Improvement

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Improvement

  1. 1. Continuous Improvement Check Do Act Plan Time Quality level
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Lead a Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) process improvement initiative. </li></ul><ul><li>Use quality tools for analysis and problem solving. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast the corporate programs for quality improvement. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Quality and Productivity Improvement Process <ul><li>Foundations of Continuous Improvement - Customer Satisfaction - Management by Facts - Respect for People </li></ul><ul><li>Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving (10 steps) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Quality Tools <ul><li>Check Sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Run Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Histogram </li></ul><ul><li>Pareto Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Flowchart </li></ul><ul><li>Cause-and-Effect Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Scatter Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Control Chart </li></ul>
  5. 5. Check Sheet <ul><li>Month Lost Departure Mechanical Overbooked Other </li></ul><ul><li> Luggage Delay </li></ul><ul><li>January 1 2 3 3 1 </li></ul><ul><li>February 3 3 0 1 0 </li></ul><ul><li>March 2 5 3 2 3 </li></ul><ul><li>April 5 4 4 0 2 </li></ul><ul><li>May 4 7 2 3 0 </li></ul><ul><li>June 3 8 1 1 1 </li></ul><ul><li>July 6 6 3 0 2 </li></ul><ul><li>August 7 9 0 3 0 </li></ul><ul><li>September 4 7 3 0 2 </li></ul><ul><li>October 3 11 2 3 0 </li></ul><ul><li>November 2 10 1 0 0 </li></ul><ul><li>December 4 12 2 0 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Total 44 84 24 16 12 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Run Chart
  7. 7. Histogram of Lost Luggage
  8. 8. Cause-and-Effect Chart for Flight Departure Delay (Fishbone Chart) Equipment Personnel Procedure Materia l Other Aircraft late to gate Late arrival Gate occupied Mechanical failures Late pushback tug Weather Air traffic Late food service Late fuel Late baggage to aircraft <ul><ul><li>Gate agents cannot process passengers quickly enough </li></ul></ul>Too few agents Agents undertrained Agents undermotivated Agents arrive at gate late Late cabin cleaners Late or unavailable cockpit crews Late or unavailable cabin crews Poor announcement of departures Weight and balance sheet late Delayed checkin procedure Confused seat selection Passengers bypass checkin counter Checking oversize baggage Issuance of boarding pass Acceptance of late passengers Cutoff too close to departure time Desire to protect late passengers Desire to help company’s income Poor gate locations Delayed Flight Departure
  9. 9. Pareto Analysis of Flight Departure Delay Causes
  10. 10. Flowchart
  11. 11. Scatter Diagram
  12. 12. Control Chart of Departure Delays expected Lower Control Limit 1998 1999
  13. 13. Corporate Programs for Quality Improvement <ul><li>Marriott Personnel Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Zero Defects (Crosby) </li></ul><ul><li>Deming’s 14 Point Program </li></ul><ul><li>Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 9000 </li></ul><ul><li>Six-Sigma </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mega Bytes Restaurant <ul><li>How is the Seven-Step Method (SSM) different from Deming’s PDCA cycle? </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a cause-and-effect or fishbone diagram for a problem such as “Why customers have long waits for coffee.” Use Figure 6.30 as a guide. </li></ul><ul><li>How would you resolve the difficulties that study teams have experienced when applying the SSM? </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Seven-Step Method <ul><li>Step 1: Define the project </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Study the current situation </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Analyze the potential causes </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Implement a solution </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5: Check the results </li></ul><ul><li>Step 6: Standardize the improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Step 7: Establish future plans </li></ul>

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