Stereotype Awareness Web based tutorial


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This is a web based tutorial to bring awareness of streotypes

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Stereotype Awareness Web based tutorial

  1. 1. Al-Nisa Johnson Web-Based Tutorial AET/545 Sarah Celmer March 31, 2014
  2. 2. Table of Content Slide 1: Cover Page Slide 2: Table of Content Slide 3: Performance based objectives Slide 4: Terms and Definitions Slide 5: Terms and Definitions Slide 6: Lecture Notes Slide 7: Examples of some Stereo types Slide 8: Making a Change Slide 9: Making a Change Slide 10: Stereotype Quiz Slide 11: Instructional Plans Slide 12: Summary Slide 13: References
  3. 3. Performance Based Objectives  Upon completion of the web-based tutorial 100% of the instructors will be able to identify and overcome one or more stereotypes that they have perceived.  Upon completion of the web-based tutorial 100% of the instructors will have the opportunity to explore and understand the issues of stereotypes and the effect that they have on individuals.
  4. 4. Terms and Definitions Terms Definition Ambiguity effect The tendency to avoid options for which missing information makes the probability seem "unknown Attentional bias The tendency of our perception to be affected by our recurring thoughts Awareness is the state or ability to perceive, to feel, or to be conscious of events, objects, or sensory patterns. In this level of consciousness, sense data can be confirmed by an observer without necessarily implying understanding. More broadly, it is the state or quality of being aware of something. In biological psychology, awareness is defined as a human's or an animal's perception and cognitive reaction to a condition or event. Backfire effect When people react to disconfirming evidence by strengthening their beliefs Bandwagon effect The tendency to do (or believe) things because many other people do (or believe) the same Bias Bias is an inclination of temperament or outlook to present or hold a partial perspective and a refusal to even consider the possible merits of alternative points of view. People may be biased toward or against an individual, a race, a religion, a social class, or a political party. Biased means one-sided, lacking a neutral viewpoint, not having an open mind. Bias can come in many forms and is often considered to be synonymous with prejudice or bigotry. Bias blind spot The tendency to see oneself as less biased than other people, or to be able to identify more cognitive biases in others than in oneself Cross-race effect The tendency for people of one race to have difficulty identifying members of a race other than their own. Cultural bias Interpreting and judging phenomena in terms particular to one's own culture.
  5. 5. Terms and definitions continue Dunning–Kruger effect An effect in which incompetent people fail to realize they are incompetent because they lack the skill to distinguish between competence and incompetence. Actual competence may weaken self- confidence, as competent individuals may falsely assume that others have an equivalent understanding Forer effect (aka Barnum effect) The tendency to give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically for them, but are in fact vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people. For example, horoscopes Group attribution error The biased belief that the characteristics of an individual group member are reflective of the group as a whole or the tendency to assume that group decision outcomes reflect the preferences of group members, even when information is available that clearly suggests otherwise. Illusion of asymmetric insight People perceive their knowledge of their peers to surpass their peers' knowledge of them Illusory superiority Overestimating one's desirable qualities, and underestimating undesirable qualities, relative to other people. (Also known as "Lake Wobegon effect," Racism, regionalism and tribalism Judging people or phenomena associated with people based on the race/ethnicity, region of origin, or tribe of the people, rather than based on more objective criteria. Sexism Judging based on gender, rather than on more objective criteria. Stereotype Stereotypes are qualities assigned to groups of people related to their race, nationality and sexual orientation, to name a few. Because they generalize groups of people in manners that lead to discrimination and ignore the diversity within groups, stereotypes should be avoided.
  6. 6. Lecture  What are Stereotypes?  Stereotypes are generalizations about a group of people whereby we attribute a defined set of characteristics to this group. These classifications can be positive or negative, such as when various nationalities are stereotyped as friendly or unfriendly.  The purpose of stereotypes is to help us know how to interact with others. Each classification has associations, scripts and so on that we use to interpret what they are saying, decide if they are good or bad, and choose how to respond to them (or not).  It is easier to create stereotypes when there is a clearly visible and consistent attribute that can easily be recognized. This is why people of color, police and women are so easily stereotyped.  We often accept stereotypes from other people. This helps us agree on how to understand and act towards various groups of people in a consistent way.  People from stereotyped groups can find this very disturbing as they experience an apprehension (stereotype threat) of being treated unfairly.
  7. 7. Examples of some Stereo types  These are some of the most common stereotypes that you will come across. It's not easy to face stereotypes because they degrade and generalize, trapping you into a mold without giving you a chance to prove otherwise. (htt)  I'm Brazilian, so I must have a big butt.  I'm black so I must love fried chicken and kool-aid.  I hang out with gays, so I must be gay too.  I'm Christian so I must hate homosexuals.  I'm German, so I must be a Nazi.  I'm Colombian, so I must be a drug dealer.  I'm Muslim so I must be covered up at all times.  I don't have a religion, so I must be evil and have no morals.  I'm Mexican, so I must have hopped the border.  I'm a guy, so I must only want to get into your pants.  I'm Cuban, so I must spend my spare time rolling cigars.  I'm Jamaican so I must smoke weed.  I'm Asian so I must have a small penis.  I'm Arab, so I must be a terrorist.  All Italians are in the mob.  All Irishmen do is drink and beat their wives.
  8. 8. Making a Change  How to make a change  We change our stereotypes infrequently. Even in the face of disconfirming evidence, we often cling to our obviously-wrong beliefs. When we do change the stereotypes, we do so in one of three ways:  Bookkeeping model: As we learn new contradictory information, we incrementally adjust the stereotype to adapt to the new information. We usually need quite a lot of repeated information for each incremental change. Individual evidence is taken as the exception that proves the rule.  2. Conversion model: We throw away the old stereotype and start again. This is often used when there is significant disconfirming evidence.  3. Subtyping model: We create a new stereotype that is a sub-classification of the existing stereotype, particularly when we can draw a boundary around the sub-class. Thus if we have a stereotype for Americans, a visit to New York may result in us having a ‘New Yorkers are different’ sub-type.  First there is the generalized descriptions and attributes. To this we may add exemplars to prove the case, such as 'the policeman next door'. We may also store them hierarchically, such as 'black people', 'Africans', 'Ugandans', 'Ugandan military', etc., with each lower order inheriting the characteristics of the higher order, with additional characteristics added.  Stereotyping can go around in circles. Men stereotype women and women stereotype men. In certain societies this is intensified as the stereotyping of women pushes them together more and they create men as more of an out-group. The same thing happens with different racial groups, such as 'white/black' (an artificial system of opposites, which in origin seems to be more like 'European/non-European'). (htt)
  9. 9. Making a change continue  Stereotyping can be subconscious, where it subtly biases our decisions and actions, even in people who consciously do not want to be biased.  Stereotyping often happens not so much because of aggressive or unkind thoughts. It is more often a simplification to speed conversation on what is not considered to be an important topic.  Find how others stereotype you (if possible, getting them to stereotype you positively). They will have a blind spot to non-stereotyped behaviors, so you can do these and they will often ignore it. Thus if you are stereotyped as a ‘kind old man’, you can do moderately unkind things which may be ignored.  To change a person’s view of your stereotype, be consistently different from it. Beware of your own stereotyping blinding you to the true nature of other individuals.  Stereotyping can be reduced by bringing people together. When they discover the other people are not as the stereotype, the immediate evidence creates dissonance that leads to improved thoughts about the other group. (ht
  10. 10. Stereotype Quiz Questions: 1-5 Please circle the correct answer for questions 1-3 and answer questions 4 and 5 in 2-4 sentences. 1.What is a stereotype? A. What you get when you combine a stereo and a keyboard. B. Bias that applies to a lot of things. C. A speech to help people. D. A honest statement. 2. If you walked into a hair salon and the hair stylist is a male he must be? A. Straight B. Gay C. Bi-Sexual D. None of the above 3.Stereotype or not (please circle yes for stereotype or no for not) •I'm Muslim so I must be covered up at all times. Yes/No •All Mexicans eat beans. Yes/No •Most men are more dominate in sports than women. Yes/No •Black people love to dance. Yes/No •Some blacks are Jewish. Yes/No 4. Write an example of a stereotype that you have perceived in the past or present and give explanation to why it is a stereotype and what gave you the perception. 5. What steps can you take to avoid making stereo types?
  11. 11. Instructional PlansActivity Objective Assessment Activity: Icebreaker “Who am I” The trainees will be paired up prior to class, I will pair up students who do not know one another and they will be given questions to answer about their partner. They must answer the questions without asking their partner the answer. At the end each person will have the opportunity to identify who they really are and give the facts to the questions. Objective: The trainees will practice identifying who their partners are. Assessment: The trainees will write a short paper on who they are. Activity: Stereo Type Project The trainees will be broken up into groups based on their race. Each group will identify 6-10 stereo types that they heard or believe about the other groups. Objective: The trainees will have the opportunity to identify and create a list of stereo types Assessment: Each trainees will write an individual 2 pg essay paper reflecting on how they felt and they will have to identify one stereo type that they have made in the past Activity: Reflections The trainees will work in groups creating a list of resources, and solutions on how to prevent people from making stereo types Objective: The trainees will have the opportunity to reflect on their feelings and to problem solve on how to prevent stereo types Assessment: The trainees will present Power point presentation Activity: The Persona Doll The trainees will make a persona doll that tells their story. Objective: The trainees will have the opportunity to identify who they in terms of culture, race, and ethnicity, religion, family. The will have the opportunity to reflect on how they can make change by apply an anti-bias approach to their work place. Assessment: The trainees will present through oral presentation
  12. 12. Summary  This Web based tutorial was develop to help bring awareness to instructors of the Los Angeles Community College District. Each person will be able to go through each slide and develop an understanding of what stereotypes are and the effect that they have. They will also have the opportunity to identify stereotypes within their selves and express their feelings trough discussions and activities. This web- based tutorials gives a quick breakdown of terms that each person will be able to relate to how stereotypes can be develop. They will also explore examples of stereotypes and practice how not to make stereotypes. In the conclusion of this tutorial the instructors will complete an exit quiz that assess there knowledge of what they have learned and give an example on how they can apply this knowledge to their current or future classroom,
  13. 13. References:   Lippmann (1922), Allport (1954)    Fisk, John E. (2004), "Conjunction fallacy", in Pohl, Rüdiger F.,Cognitive Illusions: A Handbook on Fallacies and Biases in Thinking, Judgement and Memory, Hove, UK: Psychology Press, pp. 23–42   environment.html  Fleming, C., & Garner, B. (2009) A brief guide to teaching adult learners. Marion, IN: Triangle.  York, S. (2006). In S. York, Roots & Wings "Affirming CUltrue in Early Childhood Programs" (p. 272). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc.