March 31, 2014
Table of Content
Slide 1: Cover Page
Slide 2: Table of Content
Slide 3: Performance based objectives
Slide 4: Terms and Definitions
Slide 5: Terms and Definitions
Slide 6: Lecture Notes
Slide 7: Examples of some Stereo types
Slide 8: Making a Change
Slide 9: Making a Change
Slide 10: Stereotype Quiz
Slide 11: Instructional Plans
Slide 12: Summary
Slide 13: References
Performance Based Objectives
Upon completion of the web-based tutorial 100% of the instructors will be able to identify and
overcome one or more stereotypes that they have perceived.
Upon completion of the web-based tutorial 100% of the instructors will have the opportunity to
explore and understand the issues of stereotypes and the effect that they have on individuals.
Terms and Definitions
Ambiguity effect The tendency to avoid options for which missing information makes the probability seem "unknown
Attentional bias The tendency of our perception to be affected by our recurring thoughts
Awareness is the state or ability to perceive, to feel, or to be conscious of events, objects, or sensory patterns. In this level of consciousness,
sense data can be confirmed by an observer without necessarily implying understanding. More broadly, it is the state or quality of
being aware of something. In biological psychology, awareness is defined as a human's or an animal's perception and cognitive
reaction to a condition or event.
Backfire effect When people react to disconfirming evidence by strengthening their beliefs
Bandwagon effect The tendency to do (or believe) things because many other people do (or believe) the same
Bias Bias is an inclination of temperament or outlook to present or hold a partial perspective and a refusal to even consider the possible
merits of alternative points of view. People may be biased toward or against an individual, a race, a religion, a social class, or a
political party. Biased means one-sided, lacking a neutral viewpoint, not having an open mind. Bias can come in many forms and is
often considered to be synonymous with prejudice or bigotry.
Bias blind spot The tendency to see oneself as less biased than other people, or to be able to identify more cognitive biases in others than in oneself
Cross-race effect The tendency for people of one race to have difficulty identifying members of a race other than their own.
Cultural bias Interpreting and judging phenomena in terms particular to one's own culture.
Terms and definitions continue
Dunning–Kruger effect An effect in which incompetent people fail to realize they are incompetent because they lack the
skill to distinguish between competence and incompetence. Actual competence may weaken self-
confidence, as competent individuals may falsely assume that others have an equivalent
Forer effect (aka Barnum effect) The tendency to give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are
tailored specifically for them, but are in fact vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of
people. For example, horoscopes
Group attribution error The biased belief that the characteristics of an individual group member are reflective of the group as a
whole or the tendency to assume that group decision outcomes reflect the preferences of group
members, even when information is available that clearly suggests otherwise.
Illusion of asymmetric insight People perceive their knowledge of their peers to surpass their peers' knowledge of them
Illusory superiority Overestimating one's desirable qualities, and underestimating undesirable qualities, relative to other
people. (Also known as "Lake Wobegon effect,"
Racism, regionalism and
Judging people or phenomena associated with people based on the race/ethnicity, region of origin, or
tribe of the people, rather than based on more objective criteria.
Sexism Judging based on gender, rather than on more objective criteria.
Stereotype Stereotypes are qualities assigned to groups of people related to their race, nationality and sexual
orientation, to name a few. Because they generalize groups of people in manners that lead to
discrimination and ignore the diversity within groups, stereotypes should be avoided.
What are Stereotypes?
Stereotypes are generalizations about a group of people whereby we attribute a defined set of characteristics to this group. These
classifications can be positive or negative, such as when various nationalities are stereotyped as friendly or unfriendly.
The purpose of stereotypes is to help us know how to interact with others. Each classification has associations, scripts and so on that we
use to interpret what they are saying, decide if they are good or bad, and choose how to respond to them (or not).
It is easier to create stereotypes when there is a clearly visible and consistent attribute that can easily be recognized. This is why people
of color, police and women are so easily stereotyped.
We often accept stereotypes from other people. This helps us agree on how to understand and act towards various groups of people in a
People from stereotyped groups can find this very disturbing as they experience an apprehension (stereotype threat) of being treated
Examples of some Stereo types
These are some of the most common stereotypes that you will come across. It's not easy to face stereotypes because they degrade and
generalize, trapping you into a mold without giving you a chance to prove otherwise. (htt)
I'm Brazilian, so I must have a big butt.
I'm black so I must love fried chicken and kool-aid.
I hang out with gays, so I must be gay too.
I'm Christian so I must hate homosexuals.
I'm German, so I must be a Nazi.
I'm Colombian, so I must be a drug dealer.
I'm Muslim so I must be covered up at all times.
I don't have a religion, so I must be evil and have no morals.
I'm Mexican, so I must have hopped the border.
I'm a guy, so I must only want to get into your pants.
I'm Cuban, so I must spend my spare time rolling cigars.
I'm Jamaican so I must smoke weed.
I'm Asian so I must have a small penis.
I'm Arab, so I must be a terrorist.
All Italians are in the mob.
All Irishmen do is drink and beat their wives.
Making a Change
How to make a change
We change our stereotypes infrequently. Even in the face of disconfirming evidence, we often cling to our obviously-wrong beliefs.
When we do change the stereotypes, we do so in one of three ways:
Bookkeeping model: As we learn new contradictory information, we incrementally adjust the stereotype to adapt to the new information.
We usually need quite a lot of repeated information for each incremental change. Individual evidence is taken as the exception that
proves the rule.
2. Conversion model: We throw away the old stereotype and start again. This is often used when there is significant disconfirming
3. Subtyping model: We create a new stereotype that is a sub-classification of the existing stereotype, particularly when we can draw a
boundary around the sub-class. Thus if we have a stereotype for Americans, a visit to New York may result in us having a ‘New Yorkers
are different’ sub-type.
First there is the generalized descriptions and attributes. To this we may add exemplars to prove the case, such as 'the policeman next
door'. We may also store them hierarchically, such as 'black people', 'Africans', 'Ugandans', 'Ugandan military', etc., with each lower order
inheriting the characteristics of the higher order, with additional characteristics added.
Stereotyping can go around in circles. Men stereotype women and women stereotype men. In certain societies this is intensified as the
stereotyping of women pushes them together more and they create men as more of an out-group. The same thing happens with different
racial groups, such as 'white/black' (an artificial system of opposites, which in origin seems to be more like 'European/non-European').
Making a change continue
Stereotyping can be subconscious, where it subtly biases our decisions and actions, even in people who consciously do not want to be
Stereotyping often happens not so much because of aggressive or unkind thoughts. It is more often a simplification to speed
conversation on what is not considered to be an important topic.
Find how others stereotype you (if possible, getting them to stereotype you positively). They will have a blind spot to non-stereotyped
behaviors, so you can do these and they will often ignore it. Thus if you are stereotyped as a ‘kind old man’, you can do moderately
unkind things which may be ignored.
To change a person’s view of your stereotype, be consistently different from it. Beware of your own stereotyping blinding you to the
true nature of other individuals.
Stereotyping can be reduced by bringing people together. When they discover the other people are not as the stereotype, the immediate
evidence creates dissonance that leads to improved thoughts about the other group. (ht
Please circle the correct answer for questions 1-3 and answer questions 4 and 5 in 2-4 sentences.
1.What is a stereotype?
A. What you get when you combine a stereo and a keyboard.
B. Bias that applies to a lot of things.
C. A speech to help people.
D. A honest statement.
2. If you walked into a hair salon and the hair stylist is a male he must be?
D. None of the above
3.Stereotype or not (please circle yes for stereotype or no for not)
•I'm Muslim so I must be covered up at all times. Yes/No
•All Mexicans eat beans. Yes/No
•Most men are more dominate in sports than women. Yes/No
•Black people love to dance. Yes/No
•Some blacks are Jewish. Yes/No
4. Write an example of a stereotype that you have perceived in the past or present and give explanation to why it is a stereotype and what gave you the perception.
5. What steps can you take to avoid making stereo types?
Instructional PlansActivity Objective Assessment
Activity: Icebreaker “Who am I”
The trainees will be paired up prior to class, I will pair up students who
do not know one another and they will be given questions to answer
about their partner. They must answer the questions without asking their
partner the answer. At the end each person will have the opportunity to
identify who they really are and give the facts to the questions.
The trainees will practice identifying who their partners are.
The trainees will write a short paper on who they are.
Activity: Stereo Type Project
The trainees will be broken up into groups based on their race. Each
group will identify 6-10 stereo types that they heard or believe about the
The trainees will have the opportunity to identify and create a list of
Each trainees will write an individual 2 pg essay paper reflecting on
how they felt and they will have to identify one stereo type that they
have made in the past
The trainees will work in groups creating a list of resources, and
solutions on how to prevent people from making stereo types
The trainees will have the opportunity to reflect on their feelings and to
problem solve on how to prevent stereo types
The trainees will present Power point presentation
Activity: The Persona Doll
The trainees will make a persona doll that tells their story.
The trainees will have the opportunity to identify who they in terms of
culture, race, and ethnicity, religion, family.
The will have the opportunity to reflect on how they can make change
by apply an anti-bias approach to their work place.
The trainees will present through oral presentation
This Web based tutorial was develop to help bring awareness to instructors of the Los Angeles Community College District. Each person
will be able to go through each slide and develop an understanding of what stereotypes are and the effect that they have. They will also
have the opportunity to identify stereotypes within their selves and express their feelings trough discussions and activities. This web-
based tutorials gives a quick breakdown of terms that each person will be able to relate to how stereotypes can be develop. They will also
explore examples of stereotypes and practice how not to make stereotypes. In the conclusion of this tutorial the instructors will complete
an exit quiz that assess there knowledge of what they have learned and give an example on how they can apply this knowledge to their
current or future classroom,
Lippmann (1922), Allport (1954)
Fisk, John E. (2004), "Conjunction fallacy", in Pohl, Rüdiger F.,Cognitive Illusions: A Handbook on
Fallacies and Biases in Thinking, Judgement and Memory, Hove, UK: Psychology Press, pp. 23–42
Fleming, C., & Garner, B. (2009) A brief guide to teaching adult learners. Marion, IN: Triangle.
York, S. (2006). In S. York, Roots & Wings "Affirming CUltrue in Early Childhood Programs" (p.
272). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc.