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Community based adaptation, sudan regional consultation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Community Based Adaptation in Africa (CBAA), the Case of Sudan By: Sumaya Ahmed Zakieldeen
  • 2.  Community Based Adaptation in Africa (CBAA) is a regional non-government project involving eight African countries (Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe).  CBAA objective is to help vulnerable communities to adapt to climate change and share lessons learned from project activities with key stakeholders at local, national, regional and international levels to elicit their support for climate change adaptation.  The CBAA is implemented by the Sudanese Environment Conservation Society in partnership with other NGOs (Practical Action/Aydy Al-Nil )
  • 3. Methodology  The CBAA is using a methodology that combine both Top- down and bottom-up approaches.  Vulnerability assessment is an integral part of the methodology, to help select priority communities for the implementation of CBAA projects.  The assessment takes into account a number of elements, including poverty, climatic factors, hazards and extreme events.  The CBAA is working towards development of methodology for community based adaptation
  • 4. Vulnerable States in the country  The vulnerability assessment (top-down approach) identified number of states as highly vulnerable to climate change these were:  Northern Kordofan  Khartoum  Kassala  Gedaref and  Red Sea
  • 5. Project Site
  • 6. Climatic factors Over the past decades, livelihoods have been affected by:  frequent drought cycles  extreme fluctuations in rainfall  Floods (torrential rains, seasonal streams)
  • 7. SUDAN NORMAL RAINFALL IN MM FOR THE PERIOD 1941-1970 COMPARED TO 1971-2000 HAL WHF 22.00 200 mm 20.00 ABH ARB PSD DNG KRM TKR AQQ 18.00 ATB HDB SHN ARM 16.00 SHM KHA HLG KSL HAS WMD SHW DUM GDF 14.00 GEN FSH BAR SNR KHW OBD KST UMB NHD ABN NYL RSH 12.00 DMZ 500 RNK BNS KDG mm KUR 10.00 MLK NSR RAG 8.00 WAU PIB 6.00 Meteorological YAM MAR YEI JUB TOR KAP NAG Authority 2008 4.00 22.00 24.00 26.00 28.00 30.00 32.00 34.00 36.00 38.00
  • 8. SUDAN RAINFALL COEFFICIENT OF VARIABILITY IN PERCENTAGE FOR THE PERIOD (1971-2000) HAL 22.00 WHF 20.00 ABH ARB PSD DNG KRM TKR AQQ 18.00 ATB HDB SHN ARM 16.00 SHM KHA HLG KSL HAS WMD SHW DUM GDF 14.00 GEN FSH BAR SNR KHW OBD KST UMB NHD ABN NYL RSH 12.00 BNS RNK DMZ KDG KUR 10.00 MLK RAG NSR 8.00 WAU PIB 6.00 MAR JUB KAP Source: TOR YAM 8.00 NAG NAPA 2007 4.00 22.00 24.00 26.00 28.00 30.00 32.00 34.00 36.00 38.00
  • 9. None-climatic Factors  Poverty  High illiteracy rate (70%)  Mismanagement of natural resources (Over cultivation, over- grazing, deforestation etc.)  Lack of income diversity  Lack of agricultural inputs (Seeds, machinery, finance etc)  Certain policies/regulations act as impediment to AC  Conflict over resources (particularly between farmers and herders)  Fires  Others
  • 10. Makahaya Village  The community practise traditional rain-fed agriculture, they cultivate the following:  Different varieties of sorghum  Ground nuts  Sesame  Hibiscus sp. (Karkadey)  Vegetables (Tomatoes, melons, cucumber, okra etc.) - They keep few animals (mainly goats and donkeys (very important for carrying water).
  • 11. The analysis at village level involved:  Socio-economic analysis  Existing institutions and services  Indigenous knowledge for coping with climate change  Power Linkages (policy relationships from village to state governor)
  • 12. Stakeholder and Community participation  Individual Interviews  Visits and Surveys  Focus Group discussion  Participatory Rural Appraisal  Interaction with local institutions
  • 13. Participatory Rural Appraisal (bottom-up)  Participatory Rural Appraisal Combination of methods were used to enable the village community to share, enhance and analyse their knowledge of their life and conditions as well as to plan and act.
  • 14. Con..  The stakeholders were able to identify climate change vulnerabilities  They were able together to identify and plan for suitable adaptation options  Community became the analysers and we became the facilitators
  • 15. Con.. PRA Analysis of:  water resources,  vegetation cover  and agricultural for the period between 1940 and 2010
  • 16. Vulnerability Sectors that are extremely vulnerable:  Water sector  Agriculture  Energy
  • 17. Water Sector Decrease of amount of rainfall and high variability of its distribution caused:  Severe Shortage and lack of drinking water particularly during dry season  High cost (time and money)  Water-born diseases
  • 18. Con..
  • 19. Agriculture  Fluctuation/reduction of production  Deterioration of rangelands/loss of animals  Lack of food security  Cut of trees for charcoal production (however for subsistence)  Migration to nearby towns and to agricultural schemes  People were forced to adopt unfavourable seasonal activities
  • 20. Energy  Vegetation cover deteriorated very much due to both climatic and none- climatic factors  Women spend 3-4 hrs daily in collection of firewood from remote places  Situation is getting worse and worse worries about near future
  • 21. Identified Adaptation Options; Water harvesting for drinking (additional Hafier and rehabilitation of existing ones) Agriculture  Water harvesting (terraces)  Improvement of local indigenous knowledge of early seeding (locally know as Remeel)  Introduction of drought resistant /early maturing varieties (okra, millet, sorghum etc.)
  • 22. Con..  Production of winter crops such as vegetables (Egg plants, water melon, tomatoes, cucumber), at the end of the rainy season in the course of one of Abu -Habel tributaries Energy  Introduction of petroleum liquid gas and improved stoves
  • 23. Income increasing options  Expansion of Karkady production (cash crop)  Introduction sheep fattening for women for increasing family income/production of , meat, milk and butter  Improvement of marketing  other
  • 24. Capacity Building  Certain areas that require specific capacity building were identified - Water harvesting - winter cropping - improved stoves building - financial training for rotating small grants - other - Establishment of a new committee in the community - Fund raising for implementation of identified adaptation activities
  • 25. Consultations with relevant institutions, NGOs and Programmes  Eco-peace project  Forest National Cooperation  Administration of agriculture, natural resources and animal wealth  Practical Action/Aydy Al-Nil  Sudanese Meteorological Society  Others