Understanding Your Digital Camera 2007 P P


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This slideshow goes over all of the basic camera operations and how to create good exposures as well as camera parts.

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Understanding Your Digital Camera 2007 P P

  1. 1. <ul><li>Using Your Digital Camera and the Manual Exposure Settings </li></ul>Digital Photography
  2. 2. <ul><li>THE THREE COMPONENTS OF EXPOSURE: </li></ul><ul><li>APERTURE: F/STOP </li></ul><ul><li>SHUTTER SPEED </li></ul><ul><li>ISO </li></ul>What is an EXPOSURE?
  3. 3. EXPOSURE part ONE <ul><li>The Aperture controls the amount of light allowed in through the lens. The larger the opening the more light is allowed in. The smaller the opening the less light is allowed in. </li></ul><ul><li>Each smaller opening admits one half the amount of light of the previous larger opening. Standard f/numbers are as follows: f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, f/22, f/32. </li></ul>Smaller number Larger opening Smaller opening Larger number
  4. 4. EXPOSURE part ONE <ul><li>These numbers are also called &quot;stops&quot;. If I say to you that the image is too dark and you need to open up one whole stop, then you need to make your f/stop one stop larger. (from f/4 to f/8) </li></ul><ul><li>The Aperture controls DEPTH OF FIELD. This controls how much in your view is in focus. A small f/stop (f/13) makes more of the scene from your lens to the horizon SHARPER. A large f/stop (f/4) makes a smaller portion of the scene in focus, depending on where you point your focus. </li></ul>Exposure: f/5.6 at 1/500 ISO 400 Exposure: f/11 at 1/125 ISO 400
  5. 5. EXPOSURE part TWO <ul><li>The shutter controls the amount of light by the length of time the shutter is open. The shutter speed is measured in seconds and fractions of seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Each Shutter setting is HALF (or double) the time of the next one and is described in terms of FRACTIONS! DON’T PANIC! You will get this! </li></ul><ul><li>Normal shutter speeds are 1, 1/2 ,1/4, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/100, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, and 1/1000 sec . Note that each is half the duration of the previous setting. A fast shutter speed (1/500) can stop action. A slow shutter speed (1/30) will blur the action. </li></ul>
  6. 6. EXPOSURE part TWO (cont’d) <ul><li>Notice that when the Shutter Speed is </li></ul><ul><li>set to a higher fraction number (a faster shutter </li></ul><ul><li>speed) that the action becomes SHARPER. </li></ul>Exposure: f/16 at 1/60 ISO 400 Exposure: f/8 at 1/400 ISO 400 <ul><li>Notice that when the Shutter Speed gets slower (a lower fraction number) the action in the image starts to </li></ul>
  7. 7. EXPOSURE part TWO (cont’d) Exposure: f/16 at 1/60 ISO 400 Exposure: f/8 at 1/250 ISO 400 <ul><li>Here are some more examples of blurring motion and stopping motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Notice the difference in Shutter Speeds and the blurriness/sharpness of the action that is captured. </li></ul>
  8. 8. EXPOSURE part TWO (cont’d) Exposure: f/16 at 1/60 ISO: 400 <ul><li>This is an example of PANNING. Panning is when you move your camera along with the motion of the action. The background becomes a blurring streak while the action remains sharp (er). </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The LCD Screen </li></ul><ul><li>Through the Viewfinder </li></ul>The Camera Exposure Settings Could look like this. OR Exposure Settings Could look like this. <ul><li>This is what you see when you look through the viewfinder. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1 st = Shutter Speed. </li></ul><ul><li>The 2 nd = f/stop. </li></ul><ul><li>The bar shows the Light Meter reading. </li></ul>
  10. 10. EXAMPLES: only changing the Aperture Changing the aperture only shows that if you don’t change the Shutter Speed as well, you with either Under Expose or Over Expose the image. Notice here that the small Aperture gives the most clarity. The large Aperture gives a Smaller piece of clarity. Less is in focus. Exposure: f/22 at 1/60 ISO 1600 Exposure: f/10 at 1/60 ISO 1600 Exposure: f/4 at 1/60 ISO 1600
  11. 11. Changing only the Shutter Speed shows that if you don’t change the Aperture as well, you with either Under Expose or Over Expose the image. Notice here that the Aperture is at f/7. EXAMPLES: only changing the Shutter Speed Exposure: f/8 at 1/200 ISO 1600 Exposure: f/8 at 1/100 ISO 1600 Exposure: f/8 at 1/30 ISO 1600
  12. 12. EXPOSURE part THREE <ul><li>ISO is the basis for all your other controls. ISO determines how sensitive to light your camera will be. ISO ranges from 50 -3200 (in most cameras). </li></ul><ul><li>In bright lighting conditions, the ISO should be set somewhere between 100 and 400. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are in a low lighting situation then the ISO should be set at 600 or higher. This depends on what your camera allows. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide what your ISO should be first before you set your Shutter Speed and Aperture. </li></ul>Exposure: ISO 1600 f/4 at 1/40
  13. 13. <ul><li>All 3 components are reciprocal. </li></ul><ul><li>If you change the ISO, you need to change the Shutter Speed and Aperture to get a good Exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>Likewise: If you change either the Shutter Speed or the Aperture then you must change the other one to get the best exposure. </li></ul>It takes all Three Exposure: ISO 1600 f/4 1/8 Exposure: ISO 100 f/10 2 sec.
  14. 14. ISO 100 with a 2 second Shutter Speed ISO 1600 with a 1/8 of a second Shutter Speed Using a LOW ISO will reduce DIGITAL NOISE even in a low light situation like this. The Higher the ISO, the more Digital Noise will be visible.
  15. 15. EXAMPLES: Different Exposures, same outcome Notice that the ISO is the same in all 3 images but when the Aperture changes from a small f/stop to a large f/stop that the background becomes much softer and the DEPTH OF FIELD changes. ALL are correct Exposures. Exposure: f/22 at 1/8 ISO 1600 Exposure: f/10 at 1/50 ISO 1600 Exposure: f/4 at 1/250 ISO 1600
  16. 16. <ul><li>DIAGRAMMING THE DIGITAL SINGLE LENS REFLEX CAMERA-DSLR </li></ul>The Digital camera
  17. 17. What’s inside your Digital Camera? <ul><li>1. Focus ring : enables you to manually focus the lens. When you are in auto-focus mode, you won’t need to use this at all. Depending on you lens/camera, it can also be located at #5. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Zoom : changes the zoom of the lens, brings objects closer or further away. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Focus ring : see #1 </li></ul><ul><li>4. Prism : A mirror to reflect what is being seen by your lens up to you eye. </li></ul>
  18. 18. What’s inside your Digital Camera? <ul><li>5. Diopter: a slider next to the viewfinder that allows you to adjust the focus. This is used for people who need corrective vision. (most people just leave it alone and look through the lens with their glasses) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Viewfinder : Look through the viewfinder to see what you have in frame. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Shutter : The shutter is what allows the light to hit your image sensor for a set length of time. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Image Sensor : the film of the digital camera. This captures the light, and converts it to the digital image. </li></ul>
  19. 19. What’s inside your Digital Camera? <ul><li>9 . LCD : The screen on the back of your camera that allows you to modify the camera settings and review your images after you captured them. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Mirror : is in the down position to allow the image to be reflected up to the viewfinder. When you press the shutter button to take a picture the mirror flips up and lets the light through the shutter onto the image sensor. </li></ul><ul><li>11. Aperture/F-Stops/ Diaphragm : Aperture, is measured in f-stops. This is the hole in the lens that allows the light to pass through. It is made up of blades that form the diaphragm. The larger the f-number, the smaller the hole in the diaphragm is. I will cover how this works in detail later. </li></ul>