Black & WilliamInside the Black BoxFormative feedback key to better learningDon’t praise the child! Praise the work• all down to ability• ‘teacher’ likes me• stops them from trying harder
Black & WilliamInside the Black BoxAvoid ‘hands up’ techniques:• In too early, 3 secs• Encourages achievers, discourages rest• Rarely diagnostic• Hinge questions
Black & WilliamInside the Black BoxAvoid marking:• poor as formative assessment• mark of fixed ability - says nothing about improvement• even high achievers – done enough, not full competence• tests are terminal – mark of Cain
Students given three types of feedback (n=132, Y7)1) Marks2) Comments3) Marks plus commentsATTAINMENTComments SIGNIFICANT gainMarks NO gainMarks plus comments NO gainINTEREST & MOTIVATIONComments ALL upMarks HIGH ACHIEVERS up LOW ACHIEVERS downMarks plus comments HIGH ACHIEVERS up LOW ACHIEVERS downWhy more feedback Marks plus comments have a negative effect?‘Marks’ signalled end of the matter, a terminal testStopped learning and further interestHold back on marking in formative assessment
E-learning and formative feedbackTechnology, in the form of self-paced e-learning content, simulations,games and adaptive learning have all contributed to increasing thelevel of feedback in learning. In real time simulations and games, suchas flight simulators, the feedback is continuous and in real time. Morerecently. In adaptive learning, powerful back-end algorithms havesupported sophisticated feedback, especially in maths, based on whatthe learner has done, where they want to go, presenting the rightcontent and feedback, dynamically on their learning journey.ConclusionIs there evidence that improving formative assessment raisesstandards? Yes.Is there evidence that there is room for improvement? Yes.Is there evidence about how to improve formative assessment? Yes.Black and Wiliam shone a spotlight on a critical weakness ineducational theory and policies – the lack of focus on effective teachingand, in particular, formative feedback, which they believe is the key toincreasing the effectiveness of teaching and learning in schools.
Pearson My…..Lab:• course management tool/e-book• up front assessment -> study plans• assignments• sophisticated grading/assessment• ‘help me solve this’ steps• open-ended answers & algorithmic probs• demo docs (flash narrated)• LMS/VLE integration• 4.5 m• very strong in maths My MathLab(Accounting, Anatomy & Physiology, Biology, Culinary, Economics, Education, Env. Science,Finance, Health, Info Systems/Tech, Math, Modern Languages, Psychology, Statistics etc)
WileyPLUS:Originally eGradePlus – Univ. of NebraskaE-bookintegrated assignmentsinstructors 24/7Diagnostics’show work’ featureAlogrythmic (diff. variables in one problem)>1 m usersWeakness – learning styles!Accounting, Anatomy & Physiology, Biology, Business, Chemistry, Computer Science,Culinary, Economics, Engineering, Finance, Geography, Info Systems, Math, Management,Modern Languages, Nutrition, Physics, Psychology, Statistics.
McGraw Hill:• Aris• Course management & assignment system• Course calendar• Online Tutor for web-based live chat• Emphasis on creating and sharing materials• Gradebook export Excel/Blackboard/ WebCt• Includes Whiteboard for Math• Student Lounge (social networking)• Usability studiesChemistry, Earth/Environmental/Life Sciences, Engineering, Math, Physics
McGraw Hill:ConnectWeb based assignment & assessmentExport to Blackboard/ WebCtAASCB Assurance of Learning knowledgestandards and Blooms Taxonomy GuidelinesLecture captureHomework ManagerStrong reportingLearnSmart:question+confidenceMy NotebookAccounting, Anatomy & Physiology, Biology, Business Statistics, Chemistry, Economics,Engineering, Finance, Management, Marketing, Personal Health, Physics, Psychology
Learning StylesProfessor Frank CoffieldLearning Styles - LSDA research“bedlam of contradictory claims”“71 theories” “most dismissed outright”“serious deficiencies”“over-simplify, label and stereotype”“worse than bad - downright dangerous”Professor Greenfield (Oxford)“no independent evidence""nonsense"“waste of valuable time”
Carol Twigg$8.8 million Pew grant30 comm colleges, colleges & unisIs it cost-effective? YESAre we seeing better learning? YESCan drop-out rates be reduced? YES
What led to success?1. Concentrate on large enrollment courses2. Improvements apply to many types of courses3. Don’t fiddle, redesign the whole course4. Don’t bolt on new technologies to existing system5. Move students from passive, "note-taking" role to active-learning orientation6. Move from entirely lecture-based to a student engagement approach
Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online LearningA Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies“Meta-analysis found that students in blended online learning conditions performed better than those receiving traditional face-to-face instruction.”
SCHOLAR – LSC Research+ve correlation pages accessed & attainment24 hours use (every single hour)77% students – recommend SCHOLAR toother students3 regions in England N=482
More pedagogicchange in 10 yearsthan last 1000 years