Testing Services for Innovation Solutions

Like this? Share it with your network


Testing Services for Innovation Solutions

Uploaded on

Given the mission-critical role of SAP® software in driving business innovation, how do you ensure optimal performance of your unique solution landscape? What if you had a way to accurately predict......

Given the mission-critical role of SAP® software in driving business innovation, how do you ensure optimal performance of your unique solution landscape? What if you had a way to accurately predict and proactively head off issues such as the performance bottlenecks that can make or break investment success?

For more information, go to: http://sap.com/Services

More in: Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 8

https://twitter.com 8

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. General Brochure Global Testing Solutions from SAP Testing Services for Innovation Solutions Predict and Proactively Address Barriers to Solution Success Table of Contents 2 Testing: Key to Managing Risk, Cutting Costs, and Ensuring Innovation Success 4 Fast, Affordable, Risk-Based Testing Tailored to Your Business 10 SAP Test Model: Ideal for Testing Across Traditional and Virtual Environments © 2014 SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company. All rights reserved. 13 Tools that Empower IT with Early, Empirically Based, Predictive Insights 14 The Benefits of a Holistic Approach to Testing
  • 2. Testing: Key to Managing Risk, Cutting Costs, and Ensuring Innovation Success Given the mission-critical role of SAP® software in driving business innovation, how do you ensure optimal performance of your unique solution landscape? What if you had a way to accurately predict and proactively head off issues such as the performance bottlenecks that can make or break investment success? This paper explores how you can use risk-based software testing to achieve your goals – and how global testing solutions from SAP can help you do it in a targeted, fast, and affordable way. To thrive in today’s dynamic business environments, your organization needs to continuously innovate and rapidly adapt to changes – for example, by enhancing existing business applications or developing and implementing new ones. But new software deployments and upgrades can also introduce risk into your organization, which is why you need a well-defined test strategy that is implemented and supported by a robust, holistic testing framework. When it comes to deploying SAP software, testing isn’t only about debugging or validating integration with other SAP solutions; you’re right to assume we’ve already taken care of this before taking a product to market. Testing is about measuring the software’s ability to run optimally within your company’s unique IT landscape and given your employees’ and clients’ particular behaviors and usage patterns. The number of variables in these areas can be huge. For example, consider the variability of answers that our customers might provide to the following questions: •• Will you be integrating your new software into a single legacy source system or multiple systems? •• Are you deploying standard SAP software or customizing it? •• Will your users be using most functionality in a fairly balanced way or using only certain functions heavily and all at the same time? •• How distributed is your user base? How well is your cloud infrastructure able to support the distributed nature of the user base? These are just a few examples of variables within IT environments that necessitate the strategic, risk-based testing of new or upgraded software before you go live with it. An organization’s core business performance shouldn’t suffer during any technical or process change, such as an application implementation or upgrade. The highly secure and mission-critical nature of enterprise application data means that you need to regularly test these applications and related business processes for both functionality and performance. The success of any IT project depends on how smoothly your implementation or upgrade project goes live. © 2014 SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company. All rights reserved. 2 / 14
  • 3. USING EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE TO OPTIMIZE OUTCOMES At SAP testing involves running a subset of your , real business data – data that aligns with your business blueprint – in a nonproduction environment to reveal exactly where you’ll encounter performance and other issues. Think of it as predictive risk insight for IT professionals. This insight is valuable empirical evidence you can use to make informed decisions about how to ensure solution success. For example, you can make proactive, targeted adjustments that will head off these risks and help ensure your business realizes the full, expected return on its software investment. Any decision maker today – regardless of line of business or industry – can benefit from having this kind of predictive insight. IT is no exception. Imagine the power of having: •• A way to safely test your planned strategy, understand its strengths and weaknesses, and make changes to help ensure you will accomplish your mission •• A dashboard to convey predictive insights, including a “heat map” that identifies and prioritizes areas of risk •• A foundation of core assets that can be reused as needed to simulate and monitor risk going forward – faster and with less effort Testing services from SAP give you the equivalent of this knowledge. They simulate the way in which you would conduct your mission – in this case, by actually running and using the software deployed in your own IT landscape – and see what would actually happen. And based on this knowledge, you can make adjustments that eliminate risks before your project actually goes live. © 2014 SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company. All rights reserved. 3 / 14
  • 4. Fast, Affordable, Risk-Based Testing Tailored to Your Business With traditional approaches to testing, many tasks involve time-consuming manual effort by skilled quality assurance (QA) engineers. So it’s no surprise that QA teams can find themselves pressed for time, skipping critical tests, and concerned about costs. Even when they automate testing activities using traditional record-andreplay tools, QA teams frequently struggle to maintain the necessary scripts. The result: higher costs and a risky testing process. That’s why SAP offers testing software and services designed to increase testing efficiency and accuracy at a lower cost. SAP achieves this by: •• Prioritizing the test scope based on actual business risk: By empowering you to identify the impact of new support and enhancement packages and upgrades, the SAP Solution Manager application management solution enables you to prioritize the test scope based on business risk (in alignment with the businessdefined blueprint for the software). As a result, you can better plan testing activities and focus on the key functional areas affected by what’s changed. •• Streamlining test creation, execution, and maintenance: The SAP Test Acceleration and Optimization application automatically generates components for SAP user interface–based transactions and uploads them for execution to test automation tools. This promotes consistent, repeatable, automated processes for testing activities. You can then run these test cases and execute them on end-to-end business processes, increasing testing productivity. •• Identifying impacted test cases and components early: Tight integration with SAP Solution Manager helps identify test cases and components impacted by changes in the IT landscape. Because SAP Test Acceleration and Optimization is integrated with SAP Solution Manager and the SAP Quality Center application by HP QA , teams can prepare and execute tests more quickly. Early detection of defects and issues allows you to remediate them at exponentially cheaper costs compared later in production. •• Reusing test cases: SAP Test Acceleration and Optimization creates modular test cases made up of components. These components can be reused, as needed, to avoid rewriting the same scripts for future tests. The components can be tracked to specific transactions and business procedures and reused to test multiple processes and scenarios in your business blueprint. As a result, you can typically execute 10 to 50 times more tests using the same components. © 2014 SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company. All rights reserved. 4 / 14
  • 5. •• Improving test management: SAP has standardized its approach to quality control by using tools, technology, and supporting best practice–based test processes. This approach works for testing everything from basic transaction functionality to process performance in the cloud. This standard test approach helps you organize activities, leverage automation wherever possible, and store and track results on a single platform where accumulated testing knowledge is accessible to all. All test results are stored in SAP Quality Center. •• Supporting the entire test process: Using SAP Test Acceleration and Optimization, SAP Solution Manager, and SAP Test Data Migration Server software, SAP Quality Center supports the entire testing process. That means your QA teams are supported in an integrated manner, all the way from developing the application blueprint to importing changes to the production system. Because SAP services and solutions for testing help you do more with less, you can always ensure that your business applications perform optimally while minimizing the risks associated with outages and sluggish performance. KEY PRINCIPLES OF SAP’S GLOBAL TESTING APPROACH The global testing solutions team from SAP helps customers in all sectors around the world to plan and execute functional and nonfunctional testing (including performance and end-to-end testing) using the SAP testing approach. This approach is integrated into the ASAP® methodology (see sidebar) and provides industry-leading practices for all implementations of SAP solutions, including cloud and innovative technologies like the SAP HANA® platform. The SAP testing approach starts with the assumption that every implementation of SAP software should be accompanied by a robust, comprehensive regression-testing pack, including processes that traverse the cloud. This end-to-end testing pack is used to confirm that no major flaws resulting from new software or an upgrade, patch, or enhancement will be released into critical SAP transactions and processes or impact performance. You can also add patches, provided by SAP so that your test cases remain valid. Using the SAP® Test , Acceleration and Optimization application in combination with the SAP Quality Center application by HP you can compose and execute automated business process tests in SAP software development , and test systems. The ASAP® Methodology The proprietary ASAP® methodology from SAP has served as the application management and governance framework for implementations of SAP solutions for over 50 years. The framework comprises four phases: project preparation, blueprint, realization, and final preparation. © 2014 SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company. All rights reserved. 5 / 14
  • 6. Equally important, the testing approach is based on the following guiding principles: •• Keep the testing independent •• Test according to business risk •• Lay a solid test foundation early •• Automate testing and its management for maximum efficiency •• Use a standardized approach and framework for testing across all environments and technologies •• Leave customers empowered a result, to reflect this reality, the testing scope and approach should be defined and driven by the daily demands of the business – with priority business processes forming the backbone of testing requirements. This approach helps ensure that the team of SAP experts tests the SAP software in the same way your business users work with the system as part of their daily tasks. SAP refers to this approach as “business process testing.” In other words, it’s not just the code that is tested. The following sections explore these principles in more detail. Test According to Business Risk Test coverage should be parameterized according to the risks and priorities that the business determines, in alignment with blueprinted business scenarios, processes, process steps, and transactions of your SAP solutions (see levels 1 through 4, as shown in Figure 1). The goal is to focus testing on the most risk-exposed areas of the blueprint, as this ensures that testing is both efficient (via more reusability of the test scripts) and effective (because it is well targeted). Keep the Testing Independent Testing should be conducted independently of development and configuration activities to avoid less reliable testing along the “happy path” – the path along which developers and configurators have worked from their perspective and goals to achieve the desired functionality. It’s good to note that this is rarely the path an actual user would take when using the functionality. As Figure 1: Test Components (Levels 1–4) Are Derived from Business Blueprints L1 L2 L3 L4 Business process Process step Business transaction Automated testing components Test cases and their components can be reused in multiple test cases to save time and cost Business scenario Manual testing components Components are created on a screen, tab, or business-user process level to maximize reusability and reduce maintenance costs. Scenarios, processes, steps, and t-codes Transaction = collection of screens, URL, frames, and so on Acceleration opportunities: •• Parameterization •• Call function URL1 •• Business component URL2 module URL3 •• Test component library Business process testing components library SAP blueprint structure © 2014 SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company. All rights reserved. 6 / 14
  • 7. •• Also consider other parameters for risk, such as transaction utilization. By using SAP Solution Manager, they can run reports that identify most-used transactions. These highly used transactions should be tested every time change is introduced into your SAP software ecosystem. The tests should also be part of a regression test pack for automation. •• Leverage their extensive knowledge about blueprint structures and how they typically operate To identify business risk, the SAP testing teams: within companies in different industries. For •• First look at your business blueprint for your example, they can access real-world data (such SAP software systems. Your business defines as SAP support messages) and metrics from the business blueprint using the L1–L4 strucreal customers using the same software your ture illustrated in Figure 1, so it naturally reflects business is deploying. The result is a solid base of the business processes and transactions that empirical data about different software modules, are the most important to your organization. their respective blueprints, and how companies SAP testing teams use the blueprints to assess like yours have tested the software in the past. what to test and automate. The depth to which SAP testing teams test your software depends on the areas of business risk identified and SAP’s knowledge of risk in similar businesses using the same software. In some cases, it makes the most sense to test only a specific set of transactions. In other cases, you may determine that you need to do broad-based testing of all functionality for an SAP application. Figure 2: Incorporating Risk Parameters into Risk-Based Test Plans •• Plan, prioritize, and test based on risk of functional failure or performance deficiency and the impact to project and enterprise •• Measure by exposure, impact, and likelihood of failure within the SAP® software ecosystem •• Business blueprint prioritization and alignment for effective requirements verification and traceability •• Composition of test cases covering processes that are prioritized in blueprint and requirements Test coverage aligned with system risk (severity) and business impact (priority) Effective reuse of test case components Risk-based testing Regression suite of test cases covering key scenarios with prioritization per risk-based testing Messages •• Analyze SAP support messages •• Identify key potential failure points and test cases for same Usage pattern •• Analyze utilization of blueprint •• Identify test cases for high usage area Proactive reuse •• Analyze new functionalities and process impacts in future releases •• Create or reuse test cases Prioritized test cases covering core functionality and highest risk process to be executed for each upgrade © 2014 SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company. All rights reserved. 7 / 14
  • 8. Lay a Solid Test Foundation Early As early as the blueprinting phase, and prior to realization, testing needs to be in the minds of the project planners, stakeholders, practitioners, and key decision makers. First, testing early in the deployment process also enables early detection of defects and issues where they can be remediated at far less cost than if they are identified close to, or in, the production phase. And second, not only does it keep everybody on their toes (because they know that testing is looming), but it also enables the early construction of test assets and an agreed-upon approach. Test planning provides early insight and verification of the process infrastructure that will be tested, as well as the transactions and business process procedures. These components should be tested first during unit testing. Test planning should include building out the test cases for functionality and performance (leveraging the foundational basis set in unit testing). You should aim to use this early start in testing to maximum effect. For example, it is important to test throughout the deployment lifecycle. The testing model from SAP (see Figure 2) resumes in the realization phase of a typical project based on either the ASAP methodology or some other approach based on Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) standards. This phase spans the handoff from unit testing to string testing. Following string testing, the team conducts integration testing, building out test cases and assets into more end-to-end–integrated test cases and using test case components coupled and pieced together as required. This integration testing continues through to the going-live phase, when regression testing is built out of the integration testing foundation to help ensure that all new functionality does not negatively impact existing functionality. Professional software testers bring the perspective of business users to the testing process. Whereas developers focus on testing functionality, business users are more concerned about how well the processes and scenarios they use daily are captured in end-to-end test cases. © 2014 SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company. All rights reserved. 8 / 14
  • 9. Automate Testing and Test Management for Maximum Efficiency The test foundation should be primed for automation via the use of componentized test cases that are mapped to business requirements, as specified in the business blueprint. Whether they cover transactions, processes, or scenarios, these test cases are then ready for scripting. The goal is to get the highest yield from automated test components by focusing on the most heavily used transactions, processes, and scenarios in the business blueprint. By automating the testing for the most important core functionality, you are also automating what will be the basis of the regression test pack for all SAP migrations, transports, and upgrades. Leave Customers Educated and Empowered Testing engagements with SAP don’t just address an immediate testing need. They have long-lasting benefits for your enterprise. The goals of any engagement include sharing industry-leading test practices and knowledge with your enterprise, as well as empowering your staff to leverage this knowledge through the use of powerful tools and processes in the future. To this end, SAP testing experts take your internal IT staff through a series of rigorous knowledge transfer sessions that cover both traditional and – since more processes are moving to the cloud and must also be tested properly – virtual deployments. The SAP experts also mentor your staff through various “day-in-the-life” and “trainthe-trainer” sessions. As a result, your internal IT teams develop expert capabilities for testing SAP software – expertise you can even use to create a center of excellence that offers shared services such as performance validations. Test management, which enables reporting and setup, should be conducted through the integration of the test foundation with the blueprint in the testing tools. © 2014 SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company. All rights reserved. 9 / 14
  • 10. SAP Test Model: Ideal for Testing Across Traditional and Virtual Environments As your enterprise moves into the cloud and uses SAP HANA to enable lightning-fast connections with end users, the global testing solutions group from SAP can help ensure that you realize expected benefits from these “disruptive,” transformative technologies. Expert testing is the key to avoiding issues with data integrity, functionality, and system performance – issues that can threaten business value. Using a standardized and integrated testing framework, SAP experts provide the foundation required for identifying, understanding, and deploying SAP software in both traditional and virtualized environments. This flexible framework works equally well when testing solutions on a physically centralized, hardwired, and localized SAP software implementation or a virtual implementation in the cloud. Because the approach the SAP testing teams take is iterative and based on ITIL standards, the SAP experts simply need to integrate the approach into the implementation discipline in the virtual environment. Cloud deployments require testers to verify that all end-to-end scenarios work properly as they traverse source technology like data warehouses or in-house client systems and service an increasingly distributed user base using traditional and mobile devices. At the same time, testers need to verify that these scenarios perform at expected speeds – especially when SAP solutions leverage SAP HANA. SAP testing teams measure performance improvements and track functionality; this enables more overall planning for predictive technology. It also means the fastest possible resolution when issues arise. To be efficient and cost-effective, SAP testing teams intentionally don’t test everything. They focus on where there’s risk to your business. As a result, it’s critical that, as the experts define the scope of test coverage, they address all key areas of risk. Testing always covers basic software functionality (which is now portable to virtual environments). So scoping involves identifying and testing the highuse transactions, business process procedures, L2 and L3 process steps and processes, and L1 scenarios that are most important for your business. The construction and execution of actual test cases remains the same, regardless of whether SAP® software is running in a traditional or virtual environment. © 2014 SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company. All rights reserved. 10 / 14
  • 11. Figure 3 illustrates this testing model, which is applicable to any implementation, including virtualized environments. The level of detail in each task box varies with the requirements of different deployments. The test tasks, listed in the maroon boxes, are aligned with the gray boxes along the top, which match the ASAP methodology used for most implementations of SAP software. AN ASAP-BASED TESTING MODEL WITH FIVE PHASES The ASAP-based test model encompasses five phases of testing: 1. Unit testing 2. Business process (string) testing 3. Scenario integration testing 4. Performance testing 5. User acceptance testing Each type of testing is performed on the SAP solution landscape, but with different pass/fail criteria and, in some cases, even by different test teams. UNIT TESTING Unit testing validates that individual functions are configured and developed to appropriately translate technical and functional requirements. Figure 3: ASAP Testing Model Project preparation Project preparation completion Testing assessment Blueprint SBX DEV Business blueprint completion Project testing strategy and approach Final preparation Realization Test plan DEV/QA Baseline completed Unit testing Finalize testing tools and installation Test case development DEV QA QA Solution built Business process (string) testing Solution tested Data migration testing 1 Test team mobilization and training Scenario integration testing 1 Scenario integration testing n Data migration testing n Unit testing QA User acceptance testing PROD Start of production Data migration testing n Regression testing Security testing Project system environment Project milestones Testing work packages Performance test plan Performance testing © 2014 SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company. All rights reserved. 11 / 14
  • 12. This includes testing of individual enterprise resource planning (ERP) transactions, business process procedures, configuration transactions, development objects (reports, interfaces, conversions, extensions, forms, and workflow [RICEFW]). and manual business process steps associated with business transactions. BUSINESS PROCESS (OR STRING) TESTING Business process (or string) testing validates full operability of interconnected functions, methods, or objects within the functional areas of an SAP solution (for example, sales). This type of testing includes: •• Logically related activities or business process steps that form a defined business process •• Business processes that cross functional areas (for example, sales and finance) SCENARIO (OR INTEGRATION) TESTING Scenario (or integration) testing validates a set of business processes that define a business scenario in a comprehensive and self-contained manner on a macro level. SAP recommends doing integration testing in two or more iterations. The initial iteration concentrates on testing all important business processes within the SAP components of the implemented solution, starting with touch-point scenarios and ending with end-to-end scenarios. The next (and in most cases, final) iteration focuses on cross-functional business scenarios with non-SAP systems and applications, custom development objects, converted data, and solution security. PERFORMANCE TESTING Performance testing determines the performance of an SAP application and related hardware. This type of testing uses an automated tool to simulate a representative user load, and it measures system resources and response times. This testing includes the baseline of the server and response times. Note that: •• Volume testing identifies the peak transactional load that the database can handle by using representative loads (for example, by creating transactions versus updating existing transactions). •• Stress testing includes scenarios that simulate the peak loads, including concurrent connected users, synchronizing remote users, and concurrent execution of other production jobs (for instance, interfaces). USER ACCEPTANCE TESTING User acceptance testing (UAT) demonstrates whether or not the system is functioning as designed. Users test the complete, end-to-end business processes to verify that the implemented solution performs the intended functions and satisfies business requirements. As the last test cycle in an SAP software implementation, UAT is an essential part of gaining end-user acceptance. This testing occurs at the end of the realization phase, following the cycles of integration testing. This approach ensures that the project team has tested the system thoroughly and that the system is ready to be released to the end-user community. © 2014 SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company. All rights reserved. 12 / 14
  • 13. Tools that Empower IT with Early, Empirically Based, Predictive Insights As you go through these steps, the SAP experts leverage tools to give you fast access to predictive risk insights – insights you can use to head off issues before you go live with new or updated SAP software. The visual dashboards, reports, and other interfaces effectively create a mission control center that centralizes and prioritizes all risk-related information pertaining to a given software deployment. It’s like having a personalized “heat map” that you can use proactively to avoid problems. AN INTERFACE TO DRIVE RISK MITIGATION AND TEST MANAGEMENT The right test management tool can enable full traceability between requirements and test cases. Leading vendors such as HP IBM, and Worksoft , have developed powerful test management tools that work well with SAP Solution Manager. This enables traceability by integrating business blueprints and test requirements. This integration also enables testers to dynamically update test requirements for your test management tool. SAP Solution Manager can also be used to run utilization reports on your business blueprint. Utilization data and other metrics should be dynamically reflected in your test management tool so you can quickly develop test plans and keep them aligned with how users are actually using the software and the areas of risk in your blueprint. This approach points to where you need to test and where you can automate testing. PROACTIVE ENTERPRISE AND PROJECT RISK REPORTING Project-level reporting capabilities with this configuration are as dynamic as they are comprehensive for both test (risk) coverage and for root cause analysis in triage activities for defects. As a result, identifying risk and fixing it at the root is a clear and efficient process. SAP consultants help your staff become familiar with this process. This knowledge transfer helps enable test leads to mitigate risk in a much more visible way and ensure that all major system components, as well as requirements, have been addressed for coverage and traceability in the overall test plan. The objectives of testing are to ensure the SAP solution landscape meets all the business requirements in the project’s scope, and that the solutions meet technical requirements and service levels for application response time, throughput, and infrastructure performance at typical production loads. The interactive way in which the SAP® Solution Manager application management solution integrates blueprints with test requirements is lean, agile, and configurable. As you deploy new releases and upgrades of SAP solutions, you can scale SAP Solution Manager with ease to meet new test requirements. © 2014 SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company. All rights reserved. 13 / 14
  • 14. The Benefits of a Holistic Approach to Testing The global testing services team and integrated testing tools from SAP can help you: •• Accelerate cycle time for application release with a regression test capability that includes automation for faster testing •• Mitigate risk for your business applications with test coverage that is targeted at the highest-risk areas of your business blueprint •• Deliver a positive experience for end users by validating tests to help ensure user experiences are accounted for in test cases •• Promote company-wide, standard, centralized testing across all projects and methodologies, regardless of whether or not SAP solutions are deployed traditionally or in the cloud •• Increase the quality of testing via cross-project sharing of defects, requirements, processes, and tests through a single, unified platform The benefits of testing services from SAP are far-reaching because they not only address risk within software deployment projects but also educate and empower your IT staff to incorporate testing into the product lifecycle management process for SAP solutions. They will gain the knowledge and tools to execute holistic testing independently over the longer term. These benefits make testing: •• Sustainable – Integrated tools lay the foundation for SAP’s risk-based testing approach. By integrating your business blueprint with test requirements, you can understand the impact on the blueprint – and thus on business user behavior – every time you are faced with an SAP upgrade, transport, migration, or even maintenance task. Any risk will be reflected as a test requirement and prompt you to develop a script and test case, if needed. •• Efficient – Components of testing are tracked back to your business blueprint, and the core functionality of your SAP solution landscape can easily be reused in more test cases, as appropriate. Test cases that get reused are candidates for test automation, which saves time and drives down the cost of testing. •• Repeatable – Reusing components that are tracked back to the same business blueprint drives repeatability in testing at an operational execution level. Repeatability means that testers can hold more variables constant, which in turn increases test control while minimizing effort and cost. Repeatability is also driven by SAP’s testing methodology, which focuses on integrating testing with the overall application lifecycle governance. This means testing is considered early in the application lifecycle so that testing teams can collect and verify business process requirements and define the best testing strategy. This approach not only helps testers detect defects early in a deployment but also lay the foundation for fast, robust, and repeatable testing over time. FIND OUT MORE To learn more about how global testing solutions from SAP can help your business, visit us on the Web at www.sap.com/services. CMP29340 (14/01) © 2014 SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company. All rights reserved. 14 / 14
  • 15. © 2014 SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or for any purpose without the express permission of SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company. SAP and other SAP products and services mentioned herein as well as their respective logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of SAP AG (or an SAP affiliate company) in Germany and other countries. Please see http:/ /www.sap.com/corporate-en/legal/copyright/index.epx#trademark for additional trademark information and notices. Some software products marketed by SAP AG and its distributors contain proprietary software components of other software vendors. National product specifications may vary. These materials are provided by SAP AG or an SAP affiliate company for informational purposes only, without representation or warranty of any kind, and SAP AG or its affiliated companies shall not be liable for errors or omissions with respect to the materials. The only warranties for SAP AG or SAP affiliate company products and services are those that are set forth in the express warranty statements accompanying such products and services, if any. Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an additional warranty. In particular, SAP AG or its affiliated companies have no obligation to pursue any course of business outlined in this document or any related presentation, or to develop or release any functionality mentioned therein. This document, or any related presentation, and SAP AG’s or its affiliated companies’ strategy and possible future developments, products, and/or platform directions and functionality are all subject to change and may be changed by SAP AG or its affiliated companies at any time for any reason without notice. The information in this document is not a commitment, promise, or legal obligation to deliver any material, code, or functionality. All forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from expectations. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of their dates, and they should not be relied upon in making purchasing decisions.