There has been a Global increase in tourism in the last 60 years…. Why? People have more disposable income. Companies give more paid holidays than they used to. Travel has become cheaper (particularly air travel) Holiday providers now use the internet to sell their products to people directly which also makes them cheaper.
Some areas are also becoming more popular than they used to be…. Why Improvements in transport (e.g. more airports) have made it quicker and easier to travel to places. Countries in more unusual destinations such as the middle east and Africa have got better at marketing themselves as tourist attractions. This means more people are aware of them. Many countries have invested in infrastructure for tourism to make them more attractive to visitors.
Cities, mountains and coasts are all popular tourist areas Popular destinations include:
Culture e.g. museums, art galleries … Snorkelling Fishing cities Beaches Coastal areas shopping Entertainment (bars, restaurants, theatres) Popular destinations include:
Swimming Water skiing
scenery skiing Snow boarding Mountain areas Popular destinations include:
Tourism is important to the economies of many countries Tourism creates jobs for local people. It also increases the income of other businesses that supply the tourism industry. Tourism is important to the economy of both rich and poor countries e.g. tourism in France generated 35 million euros In 2006 and 2 million jobs. Poorer countries tend to be more dependant on income from tourism than richer ones.
Tourism makes a big contribution to the UK economy There were 32 million overseas visitors to Britain in 2008. The UK is popular with tourists because of its: Countryside Historic landmarks Churches and cathedrals Castles London is particularly popular for its museums, theatres and shopping. London is the destination for half of all visitors to the uk. In 2007 tourism contributed £114 billion to the economy and employed 1.4 million people.
Bad weather Conflict World economy Factors that affect the number of visitors to the UK Terrorism Major events Exchange rate
Tourist area life cycle model
UK Tourism-case study The lake district National park Gets around 15 Million visitors per year Tourists come to enjoy the scenery- for example the large lakes and mountains There are many activities available: Pony trekking Bird watching Walking Boat rides Sailing Rock climbing There are also cultural attractions e.g. the Beatrix potter and wordsworth museums.
Strategies are needed to cope with the impact of tourists Tourists cause traffic congestion, erode footpaths and drop litter! Coping with the extra traffic Public transport in the area is being improved so people leave their cars at home. There are campaigns to encourage people to use the new services. Coping with the erosion of footpaths Solutions include encouraging visitors to use less vulnerable areas and instead changing the line of paths and using more hard wearing material for paths. Protecting wildlife and farmland There are signs to remind visitors to take their litter home and covered bins are provided at popular sites. There have been campaigns to encourage visitors to enjoy the countryside responsibly.
There are plans to make sure the Lake district continues to attract tourists. The official tourism strategy for Cumbria is to attract an extra 2 million visitors by 2018. Public transport will be improved to make it more accessible. There is to be widespread advertising. Farms will be encouraged to provide services such as quad biking, clay pigeon shooting and archery alongside traditional farming. Timeshare developments are to be increased.
Mass Tourism is organised tourism for large numbers of people. Mass tourism has both positive and negative impacts! Mass Tourism
There are ways to reduce the negative impacts of mass tourism: Improving Public transport encourages people to use it, which reduces traffic congestion and pollution. Limiting the number of people visiting sensitive environments. Providing lots of bins helps reduce litter. The importance of Tourism needs to be maintained Areas that rely heavily on tourism need to make sure tourists keep coming! Here are a few ways they can do this: BULID NEW FACILITIES REDUCE TOURIST IMPACTS WHICH MAKE THE AREA LESS ATTRACTIVE ADVERTISE AND MARKET THE ARE TO ATTRACT NEW TOURISTS IMPROVE TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE OFFER NEW ACTIVITIES MAKE IT CHEAPER TO VISIT.
Mass tourism –case study Kenya Kenya is in East Africa It gets over 700 00 visitors per year. There are a few reasons why people visit A fascinating tribal culture and lots of wildlife including the big five ( Rhino, lion, elephant, buffalo and leopard) A warm Climate with sunshine all year round Beautiful scenery including savannah, mountains, forests, beaches and coral reefs.
Tourism in extreme Environments Extreme environments are becoming popular with tourists There are many reasons why tourists are attracted to extreme environments:
They're ideal settings for adventure holidays activities such as jeep tours, river rafting and trekking.
Some people want something different and more exciting to do on holiday.
A lot of people enjoy an element of risk.
Some wildlife can only be seen in these areas.
Some scenery can only be seen in extreme places.
There are also reasons why tourism is increasing in extreme environments Improvements of transport have made it quicker and easier to get to some of these destinations. People are keen to see places like Antarctica for themselves while they have the chance. Tourism to extreme environments is quite expensive but people now have more disposable income. Adventure holidays are becoming more popular because of TV programmes and advertising.
Tourism in extreme environments can be Damaging The ecotourism's in extreme environments are usually delicately balanced, because its so difficult to survive in the harsh conditions there. The presence of tourists can upset this fragile balance and cause serious problems. Here's an example of how tourism can damage the environment in the Himalayas: Trees are cut down to provide fuel for trekkers and other tourists leading to deforestation. Deforestation destroys habitats. Deforestation means there are fewer trees to intercept rain. Which can lead to flooding. Tree roots normally hold the soil together so deforestation also leads to soil erosion. Tourists cause footpath erosion Rivers become polluted by sewerage
Tourism in extreme environments- Case study The Antarctica is becoming more popular with Tourists
Antarctica is a continent at the earths South pole.
It covers an area of about 14 million km 2 and about 98% is covered with ice.
The number of tourists visiting Antarctica each year is rising e.g. there were 7413 in 1996/1997 season but 46000 in the 2007/2008 season.
Tourists are attracted by the scenery and wildlife.
Tourism has environmental impacts in Antarctica
Antarctica is cold and doesn’t get much sunshine in winter so the land ecosystems are very fragile- it takes a long time for them to recover from damage. The sea ecosystem is delicately balanced, this means that tourists can have a massive impact on the environment there:
Tourists can trample plants, disturb wildlife and drop litter.
There are fears that tourists could introduce non-native species or diseases that could wipe out existing species.
Spillage of fuel from ships is also a worry as fuel spills kill molluscs and fish as well as the birds that feed on them.
Eco Tourism Ecotourism is tourism that doesn’t harm the environment and benefits the local people. Ecotourism involves: Conservation-protecting and managing the environment. Stewardship-taking responsibility for conserving the environment. Ideally conservation and stewardship should involve local people and local organisations so that local people benefit from tourists. Ecotourism is usually a small scale activity, with only small numbers of visitors going to an area at a time. This helps keep the environmental impact of tourism low.
Ecotourism Benefits the environment, economy and local people
Ecotourism helps the sustainable development of areas Sustainable development means improving the quality of life for people but doing it in a way that doesn’t stop people in the future getting what they need. Ecotourism helps areas to develop by increasing the quality of life for local people- the profits from ecotourism can be used to build schools or healthcare facilities. The development is sustainable because its done without damaging the environment- without ecotourism people may have to make a living to improve their lives by doing something that harms the environment e.g. cutting down trees.