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Dendrimers

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    • 1. Submitted By SAIKAT GHOSH UG-IV Under the Guidance of Dr. Ketousetuo KuotsuDepartment of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University
    • 2. The word Dendrimer comes from the Greek word ”DENDRON” meaning tree and“MEROS” meaning partA dendrimer is generally described as a macromolecule, which is characterized byits highly branched 3D structure that provides a high degree of surface functionalityand versatility. Dendrimers have often been referred to as the “Polymers of the 21stcentury”.The first dendrimers were synthesised divergently by Vögtle in 1978, byDenkewalter and coworkers at Allied Corporation as polylysine dendrimers in1981, by Donald Tomalia at Dow Chemical in 1983 and in 1985, and by Newkome in1985. In 1990 a convergent synthesis was introduced by Jean FrechetThey called themarborols fromthe Latin word ‘arbor’ also meaning a tree.
    • 3. Dendrimer Designing should take into consideration:-(1) Architecturing(2) Synthesis(3) Properties & Applications of the dendrimer
    • 4. STRUCTURE OF DENDRIMERSDendrimers are built from a starting atom, such as nitrogen, to which carbonand other elements are added by a repeating series of chemical reactions thatproduce a spherical branching structureSTAR BUST EFFECT:Dendrimers of lower generations- asymmetric shape andpossess moreopen structures - higher generationdendrimers-globularstructure - become denselypacked - When acritical branched state isreached-cannot further grow due to lack of space-STAR BUST EFFECT Fig:STRUCTURE OF DENDRIMER
    • 5. COMPONENTS:-(1) Generation(2) Shell(3) Pincer(4) End Group
    • 6. TYPES OF DENDRIMERSPamam Dendrimer Pamamos DendrimerTecto DendrimerPPI Dendrimer Multilingual Dendrimers Chiral DendrimersHybrid Dendrimer LinearPolymersAmphiphilic Dendrimers MicellarDendrimers
    • 7.  Multiple Antigen Peptide Dendrimers Fréchet-Type DendrimersGlycodendrimerPeptide dendrimerFerrocene dendrimerDenderonised polymers Fig;GLYCODENDRIMERFIG: FERROCENE DENDRIMER FIG:PAMAM DENDRIMER
    • 8. Synthesis of dendrimersMonomers lead to a Monodisperse polymer, tree-like, or generationalstructure.There are three defined methods of dendrimer synthesisDivergent synthesis - assemble the molecule from the core, extendingradially to the peripheryConvergent methods-start at the surface and proceed inwards, beforethe attachment of pre-synthesised dendrons to the core.Double exponential and mixed growthTo synthesize dendrimers repeated reaction consisting of many steps isneeded to protect the active site --it is difficult even if both methods areused--obstacles to the synthesis of large quantities of dendrimers
    • 9. Different growth methods Divergent growth methodAdvantages of convergent system:-Relatively easy to purify the desired productoccurrence of defects in the final structure isminimised.Possible to introduce subtle engineering into thedendritic structure by precise placement offunctional groups at the periphery of the Mixed growth & double exponentialmacromolecules
    • 10. FACTORS AFFECTING DENDRIMERS Intrinsic viscosity Solvent Effect of p H Effect of salt Effect of concentration Biological like cytotoxicity with increase in the generations of polymer Correlation between intrinsic viscosity and Molecular weight
    • 11. APPLICATIONS OF DENDRIMERSPHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONSTargeted And Controlled Release Drug DeliveryDelivery of Anticancer Drugs The encapsulation of anticancer drugsDendrimer As Solubility Enhancers methotraxate (left) and 5-fluorouracil (right) into PEGylated generation 3 and 4 PAMAM dendrimersCellular Delivery Using Dendrimer CarriersDendrimers As Nano-DrugsDendrimers In Photodynamic Therapy Cellular delivery system
    • 12. Dendrimers In Gene TransfectionDendrimers in gene therapyCardiac testingBoron Neutron Capture TherapyDendrimers for Drug and Gene DeliveryDrug DeliveryGene DeliveryAdvancement in Gene TherapyDendrimers in tissue engineeringNon-Pharmaceutical ApplicationDiagnostics-MRIDendritic Catalysts / EnzymesMetallodendritic catalysts Catalysis with phosphine-based dendrimersCatalysis with (metallo)dendrimers containing chiral ligandsNon-metal containing dendrimersIndustrial Processes
    • 13. Mechanisms of Drug DeliveryDendrimers are particularly attractive as they offer a high drug-loading capacity. 2 methods ofdendrimer drug delivery are encapsulation of drugs and dendrimer –drug conjugatesNoncovalent Encapsulation of DrugsCovalent Dendrimer–Drug Conjugates Fig:-Different types of drug delivery using dendrimer technology
    • 14. RECENT DEVELOPMENTSIn the field of glycodendrimersIn the field of peptide dendrimersIn the field of PAMAM dendrimersSAFETYConclusion
    • 15. References1. G.R. Newkome, C.N. Moorefield and F. Vogtle Dendrimers and Dendrons:Concepts, Syntheses, Applications, Wiley-VCH, New York (2001).2•. G.M. Dykes , Dendrimers: a review of their appeal and applications. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 76(2001), pp. 903–918 This review provides basic background information for readers who desire an introductionto dendrimer chemistry. .3: Stiriba, H. Frey and R. Haag , Dendritic polymers in biomedical applications: from potential to clinical use indiagnostics and therapy. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 41 (2002), pp. 1329–1334.4. W.B. Turnbull and J.F. Stoddart , Design and synthesis of glycodendrimers. Rev Mol Biotechnol 90 (2002), pp.231–2555:J.J. Lundquist and E.J. Toone , The cluster glycoside effect. Chem Rev 102 (2002), pp. 555–578 Many systemsthat have been reported for the study of glycocluster–, polymer– and glycodendrimer–protein interactions arecompared. The hemagglutination assay, the enzyme-linked lectin assay, isothermal titration microcalorimetryand surface plasmon resonance are evaluated6. N. Rockendorf and T.K. Lindhorst , Glycodendrimers. In: Dendrimers IV, Topics in Current Chemistry217, Springer-Verlag, New York (2001), pp. 201–2387. M. Mammen, S-K. Choi and G.M. Whitesides , Polyvalent interactions in biological systems: implications fordesign and use of multivalent ligands and inhibitors. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 37 (1998), pp. 2754–2794.8 E.K. Woller and M.C. Cloninger , The lectin-binding properties of six generations of mannose-functionalizeddendrimers. Org Lett 4 (2002), pp. 7–10 Binding enhancements for mannose-functionalized dendrimersrelative to methyl mannose were consistent with monovalent interaction (generations 1 and 2), glycosideclustering (generation 3), and multivalent binding generations 4–6). The wide range of activities that wereobserved indicates that dendrimer systems can be fine-tuned to obtain any desired level of activity in protein–carbohydrate interactions.
    • 16. THANK YOU