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SAGB2013 Dr Ed Pope/Dr Frances Hopkins (UK Ocean Acidification Consortium)
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SAGB2013 Dr Ed Pope/Dr Frances Hopkins (UK Ocean Acidification Consortium)

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    SAGB2013 Dr Ed Pope/Dr Frances Hopkins (UK Ocean Acidification Consortium) SAGB2013 Dr Ed Pope/Dr Frances Hopkins (UK Ocean Acidification Consortium) Presentation Transcript

    • Ocean Acidification & Shellfish Frances Hopkins1 & Ed Pope2 1Plymouth Marine Laboratory 2Swansea University Shellfish Association of Great Britain Annual Conference 21 – 22 May 2013
    • Ocean acidification
    • UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme  4-year £12M project, 2010 – 2014: NERC, Defra, DECC  Aim: to undertake in-depth studies on the effects of OA on all aspects of marine ecology, biogeochemistry and potential social and economic impacts.  ~150 scientists from 23 UK universities and research institutions.  Quantify, predict and communicate the impact of OA on commercially important shellfish and finfish species.  Knowledge exchange: to disseminate the research findings and engage with stakeholders. (www.oceanacidification.org.uk)
    • UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme  4-year £12M project, 2010 – 2014: NERC, Defra, DECC  Aim: to undertake in-depth studies on the effects of OA on all aspects of marine ecology, biogeochemistry and potential social and economic impacts.  ~150 scientists from 23 UK universities and research institutions.  Quantify, predict and communicate the impact of OA on commercially important shellfish and finfish species.  Knowledge exchange: to disseminate the research findings and engage with stakeholders. (www.oceanacidification.org.uk)
    • UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme  4-year £12M project, 2010 – 2014: NERC, Defra, DECC  Aim: to undertake in-depth studies on the effects of OA on all aspects of marine ecology, biogeochemistry and potential social and economic impacts.  ~150 scientists from 23 UK universities and research institutions.  Quantify, predict and communicate the impact of OA on commercially important shellfish and finfish species.  Knowledge exchange: to disseminate the research findings and engage with stakeholders. (www.oceanacidification.org.uk)
    • UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme  4-year £12M project, 2010 – 2014: NERC, Defra, DECC  Aim: to undertake in-depth studies on the effects of OA on all aspects of marine ecology, biogeochemistry and potential social and economic impacts.  ~150 scientists from 23 UK universities and research institutions.  Quantify, predict and communicate the impact of OA on commercially important shellfish and finfish species.  Knowledge exchange: to disseminate the research findings and engage with stakeholders. (www.oceanacidification.org.uk)
    • UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme  4-year £12M project, 2010 – 2014: NERC, Defra, DECC  Aim: to undertake in-depth studies on the effects of OA on all aspects of marine ecology, biogeochemistry and potential social and economic impacts.  ~150 scientists from 23 UK universities and research institutions.  Quantify, predict and communicate the impact of OA on commercially important shellfish and finfish species.  Knowledge exchange: to disseminate the research findings and engage with stakeholders. (www.oceanacidification.org.uk)
    • UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme  4-year £12M project, 2010 – 2014: NERC, Defra, DECC  Aim: to undertake in-depth studies on the effects of OA on all aspects of marine ecology, biogeochemistry and potential social and economic impacts.  ~150 scientists from 23 UK universities and research institutions.  Quantify, predict and communicate the impact of OA on commercially important shellfish and finfish species.  Knowledge exchange: to disseminate the research findings and engage with stakeholders. (www.oceanacidification.org.uk)
    • CO2 emissions: relentless increase 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 millionmetrictonsofcarbon year Total Gas Liquids Solids Cement production Gas flaring doi: 10.3334/CDIAC/00001_V2012
    • Atmospheric CO2 http://keelingcurve.ucsd.edu/
    • Luthi et al. (2008) Nature 453, 379 – 382 Tripati et al. (2009) Science 326, 1394 - 1397 Atmospheric CO2 Last time exceeded 400ppm: 3 – 5 million yrs ago  9 May 2013 http://keelingcurve.ucsd.edu/
    • Oceans are a critical CO2 sink Absorbed ~30% of human CO2 emissions
    • Ocean acidification is measureable and quantifiable From: Doney (2010) Science 328, 1512 - 15161988 - 2008
    • CO2 in the atmosphere and the ocean Ocean acidification is measureable and quantifiable From: Doney (2010) Science 328, 1512 - 15161988 - 2008
    • CO2 in the atmosphere and the ocean Ocean acidification is measureable and quantifiable Surface ocean pH From: Doney (2010) Science 328, 1512 - 15161988 - 2008
    • The pH scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 140 “Ocean acidification”/ “Ocean carbonation”
    • The pH scale Lemon 2.4 Battery acid <1.0 Milk 6.5 Soap 9-10 Pure water 7.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 140 Bleach 12.5 “Ocean acidification”/ “Ocean carbonation”
    • The pH scale Lemon 2.4 Battery acid <1.0 Milk 6.5 Soap 9-10 Pure water 7.0 Seawater 8.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 140 Bleach 12.5 “Ocean acidification”/ “Ocean carbonation”
    • The pH scale Lemon 2.4 Battery acid <1.0 Milk 6.5 Soap 9-10 Pure water 7.0 Ocean acidification Pre- industrial 8.2 Seawater 8.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 140 Bleach 12.5 “Ocean acidification”/ “Ocean carbonation”
    • The pH scale Lemon 2.4 Battery acid <1.0 Milk 6.5 Soap 9-10 Pure water 7.0 Ocean acidification Pre- industrial 8.2 Present-day 8.1 Seawater 8.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 140 Bleach 12.5 30% increase in acidity “Ocean acidification”/ “Ocean carbonation”
    • The pH scale Lemon 2.4 Battery acid <1.0 Milk 6.5 Soap 9-10 Pure water 7.0 Ocean acidification Pre- industrial 8.2 Present-day 8.1 Year 2100 7.8 Seawater 8.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 140 Bleach 12.5 30% increase in acidity “Ocean acidification”/ “Ocean carbonation” 150% increase in acidity
    • CO2 & ocean acidification CO2(aq) CO2 (g) CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 ↔ HCO3 - + H+
    • CO2 & ocean acidification CO2(aq) CO2 (g) Calcifying plankton Calcifying animals CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 ↔ HCO3 - + H+ CO3 2- Ca2+
    • CO2 & ocean acidification CO2(aq) CO2 (g) Calcifying plankton Calcifying animals CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 ↔ HCO3 - + H+ CO3 2- CO3 2- + H+ ↔ HCO3 2- Ca2+ Increasing CO2
    • CO2 & ocean acidification CO2(aq) CO2 (g) Calcifying plankton Calcifying animals CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 ↔ HCO3 - + H+ CO3 2- CO3 2- + H+ ↔ HCO3 2- Ca2+ Increasing CO2
    • CO2 & ocean acidification CO2(aq) CO2 (g) Calcifying plankton Calcifying animals CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 ↔ HCO3 - + H+ CO3 2- CO3 2- + H+ ↔ HCO3 2- 1. Increase in H+ (decrease in pH) 2. Decrease in carbonate Ca2+ Increasing CO2
    • Ocean acidification in the past and future Turley et al. 2006; Blackford & Gilbert 2007
    • Modelled: OA in UK waters 1980s Yuri Artioli, PML 2080s
    • Ocean acidification effects on shellfish Dr. Edward C. Pope Dr. Rob Ellis
    • Ocean acidification effects on shellfish Dr. Edward C. Pope Dr. Rob Ellis
    • [CO2]ATMOSPHERE
    • [CO2]ATMOSPHERE [CO2]OCEAN
    • [CO2]ATMOSPHERE [CO2]OCEAN Ocean pH
    • [CO2]ATMOSPHERE [CO2]OCEAN Ocean pH [CO3 2-]OCEAN
    • [CO2]ATMOSPHERE [CO2]OCEAN Ocean pH [CO3 2-]OCEAN
    • What will be the impacts of Ocean Acidication?
    • What will be the impacts of Ocean Acidication? “early life cycle stages of calcifying organisms considered more sensitive to environmental disturbances” Raven, J. et al. (2005) Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. The Royal Society.
    • Confidence Time
    • Confidence Time 1990-2004
    • Thomsen, J. et al. (2010) Calcifying invertebrates succeed in a naturally CO2-rich coastal habitat but are threatened by high levels of future acidification. Biogeosciences 7 (11) 3879-3891.
    • Confidence Time 1990-2004
    • Confidence Time 2004-2010
    • Confidence Time 2013
    • Confidence “The field of ocean acidification is no longer in its infancy – we are teenagers now” Sam du Pont Time 2013
    • Kroeker et al. (2013) Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms: quantifying sensitivities and interaction with warming. Global Change Biology 19, 1884–1896.
    • Kroeker et al. (2013) Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms: quantifying sensitivities and interaction with warming. Global Change Biology 19, 1884–1896.
    • A case study – Pacific Northwest oyster seed crisis
    • A case study – Pacific Northwest oyster seed crisis Since early 2000’s C. gigas recruitment experienced failures along Oregon coast Larval mortalities continuing to increase: 60 % in 2008, 80 % in 2009 Recent research (Barton et al. 2012) has linked decline to ocean acidification
    • Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery
    • Adequate diet might mitigate negative impacts of environmental stress A case for optimism?
    • Pre-exposure of adults led to more tolerant larvae Adequate diet might mitigate negative impacts of environmental stress A case for optimism?
    • Selectively bred populations can be more tolerant than wild populations Pre-exposure of adults led to more tolerant larvae Adequate diet might mitigate negative impacts of environmental stress A case for optimism?
    • Industrial partnerships
    • Industrial partnerships
    • Involves 4 industrial partners from around UK Industrial partnerships
    • Involves 4 industrial partners from around UK Monitor seawater carbonate chemistry monthly, over 12 month period Industrial partnerships
    • Involves 4 industrial partners from around UK Monitor seawater carbonate chemistry monthly, over 12 month period Samples are returned to laboratory to assess carbonate chemistry Industrial partnerships
    • Barton et al., (2012) The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, shows negative correlation to naturally elevated carbon dioxide levels: Implications for near-term ocean acidification effects. Limnology and Oceanography 57 (3), 698-710. Data provide a baseline against which future climate change projections can be compared
    • Projected project outcomes By combining the experimental data with national carbonate chemistry data, we will gain a better understanding of the likely scale and impact of OA on UK aquaculture
    • ww.mccip.org.uk