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Increasing food security and   minimising greenhouse gas  emissions through improvednitrogen management – lessons  from th...
Agriculture is part of the problem and part of                  the solution  Agricultural drivers for climate change are ...
Outline• N fertilizer and the trade-off between food  security and climate change• Overuse and misuse of N as a threat to ...
N use in China & food security                 N fertilizer        Grain yield
N production and use as drivers for              climate change• Agriculture is the main source of the powerful  GHGs CH4 ...
Agricultures contribution to                global GHG emissionsGlobal mean:70% of agricultural GHGemissions are connected...
GHGs emissions from China’s                  agricultureSource                                     CO2       Methane      ...
Food demand, organic N inputs           & unavoidable trade-offs• Currently about 30 % of China’s N input comes from  manu...
Complexity of trade-offs between      food security and climate changeMuch of the complexity stems from the way thatoverus...
Current direct and indirect threats         to food supply related to N use•   Yield loss•   Restricted root growth•   Soi...
N overuse by province and cropProvince      Crop      Farmers  Recommended       %      % yield                          r...
Overuse of N and poor root growth                         N Overuse   Optimum NSAIN Policy Brief No 2
Increase in top soil acidification:                 1980s -2000s• Soil pH declined significantly in all major  crop produc...
Soil acidification greater with     vegetables and fruit than cerealsSoil                   1980s              2000s      ...
N related increase in eutrophication          and harmful algal blooms/red tides                           1970s    1990s ...
Overuse of N and > crop diseases:                 Rice sheath blightSource: Cu et al., 1996
Overuse and misuse of N as a     threat to current food demandExcess costs of production from overuse cause:•Reduced net f...
Costs of N overuseProvince       Crop      Farmers    Recommended  % overuse      Cost of                            rate ...
Impact of overuse & misuse of N    on farm incomes in ShaanxiIncome level     Total household   Cost of N     % of househo...
Agriculture as part of the solution:most of the cost-effective measuresto minimise agricultural GHGsemissions involve impr...
Minimising agricultural GHGs•   Integrated nutrition management•   Increased water use efficiency•   Increased soil carbon...
What is improved nitrogen           management (INM)• Use of application rates of synthetic N fertilizers  that allow for ...
INM is not just about limiting                N overuseIt is also correcting:•Lack of micronutrients which can limit N ava...
INM and potential GHG savings            in Beijing/Hebei/Shandong                              Farmers INM rate   N savin...
Livestock waste management     – mix of policy instruments• Planning controls on location• Building regulations regarding ...
Water use efficiencyMix of regulatory and economic incentives:• controls on abstraction;• full economic cost water pricing...
Implications of the Chinese    experience for other developing               countries• Importance of limiting overuse of ...
Limiting overuse of NUnderuse rather than overuse is the mainproblem in most developing countries but:•Overuse is common i...
Adopting and adapting INM• IRRI has promoted the sharing of INM  experience among rice producing countries but  there is s...
Sharing technological progress• Chinese progress in the development of cost-  effective slow-release formulations of N  fe...
Conclusions• N essential for food production but it creates substantial  GHGs and other negative environmental impacts tha...
Thanks to Project partners & funding bodies:    MoA, China; defra, FCO & dfid in UKChina                                  ...
David Norse — Increasing food security and minimising greenhouse gas emissions through improved nitrogen management – les~1
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David Norse — Increasing food security and minimising greenhouse gas emissions through improved nitrogen management – les~1

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The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) jointly hosted the International Conference on Climate Change and Food Security (ICCCFS) November 6-8, 2011 in Beijing, China. This conference provided a forum for leading international scientists and young researchers to present their latest research findings, exchange their research ideas, and share their experiences in the field of climate change and food security. The event included technical sessions, poster sessions, and social events. The conference results and recommendations were presented at the global climate talks in Durban, South Africa during an official side event on December 1.

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Transcript of "David Norse — Increasing food security and minimising greenhouse gas emissions through improved nitrogen management – les~1"

  1. 1. Increasing food security and minimising greenhouse gas emissions through improvednitrogen management – lessons from the Chinese experience David Norse International Conference on Climate Change and Food Security, Beijing, November 6-8, 2011
  2. 2. Agriculture is part of the problem and part of the solution Agricultural drivers for climate change are athreat to current food security as well as to long term food security
  3. 3. Outline• N fertilizer and the trade-off between food security and climate change• Overuse and misuse of N as a threat to current food security• Minimising greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through improved nitrogen management (INM) and other policy measures• Implications of the Chinese experience for other developing countries
  4. 4. N use in China & food security N fertilizer Grain yield
  5. 5. N production and use as drivers for climate change• Agriculture is the main source of the powerful GHGs CH4 and N2O driving climate change globally & China• Synthetic N fertilizer production & use and manure are the main source of N2O & livestock are now the main source of CH4• Food demand exceeds the amount that can be produced from organic N inputs
  6. 6. Agricultures contribution to global GHG emissionsGlobal mean:70% of agricultural GHGemissions are connectedwith N fertilizer  use: CO2 & N2OSource: IPPC 4th Report
  7. 7. GHGs emissions from China’s agricultureSource CO2 Methane Nitrous Total oxideN fertilizer production & transport 235 26 13 274(43 Mt)P&K fertilizer production & transport 18 18N fertilizer use for crops (32 Mt) 57 (170 rice*) 176* 233(403)Other agricultural uses (3-5Mt) 15-25 15-25 30-50Livestock – enteric & manure 295-443 172-258 467-701Direct fossil energy inputs to agriculture 190 190Total agricultural emissions 515-25 491-639 376-472 1382-1636Total economy emissions 6,000 7,230Agricultural emissions as % of total national emissions 19-22* not closely N related *provisional estimate for indirect N2O Source: SAIN, 2011
  8. 8. Food demand, organic N inputs & unavoidable trade-offs• Currently about 30 % of China’s N input comes from manure• In the longer-term about 30% of synthetic N use could be replaced by N in manure & compost and biological N fixation but they also release GHGs• Consequently food security will continue to be dependent on anthropogenic N inputs with some trade-offs between food security & climate change
  9. 9. Complexity of trade-offs between food security and climate changeMuch of the complexity stems from the way thatoveruse and misuse of N increases:(a)GHG emissions & drives climate change, but(b)Also causes or intensifies a range of othernegative environmental impacts that increasinglythreaten current food security
  10. 10. Current direct and indirect threats to food supply related to N use• Yield loss• Restricted root growth• Soil acidification• Negative impacts on soil biology• Higher losses from pests & diseases• Increased lodging and greater harvesting losses• Greater eutrophication and increased frequency and area of algal blooms
  11. 11. N overuse by province and cropProvince  Crop  Farmers  Recommended  %  % yield rate Rate* kg.N/ha  overuse  loss from kg.N/ha  overuseJiangsu  rice  300  200  50  36 provinces  rice  195  133  47  >5N China plain  wheat  325  128  150  4N China plain  maize  263  158  66  5Shaanxi  wheat  287  150‐225  >30  0Shaanxi  maize  249 125 100  8Shandong  tomato  Up to 630  150-300 >80 10 
  12. 12. Overuse of N and poor root growth N Overuse Optimum NSAIN Policy Brief No 2
  13. 13. Increase in top soil acidification: 1980s -2000s• Soil pH declined significantly in all major crop production areas & is projected to get worse• It was caused primarily by high inputs of N fertilizer• Acid deposition had only a small impact• Reduced productivity – toxic metals• Control is difficult and labour intensive Source: Guo et al., 2010
  14. 14. Soil acidification greater with vegetables and fruit than cerealsSoil 1980s 2000s 2000sgroup/region All crop systems Cereals Vegetables & fruit pH value pH value pH valueRed & yellow soils 5.73 5.14 5.07of South ChinaPaddy soils 6.33 6.20 5.98North East 6.32 6.00 5.60N China Plain & 7.96 7.69 7.38Loess Plateau Source: Guo et al., 2010
  15. 15. N related increase in eutrophication and harmful algal blooms/red tides 1970s 1990s 2000 Mid 2000s 2008 5 51 55-61Lakeeutrophication %* 5 45 68Red tides/year** * 25-50% from crop N ** up to 60% estuarine N from crop production
  16. 16. Overuse of N and > crop diseases: Rice sheath blightSource: Cu et al., 1996
  17. 17. Overuse and misuse of N as a threat to current food demandExcess costs of production from overuse cause:•Reduced net farm income•Lower productivity growth & higher food priceinflation which can limit the ability of the poor tobuy all of their food needs
  18. 18. Costs of N overuseProvince  Crop  Farmers  Recommended  % overuse  Cost of  rate Rate* kg.N/ha  overuse  kg.N/ha  RMB/haJiangsu  rice  300  200  50  4006 provinces  rice  195  133  47  250N China plain  wheat  325  128  150  800N China plain  maize  263  158  66  420Shaanxi  wheat  287  150‐225  >30  250-550Shaanxi  maize  249 125 100  500Shandong  tomato  Up to 630  150-300 >80 1320-1920 
  19. 19. Impact of overuse & misuse of N on farm incomes in ShaanxiIncome level Total household Cost of N % of household(收入水平) income (yuan) overuse (yuan) income (占家庭 家庭总收入(元) 收入百分比) 1st Q 1664 153 9 2nd Q 6489 249 4 3rd Q 10442 225 2 4th Q 20260 221 1Average 平均 9728 212 2Source: Lu Yuelai, 2010
  20. 20. Agriculture as part of the solution:most of the cost-effective measuresto minimise agricultural GHGsemissions involve improved Nmanagement in crop and livestockproduction
  21. 21. Minimising agricultural GHGs• Integrated nutrition management• Increased water use efficiency• Increased soil carbon• Improved livestock waste management• Feed productivity• Subsidies, PES, & environmental taxes• Monitoring & evaluation
  22. 22. What is improved nitrogen management (INM)• Use of application rates of synthetic N fertilizers that allow for the N already in the soil, in manure and in irrigation water & do not exceed the amount needed for optimum crop yields.• Ensuring that N fertilizers are applied at the right time & best place.• Choosing the correct mix of N, P & K and the best type of fertilizer to minimize GHG & ammonia emissions
  23. 23. INM is not just about limiting N overuseIt is also correcting:•Lack of micronutrients which can limit N availability•Bad water management e.g. excessive irrigationwhich leaches nitrate below root zone•Tillage & residue management practices thatreduce carbon sequestration All of these can increase direct & indirect N2Oemissions – complex trade-offs
  24. 24. INM and potential GHG savings in Beijing/Hebei/Shandong Farmers INM rate N saving % GHG N rate from INM reduction from INMN input & GHGbenefitkg synthetic N 588 286 302 51fertilizer/ha/yrOther benefits:Reduced N loss by 56 23 33leachingReduced N loss as 135 46 89ammonia Derived from Ju el., 2006
  25. 25. Livestock waste management – mix of policy instruments• Planning controls on location• Building regulations regarding drainage & waste storage requirements• Limits on stocking rates & manure or slurry disposal• Support for anaerobic digestion and organic fertiliser production
  26. 26. Water use efficiencyMix of regulatory and economic incentives:• controls on abstraction;• full economic cost water pricing;• subsidies or grants for installing drip- irrigation & fertigation
  27. 27. Implications of the Chinese experience for other developing countries• Importance of limiting overuse of N• Improving INM• Importance of good communications between farmers, extension workers, scientists & engineers• Sharing technological progress• Importance of appropriate funding for agricultural development
  28. 28. Limiting overuse of NUnderuse rather than overuse is the mainproblem in most developing countries but:•Overuse is common in parts of India wherethere is cereal intensive production•Hot spots occur elsewhere in Asia, Africa andLatin America eg. peri-urban intensivevegetable production•Hence China’s experience with INM is helpful
  29. 29. Adopting and adapting INM• IRRI has promoted the sharing of INM experience among rice producing countries but there is scope for extending this to other cropping systems• Chinese experience with estimating N budgets, GHG emissions & other environmental impacts can provide other countries with methods and default values to formulate their approach to INM
  30. 30. Sharing technological progress• Chinese progress in the development of cost- effective slow-release formulations of N fertilisers and nitrification inhibitors• Development of small scale machinery for tillage and fertiliser placement• Global public goods - hybrid varieties and advances in biotechnology
  31. 31. Conclusions• N essential for food production but it creates substantial GHGs and other negative environmental impacts that threaten food security• These trade-offs are current as well as long-term and can be reduced but not eliminated• INM is a cost-effective win-win-win approach to reducing both current and climate change related threats to food security but wider policy measures are needed• Underuse of N is the problem in most developing countries but there are N hotspots needing INM
  32. 32. Thanks to Project partners & funding bodies: MoA, China; defra, FCO & dfid in UKChina UK•CAU (Zhang Fusuo, Zhang Weifeng,Ju Xiaotang) •Rothamsted Research•CAS Centre for Chinese Agricultural (David Powlson)Policy (Huang Jikun, Jia Xiaoping •North Wyke Research•4 case study Provinces: (Shaanxi – (David Chadwick)NWAFU; Shandong; Jiangsu – CAS •University of East Anglia (LuInstitute of Soil Science & Nanjing Yuelai)Agricultural University; Jilin)
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