The importance of hypothesis in research
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The Importance of Hypothesis in Research by Satendra Kumar Sharma LL.M. ...

The Importance of Hypothesis in Research by Satendra Kumar Sharma LL.M.
School of Legal Studies and Research
Noida International University
Gautam Buddh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh.
. .

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The importance of hypothesis in research The importance of hypothesis in research Presentation Transcript

  • The Importance of Hypothesis in Research Presentation Prepared By… Satendra Kumar Sharma LL.M. School of Legal Studies and Research Noida International University Gautam Buddh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh. . .
  • Introduction • Hypothesis is assumption which is based on reasoning. Word “Hypothesis” is a combination of two words the first one is „Hypo‟ (that means under or less than or tentative) and the second one is „thesis‟ (that means General opinion or statement about solution of a problem) , So the word “Hypothesis” means tentative statement about solution of a problem or Hypothesis means the guesses to solve the research problem.
  • Hypothesis is a part of Research Hypothesis is a part of Research so before knowing or discussing more about hypothesis, we will discuss Legal Research and before dealing with legal research, we will discuss research.
  • The Meaning of Research Research is the way of gaining new knowledge in systematic way. Many Researchers have given various definition of research, these will be as follows: Red Man & Mory, “Research is a systematic effort to gain new knowledge”. M.H. Gopal, “A research is essentially a systematic enquiry seeking new facts through objectives.” These definitions apparently portray research as a general process of enquiry.
  • Legal Research Legal Research is not essentially different from other types of research. Legal Research is the process of identifying and retrieving information necessary to support Legal Decision Making. Legal research is to suggest improvement in the existing law
  • Difference Between Legal and non- legal Research The non-legal researcher has to show the relation between his work and old one but legal researcher shows that he is producing something new.
  • The Research Process and Hypothesis Hypothesis is a part of research process. The research process is similar to undertaking a journey. For a research journey there are some steps to follow which are necessary to make the research work scientific.
  • Sources of Hypothesis According to Webster, “Hypothesis is a guess made by the researcher which either solve the problem or guide him in further investigation.” The sources of Hypothesis are almost the same as problems. The major sources of the Hypothesis; • Reading Material- Published books, Journals, Magazines, Seminar Reports, • Principle of Theories – Rule of Law, Basic Structure etc., • Personal Experience, and • Other Studies.
  • Process for the formulating and developing of hypothesis There is specific process for the formulating or developing hypothesis. These process consist of four steps as follows Observation: It is the first stage of Hypothesis. Reflection: We see number of child marriages and also find uneducated people there. Now we anticipate a relation which is based on experience we now formulate a answer that child marriages common among uneducated people and this answer is Hypothesis. Deduction/Induction: In deduction thinking process goes from the general to specific, this process begins with general Hypothesis and proceeds towards specific Hypothesis. Induction is an approach which goes from specific to general. It begins with data and observation and proceeds toward Hypothesis. Verification: This is the last stage or even post Hypothesis formulation. In this we actually take our Hypothesis to solve our difficult problems.
  • Characteristics of Hypothesis A good Hypothesis is one which is incorporates following characteristics to a large extent- Non Contradictories – A hypothesis should be self-consistent and not contradictory. For example it is self-contradictory to believe that all law degree holders are lawyers because some of law degree holder may be a judge, teacher etc. Economical: Hypothesis should be parsimonious (carefulness in use of money) out of several hypothesis that should be performed which is more parsimonious. Simplest or general– A simplest or general hypothesis should be preferred and a good hypothesis can be done in simplest way. Capable of empirical test: Goode and Hatt suggested that the hypothesis should be such as can be put to empirical test which is the basis of objectivity.
  • Types of Hypothesis Hypotheses are classified in several ways on different basis. On the other basis of the degree of generality hypothesis can be divided into two categories. • Universal and • Existential. A universal hypothesis is one which states the relationship that holds good for all the levels or values of variables which are specified for all time at all places. Existential hypothesis is one which states the relationship which holds good for at least one place.
  • Some other classification of Hypothesis Descriptive Hypothesis: A Hypothesis is about the law which is an instance, is called descriptive Hypothesis. Explanatory Hypothesis: A Hypothesis may be about cause of phenomenon; this type of Hypothesis is known as exploratory. This strongly states the existence of cause and effect relationship. Directional Hypothesis: It connotes an expected direction in the relationship or difference between variables. Non- Directional Hypothesis – It shows absence of relationship in the variables. Working Hypothesis – Working Hypothesis establishes a casual relation between various facts/ which are foremen on probability. It is set upon the basis of pier observation or on logical grounds. Statistical Hypothesis – It is testable within the framework of probability theory. N.C.Nemor the null hypothesis as the statistical Hypothesis; statistical hypothesis is of two kinds- Constructive and Null Hypothesis. Constructive Hypothesis can be positive or negative. Null Hypothesis is a statistical Hypothesis which used in analyzing the data. It assumed that observed difference is attributable by sampling error and too difference is zero.
  • Problem in formulation of hypothesis According to Goode and Hatt these are three major possible difficulties in formulation of good hypothesis. First: Absence of knowledge of theoretical framework. Second: Lack of ability to utilize the theoretical framework logically. Third: Investigator‟s unawareness about available research techniques.
  • The Function of Hypothesis It transforms research questions into testable propositions. It leads to discovery of additions to knowledge by helping to confirm or disconfirm particular theories or propositions. It determines the types of data needed for an inquiry and suggests the most appropriate instrument for data collection. It suggests the most appropriate methods and tools for the analysis of data. It provides the framework for drawing the conclusion of a research.
  • Conclusion In legal research hypothesis is an important component. Except exploratory research in which formulation of hypothesis is impossible. Hypothesis is useful in legal research. Without hypothesis, a research is unfocused.
  • ….. Thank You