"WARM low energy building practice: Focus on Passivhaus Principles"


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  • The Ridge, our first passivhaus attempt – just failed due to not making the airtightness standard: the tests went : 5.7 / 4.3 / 1.4 / 1.6 achr@50Pa (the last test went up due to water ingress expanding the timber floor which in turn cracked the inner cavity leaf. Still a brilliantly simple design.
  • Y Foel John Williamson
  • Canolfan Hyddgen training and education centre
  • Canolfan Hyddgen training and education centre
  • Canolfan Hyddgen training and education centre
  • This is Ranulf Road in North London, a 100m2 house squeezed into a tiny plot. The house was an Austrian factory made timber frame with UK services, designed by Bere Architects.
  • Denby Dale, a house built by the Green Building Store In Huddersfield using a 300mm fully filled cavity wall, with an air barrier as the internal plaster. Note the large glazing and external blinds necessary to deal with summertime conditions. Windows and MVHR by the Green Building Store.
  • Disability Essex is a 50mm2 office complex fro this charity engaged in empowering people who have met tragedy to make their lives work again. The 2 sections of the office were designed by the architects, Simmonds Mills, to allow the charity to rent out the smaller part to a similar type of organisation and provide rental income for the future. Low running cost were key to this concept.
  • "WARM low energy building practice: Focus on Passivhaus Principles"

    1. 1. <ul><li>What is Passivhaus? </li></ul><ul><li>- Certifying in the UK </li></ul><ul><li>peter warm BSc CEng MCIBSE MIE ˜ WARM: Low Energy Building Practice </li></ul>Oct 2010 Southampton Sustainable Construction Network
    2. 3. Passivhaus – a Comfort standard? <ul><li>No draughts </li></ul><ul><li>No cold radiant </li></ul><ul><li>No summer overheating </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh air always </li></ul><ul><li>Whole house warm - no hypothermia </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel Poverty eliminated </li></ul><ul><li>- all by simply improving the build quality </li></ul>
    3. 4. Passivhaus standard Energy Comfort Comfort Energy Comfort Comfort 120kWh/m 2 yr Primary Energy 15kWh/m 2 K @20C Heating ~30m 3 /hr.person Max 10% >25degC >17degC 0.6ach @ 50Pa Vent Summer overheating Surface temp (windows) Air-tightness
    4. 5. Passivhaus – Simplicity <ul><li>Extra Insulation </li></ul><ul><li>Extra panes of glass </li></ul><ul><li>A full ventilation system </li></ul><ul><li>And clever design…………. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation and thermal bridges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar gain and protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airtightness and Ventilation </li></ul></ul>
    5. 6. Somewhere around here is optimum. After: Dr Wolfgang Feist, Passivhaus Institute, 1997
    6. 7. Cephus Project - 2001 CEPHUS project
    7. 8. Why Passivhaus?
    8. 9. Co-Heating – the test (no-one wants to hear about) <ul><li>Electric heaters inside building maintain constant temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation rate measured daily by CO2 release </li></ul><ul><li>Solar gain measured by solarimeter </li></ul><ul><li>External temperature measured </li></ul><ul><li>Two weeks unoccupied usual </li></ul><ul><li>Heat balance calculated: result is Fabric loss in Watts/C </li></ul>
    9. 10. Results for 16 dwellings Source: Centre for the Built Environment, Leeds Metropolitan University
    10. 11. Why don’t our buildings perform?
    11. 12. Thermal bypass thermal insulation inside outside air barrier porous insulant
    12. 14. More gaps and voids
    13. 15. Thermal bridging
    14. 16. Thermal bridging
    15. 17. Passivhaus standard Energy Comfort Comfort Energy Comfort Comfort 120kWh/m 2 yr Primary Energy 15kWh/m 2 K @20C Heating ~30m 3 /hr.person Max 10% >25degC >17degC 0.6ach @ 50Pa Vent Summer overheating Surface temp (windows) Air-tightness
    16. 18. Why Certify? <ul><li>Quality, Quality Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids “greenwash” – Independent Check </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback loop present </li></ul><ul><li>Take advantage of Certifiers experience </li></ul>
    17. 19. Certification Process Shape check
    18. 20. Certification <ul><li>Shape check – pre planning </li></ul><ul><li>Design Check – pre construction </li></ul><ul><li>Final Certification – after building built and tested </li></ul>
    19. 21. PHPP <ul><li>Detailed energy balance model: </li></ul><ul><li>Excel sheet, hence built from scratch by certifier </li></ul>
    20. 22. Treated Floor Area (TFA) <ul><li>15 or 120 kWh per m2 TFA </li></ul><ul><li>Critical to get right at start </li></ul><ul><li>TFA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal floor area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignores partitions, stairs, plant areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ area useful to occupier” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than Sap TFA </li></ul></ul>
    21. 23. Form factor
    22. 24. Form factor
    23. 25. Weather data file <ul><li>Currently 5 regions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glasgow; Manchester; Birmingham; London; Plymouth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Will be 22 regions with BRE data: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same as SAP degreeday regions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meteonorm software can generate data </li></ul><ul><li>Crucial agree non standard weather data with certifier early on </li></ul>
    24. 26. Initial target <ul><li>Suggest aim for 12/13 kWh/m2 </li></ul><ul><li>Gives a margin of error for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unexpected Thermal Bridges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Window Choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Calculation errors </li></ul></ul>
    25. 27. Windows <ul><li>PHPP is complex as the window heat loss is complex too. </li></ul><ul><li>No such thing as a window type U-value </li></ul><ul><li>How window is built into wall critical </li></ul>
    26. 28. Windows U g U f  i  s
    27. 31. Best glass (U g = 0.5 W/m 2 K) and Average frame ( U f = 1.4W/m 2 K) U window =1.8 W/m2K Poor Installation; Traditional mullions Installation free of thermal bridges; Simplified design U window =0.8 W/m2K
    28. 32. 3 types of certification <ul><li>Building </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tested and calculated using PHPP, by a person/organisation appointed by the German Passivhaus Institute (PHI) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Component </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A component such as windows is certified as having certain values that can be used directly in PHPP. Currently direct with PHI or appointed bodies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Designer </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This certification shows that a person has undergone sufficient training and passed an exam to demonstrate their understanding of Passivhaus principles </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 33. Who can certify? <ul><li>Can Certified Designers certify their own designs? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certification per normal building certification routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assurance to clients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do you have to be a Certified Designer to design a certified building? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Certified Designer has demonstrated ownership of the skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower risk of failing from client perspective </li></ul></ul>
    30. 34. Certification <ul><li>No site visits </li></ul><ul><li>Design certified </li></ul><ul><li>Certification then requires certificates for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Airtightness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MVHR commissioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conductivity certificates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Window Schedule and Thermal data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site supervisor declaration </li></ul></ul>
    31. 35. Documentation required 1
    32. 36. Documentation required 2
    33. 37. Documentation required 3
    34. 38. Documentation required 4
    35. 39. Documentation required 5
    36. 40. Documentation required 6
    37. 41. Examples
    38. 52. Perrryfields
    39. 53. Perrryfields
    40. 54. Bryce lodge <ul><li>Brooks Devlin Project </li></ul><ul><li>3 blocks passivhaus </li></ul><ul><li>3 blocks code 5 </li></ul>
    41. 55. Schools – 5 primary in UK
    42. 56. Retrofit - EnerPHit <ul><li>Same calculation as newbuild </li></ul><ul><li>But: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25 instead of 15 kWh/m2 heating demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.0 instead of 0.6 achr @50 Pa airtightness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatively can certify using Passivhaus components </li></ul></ul>
    43. 57. What does PH cost? <ul><li>PHI: 5-10% of build cost, decreasing with experience to 5% (over BRegs): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultancy/Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials : MVHR & windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Certification: Single house <£2k, but no consultancy included, huge reductions on estates </li></ul>
    44. 58. What does PH cost?
    45. 59. Costs re CSH Source: Randall & Simms QS: 20 units St Ive
    46. 60. Who does certification ? <ul><li>BRE </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish Passive House Centre </li></ul><ul><li>Inbuilt </li></ul><ul><li>Mosart </li></ul><ul><li>WARM </li></ul><ul><li>PHI </li></ul><ul><li>Hans Eek </li></ul>
    47. 61. AECB CarbonLite Training <ul><li>1 day Understanding the PassivHaus standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25 th October NEWCASTLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 th November LONDON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22 nd November BRISTOL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 day Using PHPP software for low energy design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>26/27 th October NEWCASTLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16/17 th November LONDON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>23/24 th November BRISTOL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 day 2D Thermal Bridging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>28 th October NEWCASTLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18 th November LONDON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 nd November BRISTOL </li></ul></ul>www.aecb.net or www.peterwarm.co.uk
    48. 62. Thanks to the crew