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Latin America - Its history and geography

Latin America - Its history and geography

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  • Mayans:300 – 900 AD (complex agricultural society – mostly farmers CORN); polytheistic - priests important in their society; built pyramid temples and palaces;
  • Aztecs: 1200s nomadic group settled where mayans once were TENOCHTITLAN; fierce warriors; continued on to 1500s and had 30 million people, ruled by a single emperor; priests appeased the gods by sacrificing captured enemies; adv in creation of city; chinampas :floating gardens” – earth piled up
  • Incas: from Andes mountains and extended over 12,000 miles; polytheistic (sun god main), built hundreds of bridges and used tunnels through mountains Explain each picture
  • Ottomans had closed off access to Asia, so needed a new way to get there; 1492 landed at the Caribbean but he thought it was India and later went to the Americas – Spain and Portugal claim those lands;
  • Magellan, Ferdinand : (1480?-1521) Spanish explorer who was the first to circumnavigate the globe.
  • Fernando was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the King of Castile , in the early 16th century .
  • Global exchange of people, plants, animals, ideas, and tech began during this time leading to profound changes in the Americas and because it started with Columbus, its called the Columbian Exchange
  • Slaves working in the Caribbean, middle passage and Triangle Trade
  • Social structure developed - Peninsulares: Spanish born people Creoles: those of EU descent born in the colonies Mestizos: mixed Native American and EU descent Mulattoes: mix of African and EU descent
  • Ideas were spreading and encouraged the want for independence Locke (late 1600s) Voltaire (1700s)
  • The US could gain access to all of these regions - possibilities
  • Dependent on exports – can they compete?
  • Sandinista: The United States occupied Nicaragua from 1912-1933 and intervened in the country several times before that. The US military interventions in Nicaragua were designed to prevent the construction of the Nicaraguan Canal by any nation but the USA. The occupation ended as Augusto César Sandino , a Nicaraguan revolutionary , led guerrilla armies against US troops . The FSLN overthrew Anastasio Somoza Debayle in 1979, ending the Somoza dynasty , and established a revolutionary government in its place. [1] [2] Following their seizure of power, the Sandinistas ruled Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as part of a Junta of National Reconstruction . Following the resignation of centrist members from this Junta, the FSLN took exclusive power in March 1981. Oppositional militias, known as Contras , formed in 1981 to resist the Sandinista's Junta and received support from the American Central Intelligence Agency . The 1984 elections, described by international observers as fair and free, were nevertheless boycotted by the main opposition. The FSLN won the majority of the votes. Those who did oppose the Sandinistas won approximately a third of the seats. Despite the clear electoral victory for the Sandinistas, the Contras continued their violent attacks on both state and civilian targets, until 1989.
  • is a government led by a committee of military leaders. The term derives from the Spanish junta meaning committee , specifically a board of directors . Sometimes it becomes a military dictatorship Pictures
  • Cuba gained formal independence from the US by 1902 but the U.S. retained the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and to supervise its finances and foreign relations Spanish-American war - was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States .Revolts against Spanish rule had been endemic for decades in Cuba and were closely watched by Americans Is the cartoon true?
  • Batista was the ruler and he was a Cuban President, dictator, and military leader closely aligned with and supported by the United States . He served as the leader of Cuba from 1933–1944, and 1952–1959, before being overthrown as a result of the Cuban Revolution by Castro in 1959 Castro, Fidel : (1926?- ) Leader of the Cuban Revolution and communist dictator of Cuba. He is responsible for making Cuba a socialist country which has often been at odds with the United States. Notably, the bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
  • After WWII, Latin American countries free and seeking help (changes between democracy and dictatorship Bay of Pigs 1960: CIA begins to train Anti-Castro Cuban exiles (supporting an uprising) Bay of Pigs : An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro. Cuban Missile Crisis - July 1962: Khrushchev builds 42 missiles in Cuba; too close; WWIII?; Krushchev takes them out

Latin America Latin America Presentation Transcript

  • By: Ms. Ahmed and Ms. Pojer
  • Regions of The Caribbean Latin Central AmericaAmerica South America
  • Earthquake Zones
  • Th e M a ya n s The Yucatan Peninsula Chac, C h ic h e n -It z a - P y r a m id God of Rain M a ya n Unde rg roun d G r a n a r ie s : Ch u l t u n e s
  • L a nd s o f the A zte c s
  • T h e In c a s Mac h u P ic c h u In c a nM A IZ E Te rra c e Fa rmi ng
  • Columbus’ Four Voyages
  • Ferdinand Magellan & theFirst Circumnavigation of the World: Early 16c
  • The First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs and Montezuma II’s Death vs.Fernando Cortés Montezuma II
  • The “Columbian Exchange” Squash  Avocado  Peppers  Sweet Potatoes Turkey  Pumpkin  Tobacco  Quinine Cocoa  Pineapple  Cassava  POTATO Peanut  TOMATO  Vanilla  MAIZE  Syphilis  Trinkets  Liquor  GUNS Olive  COFFEE BEAN  Banana  Rice Onion  Turnip  Honeybee  Barley Grape  Peach  SUGAR CANE  Oats Citrus Fruits  Pear  Wheat  HORSE Cattle  Sheep  Pigs  Smallpox Flu  Typhus  Measles  Malaria Diptheria  Whooping Cough
  • Cycle of Conquest & Colonization Explorers Conq uistad oresOfficialEuropean Colony! Perm r ies a a Sett nent ion lers iss M Trans- Atlantic Slave Trade
  • The Colonial Class System Peninsulares Creoles Mestizos MulattosNative Indians Black Slaves
  • European Empires in the Americas
  • Causes of Latin American• Revolutions Enlightenment Ideas  writings of John Locke, Voltaire, & Jean Rousseau; Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine.• Creole discontent at being left out of government jobs and trade concessions.• Inspiration of American and French Revolutions.• Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal in fighting the Napoleonic Wars.
  • Enlightenment Ideas• Laws of nature [NATURAL LAWS] govern natural science and human society.• Give people rights  life, liberty, property!• Make fair societies based on reason possible.• Challenged the theory of “Divine Right” monarchy.
  • Latin American Revolutions!
  • The Caribbean:An “American Lake”
  • 1913: Economic Imperialism? U. S. Global Investments in 1914
  • Sandinista Movement
  • Latin American Juntas
  • A m e r ic a nS o ld ie r s in C uba i n 1902 Wha t the U S Foug ht For
  • F id e l C a s t r o a s aYo u n g R e v o lu t io n a r y a n d H is R e fo rm s
  • T h e B a y o f P ig s F i a s c o : 1961 C uba i s 90 M i l e s fro m t h e F lo r id a C oas t
  • C a s tro a t theU n it e d N a t io n s US Embargo of Cuba The R e fu g e e “ P r o b le m ” T o d a y
  • DEFORESTATIONOriginal Forest Cover Current Forest Cover Future Forest Cover
  • DrugTrafficking Routes