-logging • Increase in intensity • Irregular pattern
  19. 19. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Other changes Water table- Deep fall in water levels reported in some pockets Flora & Fauna- Loss of plants like ghuma, nagfani, bhatkoi and animals like frogs and birds like eagles, vultures, sparrows, etc. Rise in insects like pathavar, pathnag and worms
  20. 20. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Impact 1. Agriculture: • Damage to crops • Disturbance in crop-cycle • Need for multiple-irrigation, even during kharif • Rise in insect/pest infestation • Rise in weeds like khod jawaya, gilli danda and ban mutter • Fall in size of grains
  21. 21. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Impact 2. Animal Husbandry- • Fall in grazing land and water • Impact of heat and poor fodder • Accumulation of chemicals • Mechanization of agriculture causing loss of fodder • Fall in milk production
  22. 22. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Impact on Economy • Increase in cost of agriculture inputs; decline in production and productivity • Decline in livestock based livelihoods • Large scale migration
  23. 23. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Emerging coping strategies • Use of high yielding varieties • Balanced use of fertilizers and pesticides • Creation co-operatives with the help of NGOs • Nursery cropping • Change in cropping pattern and sowing time • Growing bamboo terraces • Emphasis on jayad cropping • Preference to mixed cropping
  24. 24. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Emerging demands • Better varieties – short-duration – heat and water tolerant – high yielding • More facilities to undertake jayad cropping • Knowledge of better practices in cropping • Micro-insurance for crop damage • Improved flood control programmes • Education on climate-change
  25. 25. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Climate Change vulnerability
  26. 26. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Adaptive Capacity
  27. 27. DRR & CC in Gremeen Development Services Thanks

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