The Importance of technological and industrial innovation to Universities in China by Prof.Yitai Ma
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The Importance of technological and industrial innovation to Universities in China by Prof.Yitai Ma

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Prof. Yitai Ma’s (Director: Thermal Energy Research Institute, Tianjin University, China) presentation at the SATN Annual Conference 2009. ...

Prof. Yitai Ma’s (Director: Thermal Energy Research Institute, Tianjin University, China) presentation at the SATN Annual Conference 2009.

Theme: “Technological innovation at Universities in South Africa: towards industrial and socio-economic development”

16 - 17 July 2009
Cape Peninsula University of Technology
Bellville Campus.

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    The Importance of technological and industrial innovation to Universities in China by Prof.Yitai Ma The Importance of technological and industrial innovation to Universities in China by Prof.Yitai Ma Presentation Transcript

    • Ma Yitai Thermal Energy Research Institute Tianjin University, Tianjin China 300072 [email_address] The Importance of technological and industrial innovation to Universities in China
    • Outline
      • Review of China’s Higher Education
      • The Changing Role of Universities in China’s National Innovation System
      • The Socio-economic Basis for Innovation of S&T Education
      • How to Enhance Innovation of Engineering Technology at Our Universities
      • Engineering Innovation Environment of China’s Universities
      • China Needs Innovation Urgently to Increase Energy Efficiency
      • Conclusions
    • The history of higher education in China
    • Review of China’ Higher Education
      • The beginning of Review of China’ higher education
      • China’s modern higher education began in 1895 when my alma mater, Peiyang University -Tianjin University (TJU) was founded .
      • China’ higher education from 1949 to 1966
      • The total enrollment was on more than 50,000
      • China’ higher education from 1977 to 1997
      • The Enrollment number was 270,000 in 1977 when china’ s government resumed higher education and 970,000 in 1997 as a result of annual expansion
      • China’ higher education from 1998 to now
      • expanded large-scaly from 1998 (the increase rate was 48%) and the total number reached 5,990,000 in 2008. Meantime about 300,000 graduate students were enrolled in 2007.
    • The laboratory of the first university in China –Peiyang University about 1900
    • Review of China’ Higher Education Unit: 10 thousand Figure 1: Enrollment of China’s Higher Education
    • The Changing Role of Universities in China’s National Innovation System
      • China’s national innovation system began to take shape in 1950s based on the model from the Soviet Union, which emphasized centralized management and planning, with government playing a major role. Its model as follows:
      Figure 2: China’s National Innovation System and Universities before 1978 36
    • The Socio-economic basis for Innovation of S&T Education
      • China has some 2,000 years history of feudal society. As we all know, self-sufficient agricultural economy and feudal politic didn’t encourage or even strangle S&T innovation.
      For example, the society advocate “to be a scholar is to be the top of society” and the rule of selecting talents is “a good scholar can become an official” rather than “he who excels in innovation can follow an official career”. Great educationist Confucius BC551-479
    • The Socio-economic Basis for Innovation of S&T Education
      • During the first few years when PRC was founded, the guiding ideology of planned economy suppressed reasonable competition and scientific and technologic innovation. The intellectuals, scientific and technical personnel had a low social status as a result of continuous political campaigns and only few of them had the opportunity and enthusiasm to innovate.
    • The Socio-economic basis for Innovation of S&T Education
      • China has been introducing advanced foreign technology to support the high-speed economic growth since the Chinese economic reform in 1978 but technological innovation and independent intellectual property rights were ignored.
      • Then the market emerged a large number of imitation and illegal copying. Some illegal traders gain lots of profit and it promote the growth of our economy in the short term, but it delay the creativity of our next generation
      • So far some of our research results are indeed innovative, however, as a result of lack of enough financial support and guaranteed mechanism these results haven’t give impetus to our productivity.
    • The new development
    • The Changing Role of Universities in China’s National Innovation System
      • Starting in 1978, China’s National Innovation System has entered into a new era.
      • A series of institutional reforms had been carried out, particularly for public research institutes.
      • Universities as the center for both teaching and scientific research.
      • The diversification of China’s national innovation system has generated much needed vitality for the system.
      • Government-affiliated research institutes were no longer the only player in the nation’s research system.
      • Both universities and the industrial sector have become the most significant players.
    • Financial support to
      • 211 Engineering- set up 100 emphases Universities. 20 billion RMB
      • 985 Engineering- many many emphases subjects in 211 universities. Many billions RMB
      • Attract persons with ability from the whole world.
    • Engineering Innovation Environment of China’s Universities
      • Key laboratories of different level (national, provincial, ministerial, etc.) means how much the money.
      • Opportunities of participating in innovative activities for university students including master degree anf doctor degree.
      • Energy-saving and emission reduction competition
      • Graduation Project, 100 excellence PhD thesis every year
      • Research projects of tutors
      • National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), support funds: 300-1000kRMB a project
      • 973, 863 Research Foundation, support funds: 10-50 million RMB a project
      • Cooperation between companies and universities
    • How to Enhance Innovation of Engineering Technology at Our Universities
      • Reform the teaching system and change from exam-oriented education to quality education.
      • Teach students in accordance with their aptitude.
      • Control the target – creative ability of students (CAS)
    • Creative Ability of Students (CAS)
      • It’s related with the guidance of teachers (GT), quality of students (QS) and management and policy of universities and government (MPU) respectively. We can use a mathematical multiple integrating formula to depict the creative ability of students (CAS) with the above three factors as follows:
      Multiple integration- 3 factors
    • Creative Ability of Students (CAS)
      • Tutors play a basic role: the forefront of research, strict scientific style and experience of research.
      • The comprehensive quality of students including good knowledge base, ability of innovation, doing hard work and so on is also very important.
      • Universities and government should have a good management and policy including evaluation system, encourrage method and financial support.
    • China needs innovation urgently to increase energy efficiency
      • Since I’m a professor on the field of energy engineering, I like to discuss the importance of innovation. Innovation often occurs in some urgent situations.
      • China has to ensure the modern life of 1.3 billion people on the one hand and the growth rate of annual energy consumption should keep as a low level as possible.
      • The energy consumption increasing more than 6% per year.
      • The energy efficiency is lower than world average.
      • There is no such experience in the world, therefore, we have to find a way of technological innovation.
    • China Needs Innovation Urgently to Increase Energy Efficiency
      • As we all know China is already the 2nd largest energy consumer in the world (see figure 2) , but our energy efficiency (see figure 3) is very low compared to developed countries.
      Figure 2: China’s Energy Consumption Figure 3: China’s Energy Efficiency ( Source: Energy Research Institute of National Development and Reform Commission )
      • Last decades the average annual growth rate of GDP exceeds 10% and 15 millions people migrate from rural to urban area each year. Meantime the new-building area exceeds 2 billion square meters, possession of motor vehicles increased 6.6 million in 2007 (see the above pictures) and annual output of refrigerator and air-conditioner increases dramatically (see the below figures).
      Unit: 10 thousand Annual Output of Refrigerator and Air-conditioner in China China Needs Innovation Urgently to Increase Energy Efficiency
    • Find Renewable Energy and Siving Energy
      • Solar enrgy
      • Geothermal energy
      • Wind Energy
      • Biomass Energy
      • Heat punp system for heating
      • Low energy consumption building
    • Conclusions
      • China has a large-scale higher education. The role of universities in china’s national innovation system is changing and the diversification of China’s national innovation system has generated much needed vitality for the system.
      • Since the Chinese economic reform, the policy environment for innovation is improving, but as a result of lack of enough financial support and guaranteed mechanism, our research results haven’t give enough impetus to our productivity.
      • China is already the 2nd largest energy consumer in the world and it’s especially critical and meaningful for china to increase energy efficiency by S&T innovation.
    • Thank you for your attention