From this… To this… COM 260-OL MODULE 8: MID TERM BY BRYONY PARKER
MY TECHNOLOGY TIMELINE: First The iPhone First Canonpermanent arrives permanent Rotogravure Internet EOS 5D(negative) (Instagram color photo Process arrives Mark III image 2010) Dry Plate NY Tribune – Wet Plate Collodion first halftone Wireless Collodion Process photo transmitters Process Nikon D11834 1851 1861 1871 1890 1897 1990 1999 2007 2008 2013 Pre-digital technologies Digital technologies
PRE-DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES:I will cover the following six pre-digital technologies indetail:1. The first permanent negative image2. The Wet Plate Collodion Process3. The first permanent color image4. The Dry Plate Collodion Process5. Rotogravure Process6. The first halftone photo
1834: THE FIRST NEGATIVE IMAGE• Believed to be produced by William Henry Fox Talbot (the widely held belief).• Talbot took the photo of “the lattice window in the South Gallery”, Lacock Abbey. However, it was very poor quality.• This process utilized silver chloride and salt solution in order to produce the image.• Advantage over daguerreotype images = reproducible.
THE FIRST NEGATIVE IMAGE CONT… Photo by: William Henry Fox Talbot Image source: http://matthew12photoym.wordpress. com/2011/11/ Year Created: 1835
1851: WET PLATE COLLODION PROCESS • Invented in 1851 by Frederick Scott Arthur and utilized throughout Europe and North American until 1880. Image source: http://timberwolfphotolounge.blogspot.c om/2013/01/look-wet-plate-collodion.htmlPhoto by: France Scully OstermanImage Source:http://www.f295.org/symposium2008/?page_id=68
WET PLATE PROCESS CONT… Advantages: Disadvantages:• Enabled photographers to • Extensive process and requires develop images in greater precision. detail.• Produce limitless copies and • Has the potential to be negative photographs. dangerous for the photographer.• Much more efficient than the processes that came before it, for instance, daguerreotype • Requires a significant amount and calotype. of portable equipment.• Still utilized today because the end product is usually a glossy • Tremendously time sensitive. albumen print: red/brown/purple in color.
1861: THE FIRST COLOR IMAGE• Produced by Thomas Sutten and the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1861.• Maxwell had been experimenting in color theory for an extensive period of time. He eventually discovered that a color image could be produced using red, green, and blue filters.• He also developed the electromagnetic theory.• Fun fact: “The three photographic plates now reside in a small museum at 14 India Street, Edinburgh, the house where Maxwell was born.”
THE FIRST COLOR IMAGE:Photo by: James Clerk MaxwellImage Source:http://www.worldsfamousphotos.com/2007/10/07/the-first-color-photograph-1961/Year created: 1861This tartan ribbon was created“by photographing it three timesthrough red, blue, and yellowfilters, then recombining theimages into one color composite.”
1871: DRY PLATE COLLODION PROCESS• This process came 20 years after the Wet Plate Collodion Process• Advantages: much more practical and convenient and no longer required a dark room/tent to develop the prints.• The plates did not have to be “prepared immediately before taking photographs and processed immediately after.” They were prepared in advance.• The Dry Plate Collodion Process enabled photographers to produce landscape images.• According to Mark Schoeler, this process was “the direct forerunner of roll film.”
DRY PLATE PROCESS CONT…• Both Richard Leach Maddox and Joseph Wilson Swan are credited with the invention of the Dry Plate Collodion Process. Photo by: Tai Oliphant Image Source: http://www.derivedlogic.co m/Traditional%20Photograph y/DryPlateProcess/DryProcess .html
1890: ROTOGRAVURE PROCESS• The Rotogravure Process was considered to be an efficient and favorable process for printing images in newspapers.• This process involved an etched cylinder and utilized “intaglio printing, in which metal is etched with recessed "cells" to hold the ink.”• Renowned for its “high quality gradation and color depth.”• As well as, high speed printing on a large scale, cost effectiveness, printing consistency, and anti-smear results.• Rotogravure is still utilized today, despite the shift to digital technologies, specifically multimedia convergence and online newspapers.
ROTOGRAVURE PROCESS CONT…No photographer included, image used by the company DCMGroupImage Source: http://www.dcm.fr/rotogravure-printing.html
1897: THE FIRST HALFTONE PHOTO• Considered a major breakthrough in printing – shades of gray in between black and white and converted photographs into dots.• The first halftone photograph was printed on the front page of the New York Tribune.• This illustrated that “the halftone process can be applied on the high-speed web perfecting presses at large- circulation newspapers.”• The Tribunes portrait “startled New York journalism,” says the trade journal Fourth Estate.
THE FIRST HALFTONE PHOTO: The New York Tribune Thomas Platt, New Yorks U.S. SenatorImage provided by: Library of Congress, Washington, DCImage source:http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030214/1897-01-21/ed-1/seq-1/Year Created: 1897
THE DIGITAL AGE:I will cover the following six digital technologies in detail:1. The internet & online newspapers2. Nikon D1 camera3. The release of the iPhone (instagram)4. Wireless transmitters5. Canon EOS 5D Mark III
1990: THE BIRTH OF THE INTERNET World Wide Web: Online Newspapers:• Berners-Lee and his colleagues • The growth and expansion of were instrumental in the the Internet caused a huge development of the internet. shift to a multimedia online world.• Creation of URL and • Vast decline in circulation and “developed a shared format job cuts in the printing industry. for hypertext documents which • Multimedia convergence. was named HTML.” • Varied distribution channels.• “URL and HTML significantly • Opportunities for blogging. increased the possibility of interaction between users and • Multimedia proficiency expected. networks across the internet. • Tighter deadlines & submission from the scene. • Ex: www.masslive.com/
1999: NIKON D1 CAMERA • Introduced June 15, 1999. • DSLR – Digital Single-Lens Reflex (looking directly through the lens). • 2.74 megapixel image, compared to 8 megapixel images with the iPhone (produces a much larger file). • 4.5 frames per second. • “The D1 was the first professional digital SLR that displaced Kodaks then-Considered a state of the art camera in undisputed reign over the professional market.”1999.
2007: THE IPHONE ARRIVESThis first video illustrates the first iPhone ad:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4acWkNihaxcThis second video is an instagram tutorial:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HtMepU6gQVU 2007 2010
THE IPHONE AND INSTAGRAM: iPhone: Instagram (2010)• Steve Jobs and Apple released the first iPhone in 2007. • Photo sharing/social media site.• According to Time Magazine, it • Extremely popular in today’s was “the invention of the year.” society amongst all ages.• Steve Jobs referred to it as a • This app has been the primary “revolutionary mobile phone.” outlet for breaking news stories, It was first on sale between for example, Hurricane Sandy. $499 and $599. • This is a different distribution• Time Magazine utilized this channel utilized to reach mass device to shoot and post audiences. images from Hurricane Sandy.• The market became tremendously competitive as anyone could take a picture with the iPhone.
2008: WIRELESS TRANSMITTERS• Digital transmission has been a key development in this digital era.• Wireless transmission enables a photographer to take a picture, send it to their cell phone and using a Wi-Fi hotspot they can then transmit the image back to the newsroom.• Extremely beneficial for time sensitive assignments and meeting deadlines.• Due to the competition in today’s market, photojournalists are always looking to get the edge over other photographers.
2013: CANON EOS 5D MARK III• 22.3 Megapixel, full-frame CMOS sensor• 61-point AF with up to 41 cross-type AF points• Zone, Spot and AF Point Expansion focusing modes• DIGIC 5+ processor• Up to 6 fps shooting speed• ISO 100 to 25,600 (ISO 50, 51,200 and 102,400 with expansion)• +/- 5 stops of exposure compensation• HDR shooting in-camera• Full HD Movie shooting with ALL-I or IPB compression• 29 mins 59 sec clip length in Full HD Movie• Timecode setting for HD Movie shooting• Transparent LCD viewfinder with 100% coverage• 3.2" (8.11cm) 1.04 million-pixel Clear View II LCD Screen “The most anticipated camera• Silent control touch-pad area announcement in history.”• Dual-Axis Electronic Level
OVERALL…• Overall, the digital revolution (the internet in particular) has changed the face of photography and photojournalism forever. Although some pre-digital technologies are still utilized today, we will never go back to how things once were. Technology will just continue to expand and grow and become more and more efficient.• Photojournalism is no longer a hassle that requires an abundance of equipment that has to be transported in a special trailer each time you want to take a photograph. With the media in today’s society, photojournalists have to act quickly and sometimes think on their feet to get “the” shot before emailing it to their editor to publish.• The key to being a successful photojournalist is spontaneity. You should always keep your eye out for a potential photograph no matter where you are, even if you are just carrying your cell phone.