COOLING AGENTS
Climate : Justice and
Victims

April 7th 2010
Solid Waste and Disasters
• Slow accumulating :
  Surat
• Seem like freak
  incidents : Payatas
• Exacerbate : Mumbai
• Sl...
Climate Change, India, and
           Waste
 Concurrent growth in population, urbanization, and GDP

 Third largest emit...
Delhi/India
• 8000 tons of waste     • 100,000 tons per day
  per day                • 20,000% increase in
• 3 landfills  ...
Case Study : Delhi’s Recyclers
• Many have been around for decades
(average is 14 years)
• Most are poor, but most touch m...
How Recycling Works


            •   Reprocessors
            •   Large Scrap Dealers
            •   Small Scrap Dealers...
Who Are These Recyclers?
• Rural, marginal,
  dislocated, often due
  to landlessness and
  agricultural crisis.
• Mostly ...
Solid Waste and GHGs
 Three key GHGs from
  MSW: CO2, CH4, & N20

 Emissions from MSW
  must be viewed on a life
  cycle...
What We Found




Informal Recycling Sector in Delhi accounts for
estimated net GHG reductions of 962,133 TCO2e
each year
What We Really Found
Conservative Estimates?
 Based on MSW generation rate of 8,500 tones per day
 Doesn’t account for recyclables in the was...
They Said It
“While the informal sector is
  the backbone of India’s
  highly successful recycling
  system, unfortunately...
Climate Justice




                                                             Approve recycling methodologies
 CDM Exec...
Conclusions
• In India, informal sector waste recyclers
  are an important factor in mitigating
  disasters
• Unfortunatel...
India - solid waste, disasters and informal recyclers - CHINTAN
India - solid waste, disasters and informal recyclers - CHINTAN
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India - solid waste, disasters and informal recyclers - CHINTAN

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India - solid waste, disasters and informal recyclers - CHINTAN

  1. 1. COOLING AGENTS Climate : Justice and Victims April 7th 2010
  2. 2. Solid Waste and Disasters • Slow accumulating : Surat • Seem like freak incidents : Payatas • Exacerbate : Mumbai • Slow toxics : Dioxins • Unreported : Hastsal
  3. 3. Climate Change, India, and Waste  Concurrent growth in population, urbanization, and GDP  Third largest emitter of GHGs in the world  5% of global total  Low per-capita emissions  Rising emissions from waste sector  Over 30% rise in GHGs from waste since 1995  Proportion of overall emissions from waste: 6.7%  Emissions from waste are twice the regional average
  4. 4. Delhi/India • 8000 tons of waste • 100,000 tons per day per day • 20,000% increase in • 3 landfills landfill space 1947- • 150,000 informal 1997 sector recyclers • 10% per annum • 2000 tons recycled increase in plastics everyday since 1996 (50% in packaging) • 2500 tons of plastic recycled everyday • Appx. 1 million informal recyclers
  5. 5. Case Study : Delhi’s Recyclers • Many have been around for decades (average is 14 years) • Most are poor, but most touch minimum wages during peak season •Save appx. Rs. 1,20,00,000 daily to government •Almost all live in sub-standard housing with poor access to clean water/energy •Illness prevelant : 82% of the women acutely anemic in New Delhi. •Save appx. 3.6 times more GHG than any other CDM waste project in India
  6. 6. How Recycling Works • Reprocessors • Large Scrap Dealers • Small Scrap Dealers • Itinerant Buyers • Wastepickers/Doorste p Collectors
  7. 7. Who Are These Recyclers? • Rural, marginal, dislocated, often due to landlessness and agricultural crisis. • Mostly adults, mostly Dalits and Muslims. • Continue to be marginalized on account of their work, seen as polluted. • Ironic in a climate justice framework
  8. 8. Solid Waste and GHGs  Three key GHGs from MSW: CO2, CH4, & N20  Emissions from MSW must be viewed on a life cycle basis  Waste management affects both upstream and downstream emissions
  9. 9. What We Found Informal Recycling Sector in Delhi accounts for estimated net GHG reductions of 962,133 TCO2e each year
  10. 10. What We Really Found
  11. 11. Conservative Estimates?  Based on MSW generation rate of 8,500 tones per day  Doesn’t account for recyclables in the waste stream that are removed and recycled before the level of the dhalao  Doesn’t account for informal sector direct composting, animal feed or segregation for later composting at dhalaos  Only uses published recycling rates or national averages for each stream recycled by informal sector  Material-specific emissions factors tailored to US national average conditions, which are certainly different than India  No landfill gas recovery systems in Delhi, so diversion to landfill has greater impact.  India’s Northern Grid is more carbon-intensive than US average (60% in Northern India to 40% in the US)
  12. 12. They Said It “While the informal sector is the backbone of India’s highly successful recycling system, unfortunately a number of municipal regulations impede the operation of the recyclers, owing to which they remain at a tiny scale without access to finance or improved recycling technologies” - NAPCC
  13. 13. Climate Justice Approve recycling methodologies CDM Executive Board No WTE projects that compete with informal sector for waste; press India’s CDM Designated CDM for methodologies; expand National Authority portfolio for recycling and composting Develop material-specific emissions Central Pollution factors; improve data transparency Control Board and specificity; undertake study on informal sector recycling rates In-kind compensation (space for Civic Authorities livelihoods, door-to-door contracts, licenses for small junk dealers); incentives for composting
  14. 14. Conclusions • In India, informal sector waste recyclers are an important factor in mitigating disasters • Unfortunately, they are also victims of ecological crises • Their marginal urban conditions makes them vulnerable to disasters • Climate justice must include them

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