Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

India Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans

2,037

Published on

1 Comment
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,037
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
46
Comments
1
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Diversified-INTEGRATED FARMING adaptation strategy for small and marginal farmers in coastal lowlands of Sundarbans [How & Why] Ardhendu S Chatterjee & Anshuman Das Development Research Communication and Services Centre West Bengal India
  • 2. The Setting Sunderbans, world’s largest delta, formed by 3 major rivers and more than 300 tributaries & distributaries Mudflats,mangroves,saltwater swamps spreading over 2 countries,along 250 Km coastline .
  • 3. basic data
    • latitude 21.31to 22.40 N
    • longitude 88.05to 89.06E
    • Av Rainfall 1800 mm/yr
    • Av Temp 30C in Smr,20C winter
    • Pre monsoon [Mar-May] Thunderstorms
    • Monsoon[85%Rainfall ,June-Sept]
    • post Monsoon [Oct-Nov] Cyclones
  • 4. Changes
    • mangrove forest loss livelihoods lost
    • rising salinity levels loss in Diversity and Productivity of Soil and Water.
    • Rivers Silted, whole islands Disappearing Climate refugees
  • 5. other changes
    • Rising number of man-tiger conflicts
    • Forest Lands diverted for water and energy intensive farming, shrimp culture, Rubber plantation etc.
    • Falling Groundwater levels,salinity intrusion reducing farm productivity
    • Farmlands converted to townships, resorts, industrial units Increased Pollution. Reduced water productivity.
  • 6. Rising No of Disasters after Aila Courtsey: Outlook magazine
  • 7.
    • Some problems, intensified in last 2~3 year
    • increased rainfall / occurrence of lightning , storm intensity and frequency
    • rains in the monsoon season tend to be more intense and persist for 6-7 days before they break rather than the 1-2 days that characterised past seasons
    • winters and summers have become warmer in the last 3-4 years
    • intermediary seasons have changed – spring /autumn has now disappeared
    • summer rainfall that had the benefit of reducing temperatures, supplying moisture to the soil, has declined
    • freshwater flooding from the adjacent Hugli River
    • gradual infiltration of saline water into the soil.
    • water logging , water does not flow quickly out of the cultivation area.
    • Resulting into
    • reduced rice yields
    • crop growth delayed, increasing susceptibility to pests and diseases
    • erratic flowering of fruit trees
    • loss of cash crops e.g. chillies
  • 8. Intervention Objectives
    • Extend growing season through Enhance d Diversity at Spc,Var & Ecosystem Levels
    • Build Reserves of Water,Fodder,Firewood etc. and Increase System Resilience through Integration of Semi Perennial & perennials, animals,aquatic organisms etc
    • Reduce the need for External Inputs through Multi step recycling ,Use of Biol & other Renewable Resources
  • 9. multi step use of organic manure
  • 10. other strategies
    • Reduce Inputs and Labour required through close integration[chicken tractor, duck aerator and weeder etc.]
    • Eliminate the need for Bio-cides through mixed and rotational cropping, use of resilient indigenous varieties, trap crops etc
    • Design of Multi-purpose & Multifunctional elements, such as Live Fences, hedgerows, multi step ponds,multi level Climbing Frames.
  • 11. Ducks supply manure, add oxygen to water, reduce weeds, control pests and convert them to meat/egg.
  • 12. multi step,multi utility pond
  • 13. multi level climbing frame
  • 14. diversifed Vegetable garden
  • 15. Paddy field bunds used
  • 16. Space above pond utilised
  • 17. Duck-house above pond made using local materials
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22. Collaborative Trials on Farmers fields as Extn Strategy
    • Farmers Describe their resources,Assess Farm Productivity over Seasons, Define their Econ,Soc-Cultrl,Ecol Objectives in short and medium term, Design models in 2 or 3D,and assess progress periodically in neighbourhood groups ,often with external resource persons present.
    • farmer to farmer exchange visits are facilitated
    • Profiles and databases are created for lesser known plants,birds animals.
  • 23. Let’s take specific case of 3 farmers * all of them having low lands, during rains/flood takes 3~4 months to recede – making the land uncultivable Banamali Das Sukomal Mandal Gobardhan Patra Total Land 0.6 acre 1.1 acre 0.4 acre Cropping pattern Vegetables during winter and rainy season, Rice in winter Rice in Kharif, some vegetable during winter Rice in kharif, some vegetable during winter, Vegetable during rainy season Other Assets Home + Homestead Garden + pond = 0.25 acre. Pond + home=0.2 acre 0.05 acre pond Family Member 7 Adult + 4 Children 2 Adult + 2 Children 10 Adult + 10 Children
  • 24. Common Problem
    • Very small amount of land
    • Low land, which becomes uncultivable due to long and unpredictable water logging condition
    • Unpredictability of climate (rainfall/temperature/fog/storm) effecting germination and yield
    • Pest attack increased
    • Can’t manage to feed their family
  • 25. Interventions tested so far
    • Ditch/pond/canal in the low land to drain excess water to make the low land cultivable
    • Raised beds and bunds, Levelling of Paddyfield
    • Change from mono-cropping system to mixed cropping – reducing dependency on single crop/animal etc
    • Integrating field crop Subsystem ,with Home garden,Orchard, Fish Pond,Cattle subsystems to reduce risks of total crop failure.
    • Using each and every vertical & horizontal space for production[Multi storey arrangements]
    • introducing bio gas ,azolla,Vermicompost to recycle all waste,reduce pollution,increase C Seq potential of soils.
  • 26. Water logged Farmer1: Before intervention
  • 27. Water logged Farmer1: After intervention 1 Canal around the area 3 MPT in bund 4 Vegetable over canal 6 Cowshed 8 Biogas 9 raised bed 7 Hen coupe over pond 5 Net over pond 2 Small pond
  • 28.  
  • 29. 1Canal 2 net over the canal 3 MPT 4 Rain water hvst 5 Raised Bed 6 Small Pond Farmer 2
  • 30. 1 Net over the canal 2 Paddy (SRI) 3 MTP 4 Cow 5 Vermi 6 Canal 9 Pond 7 Hen 8 raised bed 10 water logging tolerant aurum Farmer 3
  • 31. Intra system dependency: Rice-fish-duck-azolla
  • 32. Intervention Banamali Das Sukomal Mandal Gobardhan Patra Crop Winter – 12 types Summer – 8 types Rainy Season – 17 types + Paddy-fish-duck-azolla Winter – 25 types + Paddy (SRI) Summer – 13 types Rainy Season – 22 types Winter – 10 types Summer – 5 types Rainy Season – 10 types + Paddy-fish-azolla Perennial Tree 5 types of fodder/wood/biomass generating + 7 types of fruit 5 types of fruit 6 types of fruit Animal/ Poultry/Fish 5 Cows 8 ducks, 18 hens Fish 2 cows, 6 goats 24 hens, 2 ducks Fish 2 cows, 2 bull 24 hens Fish Bioinput Compost, vermicompost, fish/poultry/fodder from his own plot, bio-pestrepellents, biogas slurry Compost, vermicompost, fish/poultry/fodder from his own plot, bio-pestrepellents Compost, vermicompost, fish/poultry/fodder from his own plot, bio-pestrepellents Others Seed preservation, Biogas Seed preservation Rain water harvesting, seed preservation
  • 33.  
  • 34.  
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37.  
  • 38. Impact: diversified output/income Summary: Land shaping cost 5000 INR as loan. Total input 12235.5 INR (9497.75 INR is internally generated), Total output 28222 INR + own consumption 13000 INR
  • 39. Impact: reducing livelihood dependency on single enterprise
  • 40. Impact: energy/input cost/calorie/biomass recycling within the system – making the system more stable
  • 41. Before Biogas plant: Fuel consumption : 25 dung cakes (300 g per dung cake) & 10 kg of firewood per day. After Constructing Biogas plant: Fuel consumption : Biogas at the rate of 1.5 hours per day and 10 Kg of firewood per week. + biogas slurry for making vermicompost No fossil fuel dependency, no mechanized tillage – no irrigation/chemical fertiliser/pesticide Impact: Clean Energy Impact: Faming season extended, more days of work, more cash in hand, no migration Impact: More resilient shock proof system, can manage water logging, longer summer
  • 42. Upscaling Initiatives
    • Advocacy through DST and presenting data to academic researchers,state institutions and PRIs.
    • Negotiations with NABARD
    • Lobbying with unions of farmers and State Extension Dept Workers,as well as NGO forums,state level Disaster Working Group etc.
  • 43.
    • Close Integration at farm and household level can enhance food security, and make farms less disaster prone
    • Productivity of smallholders can be significantly enhanced without using groundwater ,non renewable energy,and synthetic agro-chemicals .
    • Farm households need capital loan support in the initial conversion phase, which can be provided as revolving fund.or the earthworks can be supported through MGNREGS
    Summary
  • 44. Limits/Challenges
    • Farm level adaptation need to be supplemented with Watershed level interventions , such as Mangrove Protection and regeneration, embankment strengthening, Canalbank planting,Grass – land regeneration as well as desilting rivers and removing encroachments on drainage channels.
    • State support is never/ or seldom available for Indigenous plants and animals .The specialised cows,ducks,fishes,pigs etc that are promoted, perform poorly in integrated system.Focus needs to shift to whole farm productivity
    • Focus needs to shift from Extension to Dialogue. ‘Experts’ need to work in multi disciplinary teams
  • 45. Thanks

×