This is a free 13 page sample. Access the full version online. Standards Australia develops Australian Standards® and other documents of public benefit and national interest. These standards are developed through an open process of consultation and consensus, in which all interested parties are invited to participate. Through a Memorandum of Understanding with the Commonwealth Government, Standards Australia is recognised as Australia’s peak non-government national standards body. Standards Australia also supports excellence in design and innovation through the Australian Design Awards. For further information visit www.standards.org.au 286 Sussex Street, Sydney, NSW, 2000 GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW, 2001 Telephone: +61 2 8206 6000 Email: email@example.com Website: www.standards.org.au
AUSTRALIAN CONCRETE REPAIR ASSOCIATION LTD ABN 41 059 791 374 Level 6, 504 Pacific Highway St Leonards NSW 2065 (Locked Bag 2011, St Leonards NSW 1590) Tel: 61 2 9903 7733 Fax: 61 2 9437 9703 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.acrassoc.com.auThis is a free 13 page sample. Access the full version online. The Australian Concrete Repair Association (ACRA) was incorporated in 1991 with the aim of providing a forum to promote excellence in all spheres of concrete repair and protection work. The Association is fundamental to the ongoing nationwide development of a professional industry whose key objectives include providing the highest levels of expertise, experience, training and quality. ACRA demands a continuing commitment from its members to maintaining the quality standards it has set for the concrete repair industry. Through its membership base, which includes manufacturers, specialist contractors, consultants and owners, ACRA provides stakeholders with confidence in the remedial concrete repair process. This insistence on quality and best practise underpins the increasing penetration of ACRA into the concrete repair market. ACRA has established a scheme of awards for excellence in concrete repair which are open to Corporate Members of the Association. These awards, which have been run every two years since 1998, showcase the work of the member companies. The role ACRA plays in the industry is clearly demonstrated in the levels of excellence on display in all entries and the winning projects in particular. ACRA is firmly committed to ongoing training of its members in the very latest developments in both the technology and practical application of concrete repair and protection. Maintaining up-to-date levels of knowledge and expertise is vital to providing clients with the level of professional service expected of an ACRA member. As such ACRA is extremely grateful to its fellow collaborators in the production of this document, The Guide to Concrete Repair and Protection.
CSIRO AUSTRALIA CSIRO THE COMMONWEALTH SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH ORGANISATION The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) isThis is a free 13 page sample. Access the full version online. Australia’s national science agency and one of the largest and most diverse scientific research organisations in the world. CSIRO has more than 6500 staff carrying out research in a wide range of areas including construction, materials, energy, minerals, agriculture and natural resources. Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology is a division of CSIRO that supports the building, construction and engineering industries with research, consulting and testing. With over 350 researchers, the division’s science spans building materials - including concretes, timbers, polymers and tiles - to heating and cooling, air quality, urban planning and infrastructure, IT applications for construction, fire testing, and water systems and products. CSIRO Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology Telephone: 1300 363 400 International: +61 3 9545 2176 Fax: +61 3 9545 2175 Email: email@example.com Web: www.cmit.csiro.au
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PREFACE The original 1996 edition of this document was originally prepared by Dr Kwesi Sagoe-Crentsil from the CSIRO division of Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology at the request of the Australian Concrete Repair Association (ACRA), who also provided the technical, editorial and funding input. The document is intended for widespread use by anyone engaged in the maintenance, repair and production of concrete structures. However, this document is intended as an overview ofThis is a free 13 page sample. Access the full version online. the typical methods and practices in the industry but it should not be used as a standard or as part of any contract relating to the repair of concrete. In preparing this document, one of the fundamental aims has been to provide a publication that can be read and understood by a diverse group of persons, ranging from professionals engaged in specifying or carrying out repairs to concrete structures, to those involved in the management of buildings and structures. The guidance in this document has been specifically influenced by RILEM Technical Recommendation 124-SRC, Guide to Repair Strategies for Concrete Structures Damaged by Reinforcement Corrosion, 1993. Previously available publications on investigatory and repair technologies for concrete are of overseas origin. The development and support of this document by ACRA underlines its belief that a document describing the local scenario for techniques and materials was necessary. The new 2006 edition of this document has now been updated and modified to reflect the advances and more wide-spread use of electrochemical prevention and protection systems. Contact: CSIRO Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology Telephone: 1300 363 400 International: +61 3 9545 2176 Fax: +61 3 9545 2175 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.cmit.csiro.au i
This is a free 13 page sample. Access the full version online.ii NOTES
CONTENTS Preface i Chapter 1 – Concrete Properties 1 1.1 Concrete 1 1.2 Material Properties 2 1.2.1 Concrete quality 2 1.2.2 Porosity 3 1.2.3 Curing 4 1.2.4 Durability 4This is a free 13 page sample. Access the full version online. 1.2.5 Concrete properties and rebar corrosion 5 1.3 Acknowledgments 5 1.4 Further Reading 5 1.4.1 Standards 5 Chapter 2 – Causes of Concrete Deterioration 7 2.1 Internal Factors 7 2.1.1 Alkali-silica (alkali-aggregate) reaction 8 2.1.2 Other reactions 8 2.2 Extemal Factors 8 2.2.1 Sulfate attack 9 2.2.2 Carbonation 9 2.2.3 Effect of chlorides 9 2.3 Steel Reinforcement Corrosion 11 2.4 Summary 13 2.5 Acknowledgments 14 2.6 Further Reading 14 2.6.1 Standards 14 Chapter 3 – Formation and Types of Cracks 15 3.1 Cracking of Plastic Concrete 16 3.1.1 Plastic shrinkage cracks 17 3.1.2 Plastic settlement cracks 17 3.2 Cracking of Hardened Concrete 18 3.3 Other Types of Cracks 18 3.4 Impact of Cracks on Steel Reinforcement Corrosion 18 3.5 Acknowledgments 20 3.6 Further Reading 20 iii
5.4 Coating on Steel Reinforcement (Repair Principle C) 37 5.4.1 Materials and methods 37 5.5 Cathodic Protection, Chloride Extraction and Re-alkalization (Repair Principle K) 37 5.5.1 Cathodic prevention 37 5.5.2 Cathodic Protection 38 5.5.3 Re-alkalisation 39 5.5.4 Chloride Extraction 40 5.6 New Methods 40 5.6.1 Externally bonded fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) 40 5.6.2 Impregnating corrosion inhibitors 40 5.7 Acknowledgments 41 5.8 Further Reading 41 Chapter 6 – Repair Practices 43 6.1 Patch Repair Systems 44 6.1.1 Patch repair practice 44 6.1.2 Surface preparation – concrete 46This is a free 13 page sample. Access the full version online. 6.1.3 Finishing 50 6.1.4 Curing 50 6. 1.5 Preparation of reinforcing steel 50 6.1.6 Repair procedures 52 6. 1.7 Repair mortars 52 6.2 Moisture Barrier Systems 53 6.3 Protection by Coating Steel reinforcement 54 6.4 Electrochemical Systems 54 6.4.1 Application of a Cathodic Prevention (CP) system 54 6.4.2 Application of an electrochemical re-alkalization system 56 6.4.3 Application of a chloride extraction system 57 6.5 Crack Repair 58 6.5.1 Crack filling 58 6.5.2 Crack sealing 59 6.5.3 Other processes 60 6.6 Quality Assurance 60 6.6.1 Concrete patch repair 60 6.6.2 Post-repair degradation 61 6.7 Conclusion 62 6.8 Acknowledgment 62 6.9 Further Reading 62 6.9.1 Standards 62 Chapter 7 – Case Studies 63 7.1 High-rise Building 63 7.1.1 Investigation 63 7.1.2 Specification for repair 64 7.1.3 The repair 64 7.2 Marine Structure 64 7.2.1 Investigation 64 7.2.2 Specification for repair 65 7.2.3 The repair 65 v
7.3 Highway Bridge 65 7.3.1 Investigation 66 7.3.2 Specification for repair 66 7.3.3 The repair 66 7.4 Commercial Complex 66 7.5 Apartment Building 68 7.6 Retaining Wall 69 7.6.1 Introduction 69 7.6.2 History 69 7.6.3 Inspection 69 7.6.4 Remedial options 70 7.6.5 The trials 71 7.6.6 Summary 72 Appendix A – Repair Strategies for Carbonation-induced Steel Corrosion 73 A.1 Repair Principle R 73 A.2 Repair Principle W 74This is a free 13 page sample. Access the full version online. A.3 Repair Principle C 74 A.4 Repair Principle K 74 Appendix B – Repair Strategies for Chloride-induced Steel Corrosion 75 B.1 Repair Principle R 75 B.2 Repair Principle W 76 B.3 Repair Principle C 76 B.4 Repair Principle K 75 B.5 Re-alkalization and Chloride Extraction Techniques 76 Appendix C – Strategies for Crack Repair 77 vi
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