Ocean Acidification & Shellfish
Frances Hopkins1 & Ed Pope2
1Plymouth Marine Laboratory
2Swansea University
Shellfish Asso...
Ocean acidification
UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme
 4-year £12M project, 2010 – 2014: NERC, Defra, DECC
 Aim: to undertake in-dep...
UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme
 4-year £12M project, 2010 – 2014: NERC, Defra, DECC
 Aim: to undertake in-dep...
UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme
 4-year £12M project, 2010 – 2014: NERC, Defra, DECC
 Aim: to undertake in-dep...
UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme
 4-year £12M project, 2010 – 2014: NERC, Defra, DECC
 Aim: to undertake in-dep...
UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme
 4-year £12M project, 2010 – 2014: NERC, Defra, DECC
 Aim: to undertake in-dep...
UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme
 4-year £12M project, 2010 – 2014: NERC, Defra, DECC
 Aim: to undertake in-dep...
CO2 emissions: relentless increase
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050
mill...
Atmospheric CO2
http://keelingcurve.ucsd.edu/
Luthi et al. (2008) Nature 453, 379 – 382
Tripati et al. (2009) Science 326, 1394 - 1397
Atmospheric CO2
Last time exceede...
Oceans are a critical CO2 sink
Absorbed ~30% of human CO2 emissions
Ocean acidification is
measureable and quantifiable
From: Doney (2010) Science 328, 1512 - 15161988 - 2008
CO2 in the atmosphere
and the ocean
Ocean acidification is
measureable and quantifiable
From: Doney (2010) Science 328, 15...
CO2 in the atmosphere
and the ocean
Ocean acidification is
measureable and quantifiable
Surface ocean pH
From: Doney (2010...
The pH scale
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 140
“Ocean acidification”/ “Ocean carbonation”
The pH scale
Lemon
2.4
Battery
acid <1.0
Milk
6.5
Soap
9-10
Pure
water
7.0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 140
Bleach
12.5
“...
The pH scale
Lemon
2.4
Battery
acid <1.0
Milk
6.5
Soap
9-10
Pure
water
7.0
Seawater
8.2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 140
...
The pH scale
Lemon
2.4
Battery
acid <1.0
Milk
6.5
Soap
9-10
Pure
water
7.0
Ocean acidification
Pre-
industrial
8.2
Seawate...
The pH scale
Lemon
2.4
Battery
acid <1.0
Milk
6.5
Soap
9-10
Pure
water
7.0
Ocean acidification
Pre-
industrial
8.2
Present...
The pH scale
Lemon
2.4
Battery
acid <1.0
Milk
6.5
Soap
9-10
Pure
water
7.0
Ocean acidification
Pre-
industrial
8.2
Present...
CO2 & ocean acidification
CO2(aq)
CO2 (g)
CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 ↔ HCO3
- + H+
CO2 & ocean acidification
CO2(aq)
CO2 (g)
Calcifying plankton
Calcifying animals
CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 ↔ HCO3
- + H+
CO3
2-
Ca...
CO2 & ocean acidification
CO2(aq)
CO2 (g)
Calcifying plankton
Calcifying animals
CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 ↔ HCO3
- + H+
CO3
2-
CO...
CO2 & ocean acidification
CO2(aq)
CO2 (g)
Calcifying plankton
Calcifying animals
CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 ↔ HCO3
- + H+
CO3
2-
CO...
CO2 & ocean acidification
CO2(aq)
CO2 (g)
Calcifying plankton
Calcifying animals
CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 ↔ HCO3
- + H+
CO3
2-
CO...
Ocean acidification in the past and future
Turley et al. 2006;
Blackford & Gilbert 2007
Modelled: OA in UK waters
1980s
Yuri Artioli, PML
2080s
Ocean acidification effects on shellfish
Dr. Edward C. Pope
Dr. Rob Ellis
Ocean acidification effects on shellfish
Dr. Edward C. Pope
Dr. Rob Ellis
[CO2]ATMOSPHERE
[CO2]ATMOSPHERE [CO2]OCEAN
[CO2]ATMOSPHERE [CO2]OCEAN Ocean pH
[CO2]ATMOSPHERE [CO2]OCEAN Ocean pH [CO3
2-]OCEAN
[CO2]ATMOSPHERE [CO2]OCEAN Ocean pH [CO3
2-]OCEAN
What will be the impacts of Ocean
Acidication?
What will be the impacts of Ocean
Acidication?
“early life cycle stages of calcifying
organisms considered more sensitive ...
Confidence
Time
Confidence
Time
1990-2004
Thomsen, J. et al. (2010) Calcifying invertebrates succeed in a naturally CO2-rich
coastal habitat but are threatened by h...
Confidence
Time
1990-2004
Confidence
Time
2004-2010
Confidence
Time
2013
Confidence
“The field of ocean acidification is no longer in its infancy – we are teenagers now”
Sam du Pont
Time
2013
Kroeker et al. (2013) Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms: quantifying
sensitivities and interaction with w...
Kroeker et al. (2013) Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms: quantifying
sensitivities and interaction with w...
A case study – Pacific Northwest oyster
seed crisis
A case study – Pacific Northwest oyster
seed crisis
Since early 2000’s C. gigas recruitment
experienced failures along Ore...
Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery
Adequate diet might mitigate
negative impacts of environmental
stress
A case for optimism?
Pre-exposure of adults led to
more tolerant larvae
Adequate diet might mitigate
negative impacts of environmental
stress
A...
Selectively bred
populations can be more
tolerant than wild
populations
Pre-exposure of adults led to
more tolerant larvae...
Industrial partnerships
Industrial partnerships
Involves 4 industrial partners from around UK
Industrial partnerships
Involves 4 industrial partners from around UK
Monitor seawater carbonate chemistry
monthly, over 12 month period
Industria...
Involves 4 industrial partners from around UK
Monitor seawater carbonate chemistry
monthly, over 12 month period
Samples a...
Barton et al., (2012) The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, shows negative correlation to naturally
elevated carbon dioxi...
Projected project outcomes
By combining the experimental data with national
carbonate chemistry data, we will gain a bette...
ww.mccip.org.uk
SAGB2013 Dr Ed Pope/Dr Frances Hopkins (UK Ocean Acidification Consortium)
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SAGB2013 Dr Ed Pope/Dr Frances Hopkins (UK Ocean Acidification Consortium)

  1. 1. Ocean Acidification & Shellfish Frances Hopkins1 & Ed Pope2 1Plymouth Marine Laboratory 2Swansea University Shellfish Association of Great Britain Annual Conference 21 – 22 May 2013
  2. 2. Ocean acidification
  3. 3. UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme  4-year £12M project, 2010 – 2014: NERC, Defra, DECC  Aim: to undertake in-depth studies on the effects of OA on all aspects of marine ecology, biogeochemistry and potential social and economic impacts.  ~150 scientists from 23 UK universities and research institutions.  Quantify, predict and communicate the impact of OA on commercially important shellfish and finfish species.  Knowledge exchange: to disseminate the research findings and engage with stakeholders. (www.oceanacidification.org.uk)
  4. 4. UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme  4-year £12M project, 2010 – 2014: NERC, Defra, DECC  Aim: to undertake in-depth studies on the effects of OA on all aspects of marine ecology, biogeochemistry and potential social and economic impacts.  ~150 scientists from 23 UK universities and research institutions.  Quantify, predict and communicate the impact of OA on commercially important shellfish and finfish species.  Knowledge exchange: to disseminate the research findings and engage with stakeholders. (www.oceanacidification.org.uk)
  5. 5. UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme  4-year £12M project, 2010 – 2014: NERC, Defra, DECC  Aim: to undertake in-depth studies on the effects of OA on all aspects of marine ecology, biogeochemistry and potential social and economic impacts.  ~150 scientists from 23 UK universities and research institutions.  Quantify, predict and communicate the impact of OA on commercially important shellfish and finfish species.  Knowledge exchange: to disseminate the research findings and engage with stakeholders. (www.oceanacidification.org.uk)
  6. 6. UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme  4-year £12M project, 2010 – 2014: NERC, Defra, DECC  Aim: to undertake in-depth studies on the effects of OA on all aspects of marine ecology, biogeochemistry and potential social and economic impacts.  ~150 scientists from 23 UK universities and research institutions.  Quantify, predict and communicate the impact of OA on commercially important shellfish and finfish species.  Knowledge exchange: to disseminate the research findings and engage with stakeholders. (www.oceanacidification.org.uk)
  7. 7. UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme  4-year £12M project, 2010 – 2014: NERC, Defra, DECC  Aim: to undertake in-depth studies on the effects of OA on all aspects of marine ecology, biogeochemistry and potential social and economic impacts.  ~150 scientists from 23 UK universities and research institutions.  Quantify, predict and communicate the impact of OA on commercially important shellfish and finfish species.  Knowledge exchange: to disseminate the research findings and engage with stakeholders. (www.oceanacidification.org.uk)
  8. 8. UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme  4-year £12M project, 2010 – 2014: NERC, Defra, DECC  Aim: to undertake in-depth studies on the effects of OA on all aspects of marine ecology, biogeochemistry and potential social and economic impacts.  ~150 scientists from 23 UK universities and research institutions.  Quantify, predict and communicate the impact of OA on commercially important shellfish and finfish species.  Knowledge exchange: to disseminate the research findings and engage with stakeholders. (www.oceanacidification.org.uk)
  9. 9. CO2 emissions: relentless increase 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 millionmetrictonsofcarbon year Total Gas Liquids Solids Cement production Gas flaring doi: 10.3334/CDIAC/00001_V2012
  10. 10. Atmospheric CO2 http://keelingcurve.ucsd.edu/
  11. 11. Luthi et al. (2008) Nature 453, 379 – 382 Tripati et al. (2009) Science 326, 1394 - 1397 Atmospheric CO2 Last time exceeded 400ppm: 3 – 5 million yrs ago  9 May 2013 http://keelingcurve.ucsd.edu/
  12. 12. Oceans are a critical CO2 sink Absorbed ~30% of human CO2 emissions
  13. 13. Ocean acidification is measureable and quantifiable From: Doney (2010) Science 328, 1512 - 15161988 - 2008
  14. 14. CO2 in the atmosphere and the ocean Ocean acidification is measureable and quantifiable From: Doney (2010) Science 328, 1512 - 15161988 - 2008
  15. 15. CO2 in the atmosphere and the ocean Ocean acidification is measureable and quantifiable Surface ocean pH From: Doney (2010) Science 328, 1512 - 15161988 - 2008
  16. 16. The pH scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 140 “Ocean acidification”/ “Ocean carbonation”
  17. 17. The pH scale Lemon 2.4 Battery acid <1.0 Milk 6.5 Soap 9-10 Pure water 7.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 140 Bleach 12.5 “Ocean acidification”/ “Ocean carbonation”
  18. 18. The pH scale Lemon 2.4 Battery acid <1.0 Milk 6.5 Soap 9-10 Pure water 7.0 Seawater 8.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 140 Bleach 12.5 “Ocean acidification”/ “Ocean carbonation”
  19. 19. The pH scale Lemon 2.4 Battery acid <1.0 Milk 6.5 Soap 9-10 Pure water 7.0 Ocean acidification Pre- industrial 8.2 Seawater 8.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 140 Bleach 12.5 “Ocean acidification”/ “Ocean carbonation”
  20. 20. The pH scale Lemon 2.4 Battery acid <1.0 Milk 6.5 Soap 9-10 Pure water 7.0 Ocean acidification Pre- industrial 8.2 Present-day 8.1 Seawater 8.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 140 Bleach 12.5 30% increase in acidity “Ocean acidification”/ “Ocean carbonation”
  21. 21. The pH scale Lemon 2.4 Battery acid <1.0 Milk 6.5 Soap 9-10 Pure water 7.0 Ocean acidification Pre- industrial 8.2 Present-day 8.1 Year 2100 7.8 Seawater 8.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 140 Bleach 12.5 30% increase in acidity “Ocean acidification”/ “Ocean carbonation” 150% increase in acidity
  22. 22. CO2 & ocean acidification CO2(aq) CO2 (g) CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 ↔ HCO3 - + H+
  23. 23. CO2 & ocean acidification CO2(aq) CO2 (g) Calcifying plankton Calcifying animals CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 ↔ HCO3 - + H+ CO3 2- Ca2+
  24. 24. CO2 & ocean acidification CO2(aq) CO2 (g) Calcifying plankton Calcifying animals CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 ↔ HCO3 - + H+ CO3 2- CO3 2- + H+ ↔ HCO3 2- Ca2+ Increasing CO2
  25. 25. CO2 & ocean acidification CO2(aq) CO2 (g) Calcifying plankton Calcifying animals CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 ↔ HCO3 - + H+ CO3 2- CO3 2- + H+ ↔ HCO3 2- Ca2+ Increasing CO2
  26. 26. CO2 & ocean acidification CO2(aq) CO2 (g) Calcifying plankton Calcifying animals CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 ↔ HCO3 - + H+ CO3 2- CO3 2- + H+ ↔ HCO3 2- 1. Increase in H+ (decrease in pH) 2. Decrease in carbonate Ca2+ Increasing CO2
  27. 27. Ocean acidification in the past and future Turley et al. 2006; Blackford & Gilbert 2007
  28. 28. Modelled: OA in UK waters 1980s Yuri Artioli, PML 2080s
  29. 29. Ocean acidification effects on shellfish Dr. Edward C. Pope Dr. Rob Ellis
  30. 30. Ocean acidification effects on shellfish Dr. Edward C. Pope Dr. Rob Ellis
  31. 31. [CO2]ATMOSPHERE
  32. 32. [CO2]ATMOSPHERE [CO2]OCEAN
  33. 33. [CO2]ATMOSPHERE [CO2]OCEAN Ocean pH
  34. 34. [CO2]ATMOSPHERE [CO2]OCEAN Ocean pH [CO3 2-]OCEAN
  35. 35. [CO2]ATMOSPHERE [CO2]OCEAN Ocean pH [CO3 2-]OCEAN
  36. 36. What will be the impacts of Ocean Acidication?
  37. 37. What will be the impacts of Ocean Acidication? “early life cycle stages of calcifying organisms considered more sensitive to environmental disturbances” Raven, J. et al. (2005) Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. The Royal Society.
  38. 38. Confidence Time
  39. 39. Confidence Time 1990-2004
  40. 40. Thomsen, J. et al. (2010) Calcifying invertebrates succeed in a naturally CO2-rich coastal habitat but are threatened by high levels of future acidification. Biogeosciences 7 (11) 3879-3891.
  41. 41. Confidence Time 1990-2004
  42. 42. Confidence Time 2004-2010
  43. 43. Confidence Time 2013
  44. 44. Confidence “The field of ocean acidification is no longer in its infancy – we are teenagers now” Sam du Pont Time 2013
  45. 45. Kroeker et al. (2013) Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms: quantifying sensitivities and interaction with warming. Global Change Biology 19, 1884–1896.
  46. 46. Kroeker et al. (2013) Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms: quantifying sensitivities and interaction with warming. Global Change Biology 19, 1884–1896.
  47. 47. A case study – Pacific Northwest oyster seed crisis
  48. 48. A case study – Pacific Northwest oyster seed crisis Since early 2000’s C. gigas recruitment experienced failures along Oregon coast Larval mortalities continuing to increase: 60 % in 2008, 80 % in 2009 Recent research (Barton et al. 2012) has linked decline to ocean acidification
  49. 49. Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery
  50. 50. Adequate diet might mitigate negative impacts of environmental stress A case for optimism?
  51. 51. Pre-exposure of adults led to more tolerant larvae Adequate diet might mitigate negative impacts of environmental stress A case for optimism?
  52. 52. Selectively bred populations can be more tolerant than wild populations Pre-exposure of adults led to more tolerant larvae Adequate diet might mitigate negative impacts of environmental stress A case for optimism?
  53. 53. Industrial partnerships
  54. 54. Industrial partnerships
  55. 55. Involves 4 industrial partners from around UK Industrial partnerships
  56. 56. Involves 4 industrial partners from around UK Monitor seawater carbonate chemistry monthly, over 12 month period Industrial partnerships
  57. 57. Involves 4 industrial partners from around UK Monitor seawater carbonate chemistry monthly, over 12 month period Samples are returned to laboratory to assess carbonate chemistry Industrial partnerships
  58. 58. Barton et al., (2012) The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, shows negative correlation to naturally elevated carbon dioxide levels: Implications for near-term ocean acidification effects. Limnology and Oceanography 57 (3), 698-710. Data provide a baseline against which future climate change projections can be compared
  59. 59. Projected project outcomes By combining the experimental data with national carbonate chemistry data, we will gain a better understanding of the likely scale and impact of OA on UK aquaculture
  60. 60. ww.mccip.org.uk

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