Horse SA Climate Change Workshop 2012 Climate change and Equine Infectious Disease Dr Gary Muscatello

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  • 1. Climate change and Equine Infectious Diseases Managing the uncertainty Presented by Dr Gary Muscatello BVSc, PhD Lecture, Applied Animal Microbiology Theme Leader: Animal Biosecurity, Production and Health
  • 2. Outline …. Horse- Pathogen-Environment Interaction Climate Impact on HPEI Disease threats NOW !! FUTURE ?? Adaptation to Disease Risk Information Strategies
  • 3. ENVIRONMENT PATHOGENS HOST
  • 4. HPEI and horse health Temperature, land and water Sunlight Atmosphere Feed and nutrients Husbandry and housing Other horses and other animal species Insects Aim of good equine husbandry is to manipulate HPEI in favour of the horse. ‘Equine friendly ecosystem’ Reduce host-pathogen interaction • Pathogen bias 
  • 5. Negative climate impact Feed and water limitation Weather stressors Changing weather patterns  Monsoonal rain events  Cyclonic/extreme events Warmer and drier  Fitness  Encroachment  Insects  Irritants and pollutants  Microbes Increase risk of specific infectious diseases in horses – Opportunistic – Insect borne – Wildlife borne
  • 6. Climate impact and EID !!! Reduced fitness Heat stress Malnutrition ? Opportunistic disease Drought associated diseases Rhodococcus equi pneumonia EAFL and MRLS Warming Insect borne diseases Opportunistic bacteria and fungi Limitation on natural resources Encroachment diseases Pollutants and respiratory health COPD ??
  • 7. Current EID events and climate ‘Rattles’ Inhalation of high concentrations of a saprophytic bacteria called virulent R. equi Seasonal disease of foals Exacerbated during dry and dusty conditions Exacerbated in Thoroughbred Industry Intensification Breeding regime Hunter Valley continue to experience on-going issues with this disease Worsens if dry spells correspond with high numbers of susceptible foals on the ground
  • 8. Current EID events and climate Equine Amnionitis and foetal loss syndrome 2004-05 Hunter Valley and SE Queensland Mares ingesting hairy caterpillars Moult from older larvae (Feb-April) Pupate in soil (May) Wind and heavy summer rains / drought breaking Amniontis/foetal infection Setae allow bacterial invasion Gut microbes and soil bacteria MRLS and nocardioform placentitis Increase incidence of caterpillar associated reproductive disorders in 2011 -12 Nest numbers where high during this summer !!
  • 9. Current EID events and climate Equine Arboviruses Kunjin, MVE and RR virus Typically seen in Nth Australia Birds, rodents and macropods act as reservoirs 2011 – cyclonic weather event Mild and wet autumn Localized flooding Ideal for mosquito migration and breeding Neurological disease (Kunjin and MVE) Sore muscles and joints (MVE and RR) ~1,000 cases ~10% case fatalities New strain of Kunjin virus Neuroinvasive mutant Similar to WNV MVE seen in Victoria 1974
  • 10. Current EID events and climate Hendra virus Flying foxes reservoir host Seen in Coastal Queensland and Northern NSW Reduced natural food resources for bats Urbanization of bats Increased likelihood of bat-horse interaction Seasonal spill-over Stress, pregnant bats, bats giving birth 2011 – 19 incidences (14 incidence 1994-2010) Virus is fragile. Increased frequency of detection in bat urine during the summer… Mild autumn contribute to increased infectivity ?? Changes in migration patterns related to cyclonic events ?? More bat colonies becoming infected ??
  • 11. ‘Future’ EID events and climate Mosquito populations Increase in rainfall intensity Strong wind event Warming Periodic migration of mosquitoes Sth Increase frequency of arbovirus disease Establishment of tropical mosquitoes Sth Seasonal arbovirus disease Increase the risk of emergence of virulent strains Kunjin WNV (NY99) Spread of other tropical arboviruses Equine Infectious Anaemia Introduction of exotic arboviruses Japanese Encephalitis Virus Most of SE Asia Seen in Torres Strait
  • 12. ‘Future’ EID events and climate Mosquito populations Bacterial associated insect disease ‘Pigeon fever’ Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Endemic in sheep in goats in Australia ‘Cheesy gland’ Biting insects inoculating pectoral muscles with bacteria from the soil Spread from West coast to central and eastern U.S. Bot fly Tick borne diseases
  • 13. ‘Future’ EID events and climate Warming Bacterial proliferation Opportunistic infection Rain intensity / monsoonal rains ? ‘Rain Scald’ ‘Greasy heal’ Dermatophilus congolensis Bacterial respiratory tract disease Stables Pseudomonas aeruginosa Klebsiella pneumoniae Saprophytes, biofilms Migration of tropical bacterial disease Melioidosis
  • 14. ‘Future’ EID events and climate Wildlife encroachment Bats !! Kangaroos ?? Migratory birds !! Feral Pigs ??
  • 15. Adaptation to Disease Risk Understanding HPEI Awareness of climate impact Surveillance and monitoring BOM !! Sentinel animals !! Mosquito traps !! Horse environment !! Breaking the connection Strategic environmental measures Strategic host management measures Aim to favour the HORSE !!!
  • 16. Adaptation to Disease Risk Understanding HPEI Awareness of climate impact Surveillance and monitoring Breaking the connection Strategic environmental measures Strategic host management measures Aim to favour the HORSE !!!
  • 17. Adaptation to Disease Risk Understanding HPEI Awareness of climate impact Surveillance and monitoring Breaking the connection Strategic environmental measures Strategic host management measures Aim to favour the HORSE !!!
  • 18. Questions ??