Sensors expo-2013-engineering-ultra-low-power-so c-sensors

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This presentation describes the essential technologies used to power System on Chip (SoC) Sensors. Information from Cymbet, Ambiq Micro and Cardinal Components. For more information go to …

This presentation describes the essential technologies used to power System on Chip (SoC) Sensors. Information from Cymbet, Ambiq Micro and Cardinal Components. For more information go to

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  • 1. Engineering Ultra Low PowerSystem on Chip SensorsSteve Grady – CymbetScott Hanson – Ambiq MicroJim Magos – Cardinal Components
  • 2. Key Trends Driving Micro SoC SensorsUltra LowPowerProcessorsSmart DevicesandSensorsEverywhereWireless ispervasiveIntegrationwithothercomponentsMiniaturizationEco-FriendlyandRenewableEnergy• New innovative products are smarter, smaller and wireless• Smart devices with status indications• There will be billions of new networked smart devices• Industrial, Medical, Security, Transportation, Environmental...Key Trends Drive New Technologies in Many Areas
  • 3. EH-Powered Autonomous WirelessSensor Block DiagramΔTMotionEM FieldEnergy Harvesting Power SupplyIC - Energy ConversionBattery ManagementPower ManagementSensor(e.g., temperature,pressure, occupancy)LightMCU + RadioInputPower“Energy Aware”Communications andControlEH Transducer ElectricalInterface DiscreteComponentsRechargeableEnergy StorageDeviceEnergy ManagerRTC/Timer
  • 4. System on Chip SensorsPosition SensorSeismometerOxygen SensorHall EffectSoil MoistureSpeed SensorWater SensorParticleAir SpeedAltimeterDepth GaugeAccelerometerGravimeterGyroscopicInclinometerD to AMicro-CA to DMicro-PRTCTCXOGPSVCXOFPGACrystalLevel ShifterSolid State BatteryEEPROMMultiplayerBluetoothEncryptionSensor Types Components
  • 5. Trends Driving Need for Innovative Energy StorageUltra LowPowerProcessorsSmart DevicesandSensorsEverywhereWireless ispervasiveIntegrationwithothercomponentsMiniaturizationEco-FriendlyandRenewableEnergyHP: 1trillionsensors in5 years60 mmwirelessdevicesannuallySolar poweredsensorsCompletewirelesssensor withpower800mm Micromachines in apackage10 yearcomponents Penniesto dollarsLow energy for Space usedBulky Size/Metal “coin” packageNot Eco-Friendly - Toxic ChemicalsTransportation Safety IssuesCannot be integrated with other electronicsTRENDSCURRENT SOLUTIONS
  • 6. Rechargeable solid State Batteries• EnerChip™ Rechargeable Solid State Batteries are created on Siliconwafers using standard semiconductor fabrication processes and devicepackaging techniques• As the battery is charged, ions move from the cathode through the solidelectrolyte to the current collector. As the battery discharges, thereverse is true.• EnerChips are 150 microns thick – less than two human hairs – and are1/20th the thickness of a comparable battery.ChargingDischargingSolid State CathodeEnerChips onSilicon WafersSolid State ElectrolyteProtective CoatingCurrent Collector
  • 7. Key Technical Battery RequirementsCapacity with Cycling0102030405060700 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000Discharge Cycle #Capacity(µAh)4.2V4.15V4.1V4.3V4.0VHigh Cycle Life Flat Output Voltage ProfileCharge Current & Charge Capacity vs, Charge Time0 10 20 30 40 50 60120100806040200PercentofChargeTime (Minutes) and Simple ChargeChargeLoss%1514131211109876543210Stand Time (Years)1 2 3 4 5Non-RecoverableRecoverableSelf-DischargeLow Self-Discharge
  • 8. Solid State Batteries are SafeAssembly, Transport, Use and Disposal• RoHS• China RoHS• REACH• CE Mark• UL - Underwriters Laboratory• JEDEC IC Packaging Standards and Tape and Reel EIA Standards• IEC, NEMA/ANSI• United Nations Transportation Air Safety Regulations• WEEE Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive• EU Battery Directive• MSDS and OSHA Information• Solid State Battery End-of-life Disposal Instructions• In vitro/In vivo Biocompatibility Test Standards for CytotoxicityRechargeable solid state batteries are the only energy storage solution that satisfies allthe following global environmental and safety regulations and certifications:
  • 9. Packaging OptionsEnerChip Bare DieµController, Sensor, RTC Solid State Batteries are a unique solutionfor customer applications requiring a smallenergy storage device integrated directlyinto the system EnerChips support many different deviceconfigurations using standard wire bond orsolder bump attachment Applications in the this market include:• Sensor Systems on Chip• Security and tamper detection devices• Electronic fuses for various devices• Medical devices – ophthalmic, implantable,patchesSide-by-Side EnerChip and ICs with Wire BondStacking EnerChip and ICs using Wire BondStacking EnerChip and ICs using solder bump Flip ChipEnerChip and ICs in System On Chip
  • 10. Sensor SoC Packaging RoadmapEnerChip Bare Die Location ExamplesEnerChip Solid State Batteries in Bare Die form are the ideal devices for integrating energy storage inemerging System in 3D Packaged Systems EnerChips using wire bonding, solder bumps for flip chipor eventually Thru Silicon Vias can be integrated into Systems in Package, Package on Package, TSVstacks and other 3D configurations
  • 11. Solving the Power ProblemHardware ComponentsSystem Hardware ArchitectureSystem Software ArchitecturePower must be optimized all levels of the design hierarchyThe focus oftoday’spresentation
  • 12. Building ULP Components with Sub-thresholdVoltageThreshold Voltage(i.e., Noise Floor)TimeVoltageThreshold Voltage(i.e., Noise Floor)ConventionalSuper-thresholdSub-thresholdSub-threshold enables energy reductions on the order of 1.82/0.52=13X
  • 13. The Limits of Sub-thresholdInverter Operation at 65mV SRAM Cell Operation at 70 mVDeep sub-threshold operation is possible, but significantchallenges exist
  • 14. The Challenges of Sub-threshold0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.21E-111E-101E-91E-81E-71E-61E-51E-4Vdd=1.2VIon/Ioff~800,000Vdd=250mVIon/Ioff~800ID(A)Vgs(V)On-to-off current ratio is reduced dramatically
  • 15. The Challenges of Sub-threshold0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.21E-111E-101E-91E-81E-71E-61E-51E-4Limited Vthsensitivityat high Vdd~14X change in currentfor ∆Vth=100mVID(A)Vgs(V)Current is exponentially sensitive to process, voltage, and temperature
  • 16. Addressing the Challenges with SPOT• SPOT: Sub-threshold Power Optimized Technology• Standard manufacturing process• Circuit, architecture, and test methodology thatenables robust sub-threshold operation• Proven over 8 years of development2005 2006 2007 2009 2010processormemory244µm305µm122µm181µmprocessormemory244µm305µm122µm181µm2012
  • 17. AM18XX: A SPOT-Based RTCXT OscRC OscDividerSecondsMinutesHoursDaysWeekdaysMonthsYearsPowerControlVCC VBATI2C/SPIInterfaceSCLSDA/OControlAlarmsInt/ClockFOUT/nIRQPSW/nIRQ2VSSCLKOUT/nIRQ3SDInCEWDIResetnEXTRnRSTRAMXOXInTIRQTimerWDT100thsDividerCalibration EngineEXTIAnalogCompareSPOT enables unprecedented power of only 15-55nA
  • 18. A Typical Use CaseSPOT enables a 5X increase in battery lifeIncumbent System SPOT-Based SystemEnerChip PowerManagement Current35nA 20nARTC Current 150nA 21nALife for 12µAh battery* 4 days 20 daysVCCVSSnIRQ IRQVCCAM1805RTCMCUI2C/SPIXOXIVBAT+_VOUTEnerChip withIntegrated PowerManagementVDDVSS VSS* EnerChip CBC012 battery under 41nA load is an 18uAh equivalent
  • 19. Sensor SoC - What’s Needed?• Looking for reduction in system size• Systems incorporating energy harvesting techniques• Low power small wireless systems• Wireless sensor nodes• Short time back up power• Self powered systems• Embedded power systems needing time logs, datalogs• Embedded processing systems• Any system that maintains RTC during power outage
  • 20. Real Time Plus ConceptReal Time ClockRTCCrystalSolid StateBatteryI2CIntegrationConfigurationOptionsBatteryRechargingCircuit
  • 21. Real Time Plus – RTC + Battery + XTALType Length Width Square mm AreaPCB with CR2032 30.0 32.0 960CRTP 12.4 17.4 21678%Traditional Design Approach Real Time Plus Solution78% smaller surface area
  • 22. RTPlus SoC ComponentsReal Time ClockTemperature CompensationIndustrial Temperature Range -40 to +850CRoHS ComplaintCalendar tracks year and leap yearClock tracks seconds, minutes and hours in 24 hour formatInterrupt OutputProgrammable Alarm and Universal TimerExtremely Accurate i.e., @250C, + 2 PPM8 Bytes of Ram and 2 Bytes EEPROM for Customer ApplicationBatterySolid State BatteryRoHS CompliantRechargeable with on board tricklecharge circuitPackageSMD10.3 x 12.7 mm12.4 x 15.1 mm12.4 x 17.8 mmHigh quality CrystalApplication ExamplesWireless sensors and RFID tagsConsumer appliancesEnergy HarvestingTime KeepingMeteringTelemedicineTime stampingSmart energyMilitary surveillanceCRTP Series Power Holdover CRTPN05 4 days CRTPA12 20 days CRTPA50 90 daysI2C Interface Bus
  • 23. Creating a Sensor SoC – Modu-FlexTM ExampleTypical System Before Modu-FlexTM After Modu-FlexTMBatteryBackupMicro P,orMicro CMemoryControl LogicAnalog Processing (ADC)SensorsPOWERAnalog Processing (DAC)RechargingCircuitRTCOscillatorOutput Driver, switchesMicro P,orMicro CMemoryControl LogicAnalog Processing (ADC)POWER Analog Processing (DAC)Output Driver, switchesModu-FlexCrystal
  • 24. Sensor SoC Package InnovationuCuCOscRTCBattery ChargeEEPROMTempSensorD/A A/DOutputDriverSwitchCrystal
  • 25. Sensor SoC Integrated PackageModu-Flex is a RoHS compliant (including the battery), CMOS low-power, real-timeclock/calendar module with built-in Thermometer, Digital TemperatureCompensation circuitry (DTCXO), a solid-state battery back up for theRTC, and single or dual output oscillator circuit (1 to 200 MHz)Applications:• Automotive: Car Radio / GPS and TrackingSystems / Dashboard / EngineController / Car Mobile &Entertainment Systems / Tachometers• Metering: E-meter / Heating Counter• Outdoor: ATM & POS systems / Surveillance &Safety systems / Ticketing systems• All Types Portable and battery operated devices• Industrial Automation, Robotics, Controls• Consumer Gaming, Set top box, Data Storage• White goods Refrigerators, Dishwasher, WashersBenefits:Integration, any frequency from 1 to 200 MHz, smallphysical size, simplifies design, custom options available,factory configurable in 48 hoursTCXO CrystalSolid State BatteryOscillator single outputTemperature SensorI2C FlexibilityCRTPRe-charging circuitModu-FlexReal Time Clock—High Accuracy 2 PPM
  • 26. CustomerConceptIntegratedSolutionFlexibleManufacturingDesignBase with goldterminationEpoxy 1Die 1Epoxy 2Die 2Wire SweepDie 2ConformalCoatingPlastic MoldItemHard PCBHard PCBFlex PCBFlip ChipStack DiePrototype-Small VolumeVolume PackagingSensor SoC Creation Process
  • 27. Customizable System Options
  • 28. Customizable System OptionsContinuedTouch Sensing DACs• CapSense capacitive sensing • 6-, 8-, and 9-bit(buttons, sliders) • 6- and 8-bit multiplying• Touchscreens Filters• Trackpads • 2-pole low-pass• Proximity sensing • 2-pole band-passOther sensing • Modulators• Position • Peak detectors• Accelerometer Amplifiers• Water • Programmable gain• Speed • Instrumentation• Inclinometer • Comparators• UV Timers/Counters• Pressure • 8-, 16-, and 24-bitFan/Motor Control Pulse-Width Modulators• AC motor • 8-, 16-, and 24-bit• DC motor Coming soon• Fan GPS• Fuel pump Bluetooth• Instrument gauges ZigbeeIrDAModu-Flex is a flexible module that Integratesperipherals into a single componentA fast, reliable way for companies to take their designand integrate for production with a low NRE customofferings and solutions.
  • 29. Combining IC Bare Die into SoCCymbet EnerChip RTC CBC34803 example• Integrate Ambiq AM0803 (I2C)with Cymbet EnerChip CBC005and CBC910 power mgmt IC• Miniature Land Grid Array(LGA) module or possibly BGApackage• Wire bond in this case, butcould also use flip chip styleattachment using bumpedbare die• CBC34813 uses AM0813 (SPI)AM0803
  • 30. RTPLUS and EnerChip RTCIntegrated Solutions ExamplesAmbiq RTC + 5uAh EnerChip +PMIC + Xtal Oscillator usingPackaged parts – 8 mm x 10 mmAmbiq RTC + 5uAh EnerChip + PMICusing bare die – 5 mm x 5 mm
  • 31. Summary• Key Industry Trends and Application Requirementsare driving the need for highly integrated SensorSystems on Chip designs• Ultra-low power electronics with Sub-thresholdPower Optimized technologies are now available• Solid State Batteries provide ideal energy storage• Innovative packaging techniques enable optimizedfootprint and volume• Optimized Sensor SoCs are available today