Big basics


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Big basics

  1. 1. The Elements of Music Melody Rhythm Harmony Texture Form Tempo and Dynamics
  2. 2. Melody: Musical Line <ul><li>The Nature of Melody </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Melody is a succession of single tones perceived by the mind as a unity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>melody is the element with the widest and most appeal </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Characteristics of Melody <ul><li>Range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>distance between highest and lowest notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>classified as wide, medium or narrow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>determined by upward or downward direction of melody </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>graphed as ascending/descending line, arch or wave </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Characteristics of Melody <ul><li>Type of Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>determined by whether melody moves by step or leap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conjunct - melody moves by step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>disjunct - melody moves by leap </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Structure of Melody <ul><li>Melodic structure is analyzed much like a sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>phrase - unit of meaning within a larger structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cadence - end or resting place; may be inconclusive or final; like a comma or period </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Structure of Melody <ul><li>Combination of phrases with several inconclusive and one final cadence make up most music; like sentences in a paragraph </li></ul>
  7. 7. Rhythm: Musical Time <ul><li>The Nature of Rhythm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhythm refers to the controlled movement of music in time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is the quality which causes people to move in response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>automatically imposes a pattern to a series of noises, which are arranged as strong and weak beats </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Meter <ul><li>Meter is the fixed time patterns within which musical events take place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhythm is the overall movement of music in time while meter involves the actual measurement of time. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Meter <ul><li>Characteristics of meter: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beat - the basic unit of length; some beats are strong (accented) and some are weak (unaccented) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure - groups containing fixed beats with the first beat being the strongest </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Metrical Patterns <ul><li>Simple Meter - beat is subdivided into two beats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duple - two beats per measure; strong-weak; traditionally associated with marches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triple - three beats per measure; strong-weak-weak; associated with waltz (dance) form </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Metrical Patterns <ul><li>Simple Meter - beat is subdivided into two beats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quadruple - four beats per measure; primary accent on one and secondary accent on three; has broader feel than duple; also called Common Time </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Metrical Patterns <ul><li>Compound Meter - beat is subdivided into three beats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sextuple - Two beats per measure (six when subdivided); gentle and flowing when slow; rollicking feel when fast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syncopation - deliberate upsetting of rhythm by temporary shifting of accent to weak beat or subdivided beat </li></ul>
  13. 13. Harmony: Musical Space <ul><li>Harmony is the movement and relationship of intervals and chords, and implies movement and progression in music </li></ul><ul><li>Harmony gives perspective to music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>melody is horizontal aspect and harmony is vertical aspect </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Components of Harmony <ul><li>Interval - distance and relationship between two tones </li></ul><ul><li>Scale - series of tones arranged in ascending or descending consecutive order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Octave - distance from highest to lowest tones in scale </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Components of Harmony <ul><li>Chord - combination of two or more tones that constitute a single block of harmony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Triad - combination of three tones utilizing every other tone of a scale; this is the basic formation of harmony </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Function of Harmony <ul><li>Harmony implies movement and progression in music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>progression achieved by movement from one chord to another </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Function of Harmony <ul><li>Melody and Harmony are interdependent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>melody implies the harmony to accompany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>each constantly influences the other </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Tonality <ul><li>Harmony requires a system of procedures for organizing tones into intelligible relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Tonality - the principle of organization around a central tone, called tonic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tonic - first note of a scale which serves as base around which other tones revolve and to which they ultimately gravitate </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Components of Tonality <ul><li>The particular scale chosen as the basis of a piece of music determines the tonic and tonality of the music </li></ul>
  20. 20. Components of Tonality <ul><li>Two types of scales are found in Western music between 1650 and 1900, and each is characterized in intervals on which they are based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major - has brighter sound; used for triumphal marches and grand finales, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor - has darker sound; used for dirges, laments, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Components of Tonality <ul><li>Diatonic vs. Chromatic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diatonic - music based on one of the 12 major or minor scales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromatic - not based on a scale, but using all notes of the octave freely </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Consonance and Dissonance <ul><li>Consonance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a concordant or agreeable combination of tones that provides a sense of fulfillment in music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consonance is the resolution of dissonance </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Consonance and Dissonance <ul><li>Dissonance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a combination of tones that sounds discordant, unstable and in need of resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>introduces a necessary tension in music </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In general, music has grown more dissonant through the ages </li></ul>
  24. 24. Musical Texture <ul><li>Types of Texture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monophonic - single-voice texture; is a melody without accompaniment in the form of harmony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyphonic - combination of two or more melodic lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counterpoint - basis of polyphonic music; the technique of writing polyphony </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Musical Texture <ul><li>Types of Texture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homophony - single melody with chordal accompaniment; sound is based on harmony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterophony - combination of two melodic lines based on improvisation; each line is the same melody, but at least one is improvised </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Contrapunctal Devices <ul><li>Imitation - subject or motive is presented in one voice and restated in another </li></ul><ul><li>Canon - imitation lasting for an entire work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Round - simplest form of canon; each voice enters in succession with the same melody </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Contrapunctal Devices <ul><li>Inversion - melody turned upside down; same intervals in opposite direction </li></ul><ul><li>Retrograde - restatement of melody backward; start at end and proceed to beginning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrograde Inversion - combination of techniques resulting in upside down and backward at the same time </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Contrapunctal Devices <ul><li>Augmentation - melody is presented in longer time values than original </li></ul><ul><li>Diminution - melody is presented in shorter time values than original </li></ul>
  29. 29. Musical Form <ul><li>What is Form ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That quality in a work which presents to the mind of the listener an impression of conscious choice and arrangement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relationship of the parts to the whole </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Structure and Design in Music <ul><li>Repetition - fixes material in the mind; familiarity </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast - sustains interest by introducing change </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction of repetition and contrast is basic element of form </li></ul>
  31. 31. Structure and Design in Music <ul><li>Variation - falls between repetition and contrast where aspects are altered but recognizable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alterations generally focus on one element at a time </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Types of Form <ul><li>Binary Form - two part or A-B form; based on statement and departure without return to opening section </li></ul><ul><li>Ternary Form - three part or A-B-A form; based on statement, departure, and restatement of material </li></ul><ul><li>Both binary and ternary forms are common in short pieces such as songs and dances </li></ul>
  33. 33. Building Blocks of Form <ul><li>Theme - most basic element of form which provides unity and from which the idea develops </li></ul>
  34. 34. Building Blocks of Form <ul><li>Thematic Development - techniques for developing a theme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sequence - restatement of theme at new pitch level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>repetition - exact of varied restatement of melody </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Building Blocks of Form <ul><li>Thematic Development - techniques for developing a theme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>motive - smallest fragment of melody that forms rhythmic/melodic unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>movement - several separate pieces within a large scale work </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Tempo and Dynamics <ul><li>Tempo - speed at which beats occur within meter; close connection between tempo and mood </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamics - degree of loudness or softness at which music is played </li></ul>
  37. 37. Tempo and Dynamics <ul><li>Markings for tempo and dynamics contribute to the expressive content of music </li></ul><ul><li>Early music had few markings, and usage has steadily increased throughout time </li></ul>
  38. 38. Examples of Tempo Indicators <ul><li>Grave ……………….. Solemn </li></ul><ul><li>Largo ……………….. Broad </li></ul><ul><li>Adagio ……………… Slow </li></ul><ul><li>Andante …………….. Walking Pace </li></ul><ul><li>Moderato …………… Moderate </li></ul><ul><li>Allegro ……………… Fast </li></ul><ul><li>Vivace ……………… Lively </li></ul><ul><li>Presto ………………. Very Fast </li></ul>
  39. 39. Tempo Modifiers <ul><li>Molto ……………….. Very </li></ul><ul><li>Meno ……………….. Less </li></ul><ul><li>Poco ………………… A Little </li></ul><ul><li>Non Troppo ………… Not Too Much </li></ul>
  40. 40. Changes of Tempo <ul><li>Accelerando ………… Getting Faster </li></ul><ul><li>Ritardando ………….. Getting Slower </li></ul><ul><li>A Tempo ……………. Original Tempo </li></ul>
  41. 41. Principal Dynamic Indicators <ul><li>Pianissimo …….. Very Soft </li></ul><ul><li>Piano …………... Soft </li></ul><ul><li>Mezzo Piano … Moderately Soft </li></ul><ul><li>Mezzo Forte …… Moderately Loud </li></ul><ul><li>Forte …………… Loud </li></ul><ul><li>Fortissimo ……… Very Loud </li></ul><ul><li>Use of dynamics is relative to size of ensemble </li></ul>
  42. 42. Changes of Dynamics <ul><li>Crescendo ………….. Getting Louder </li></ul><ul><li>Decrescendo ……….. Getting Softer </li></ul><ul><li>Sforzando ………….. Sudden Stress </li></ul>