Lars Brunner (2011)


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Lars Brunner (2011)

  1. 1. Lars Brunner SAMSScottish MarineInstitute,Oban, ArgyllPA37 1QAScotland, UK
  2. 2. Scottish MarineInstitute,Oban, ArgyllPA37 1QAScotland, UK
  3. 3. Scottish S eaweed Research Association survey from 1947 -1955 Aerial photography + grab sampling 100,000+ quadrats, 8500 km of coastline Density ton/ hectare range from 48 (Orkney) to 7 (Fraserburgh) estimate of total standing stock ~10 million tons Likely to be underestimate S CUBA analysis shows 2-4 times qty of grab sampleScottish MarineInstitute,Oban, ArgyllPA37 1QAScotland, UK
  4. 4. Large brown macroalgae, or kelp, grow very rapidly and can be fermented to produce alcohols (ethanol, butanol etc.) Both macroalgal and microalgal biomass can also be anaerobically digested (AD) to produce methane They lack lignin and have a low cellulose content, they are a better material for complete biological degradation to methane than land plants such as forestryScottish MarineInstitute,Oban, Argyll and agricultural wastes.PA37 1QAScotland, UK
  5. 5. Practical work Loch Beag, Moidart Droppers deployed on mussel farm lines Species outplanted; Saccharina latissima Saccorhiza polyschidesScottish Marine Alaria esculentaInstitute,Oban, ArgyllPA37 1QAScotland, UK
  6. 6. CT room (or room with constant 13-16 °C range) UV filtered, filtration graded seawater String, coils and bins The seed stock!Scottish MarineInstitute,Oban, ArgyllPA37 1QAScotland, UK
  7. 7. Scottish MarineInstitute,Oban, ArgyllPA37 1QAScotland, UK
  8. 8. Scottish MarineInstitute,Oban, ArgyllPA37 1QAScotland, UK
  9. 9. Scottish MarineInstitute, A mixture of threaded (shown here) and hooped droppersOban, ArgyllPA37 1QAScotland, UK
  10. 10. Seaweed culture now established in Scotland Tiny plants 2mm seeded to string Each plant at harvest, 6 8 months later, 1- 2mScottish MarineInstitute,Oban, ArgyllPA37 1QA 3 monthsScotland, UK
  11. 11. As an IMTA tool? Can create harvestable crop in right location in 6 months possibility for multiple yearly crop Diffuse nutrient absorption Can be used as feedstock for biofuel, or as market develops for high value pharmaceutical and food cropsScottish MarineInstitute,Oban, ArgyllPA37 1QAScotland, UK
  12. 12. Seaweed to biofuel: not a new idea, but time to revisit the technology As long ago as 1974, Americans looked for a renewable source of methane (natural gas) from the seas Their data showed that high levels of methane could be readily produced from seaweed At the time offshore farms were a failure due to engineering issuesScottish Marine Since then inshore seaweedInstitute,Oban, Argyll aquaculture has developed globallyPA37 1QAScotland, UK on a massive scale
  13. 13. Algal Algal energy energy Anaerobic digestion Instant use or storable energy source Bench trials at S AMSto analyseScottish Marine productionInstitute,Oban, ArgyllPA37 1QAScotland, UK
  14. 14. Why not wild harvest for our macrolagae? This shallow water resource is essential habitat, home to a wide biodiversity of flora and fauna and nursery grounds for many important species. Norway harvests about 170kt/pa but there are questions over environmental impact and sustainability. Little control over product quality (by-catch, rubbish, age structure) In terms of making a contributionScottish Marine to fuels: wild harvest is likely to beInstitute,Oban, Argyll unsustainable and insignificantPA37 1QAScotland, UK
  15. 15. How much would we have to grow to make a valuable contribution in terms of UK energy needs and helping reach the 2050 carbon offsetting targets? Seaweed farms to meet the Seaweed farms to meet the electrical needs (4,000kwh) of domestic gas requirements ofScottish MarineInstitute, 10% of Scottish homes MullOban, ArgyllPA37 1QA Area of Mull (87,500 ha)Scotland, UK Figures from A. Hughes, see also DECC Carbon offsetting 2050 Project report
  16. 16. Large Scale Biogas & Bioethanol Production To produce biofuel from macroalgae : improve performance of both marine bacteria for methanisation and bioethanol production latest AD technology Effects of kelp harvesting ecosystems and biofuel production on the terrestrial environment Key objective improvements in crop yield. Selective breeding Expansion of existing culture banks Strain selection and maintenance facilities similar forScottish Marine terrestrial plants and animalsInstitute,Oban, ArgyllPA37 1QAScotland, UK
  17. 17. Macrocystis culture Multiple longline growth sites in both North and South of country High levels of research funding Commercial farms in place ProductionScottish MarineInstitute, targets setOban, ArgyllPA37 1QAScotland, UK
  18. 18. Scottish MarineInstitute,Oban, ArgyllPA37 1QAScotland, UK
  19. 19. Scottish MarineInstitute,Oban, ArgyllPA37 1QAScotland, UK
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