Management plan: Tanyard Basin, Shalford.
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  • 1. MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR TANNERY LANE BRIDGE SITE, SHALFORD. Image above shows clearing of front of Tannery Lane Bridge. SIMON LAPINSKI K0637991
  • 2. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 Contents & Introduction This management report is an extension of a previous project we were assigned in conjunction with the Wey and Arun Trust to create 2 Location proposals to compliment the scheme of re-establishing a section of the former Wey and Arun Canal at the Tannery Lane site. 3 Physical conditions of site The idea was to generate a concept utilising the sites assets to develop 4 History a pilot scheme which would attract momentum and funding for future extensions of the old canal route until finally completing the connection 5 Land-use between the Rivers Wey and Arun. 6 Images of site Of the interventions I submitted I selected the conservation of the existing Broad-leaf woodland as the basis of my management report in 7 Habitats an attempt to gain a greater depth of understanding as to the feasibilty of my proposals. With the core of the former project relating to the re- 8 Plant-use introduction of the canal I also took time to examine the possibilities of its structure and how it may reduce its impact on the surrounding 9 Concept model of proposed interventions Environment. 10 Aims & objectives of management plan The report will illustrate site analysis, design concepts, assessment, descriptions and processes of reaching the aims of the management plan 11 Conservation of broad-leaf woodland as an introduction to detailing the programmes to be installed to achieve continued satisfaction of the broad-leaf woodlands for current and future 12 Coppice with standards users alike. 13 Coppice with standards management plan 14 Coppice with standards management programme 15 Ecological canal bank protection 16 Critical analysis & future predictions 17 Bibliography CONTENTS & INTRODUCTION PAGE 1
  • 3. LOCATION Located within the Surrey Hills Area of Natural Outstanding Beauty. The site is directly south of Tannery Lane Bridge in the Parish of Shalford. The area is accessible by vehicular traffic by country roads via the A281 Horsham Road to the west. The railway station at Shalford travels between Guildford and Dorking on the North Downs Line. For pedestrians, cyclists and horse riders the locale is approachable by the Downs Link which runs through the site and Tannery Lane on the northern border. OS grid reference TQ000467 Tanyard Lane site, Shalford Shalford Village Fig.1 The British Isles inset and County of Surrey County illustrating location of Shalford. Berkshire Heathrow Staines . Weybridge Camberly Leatherhead Tannery Lane study site Guildford Farnham . Shalford Oxted N Scale 1:10000 Haslemere Gatwick Sussex Fig.2 Aerial view of Shalford and proximity to Tannery Lane site. Ref: Google Earth LOCATION PAGE 2
  • 4. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF SITE TOPOGRAGPY The site of tannery lane lies within a shallow basin of secondary succession vegetation, gently rising from the bridge eastwards at a gradient of 1:05 per metre. To the north a former brook has been deepened to accept seasonal floodwaters within an area of Broad-leaf wood which falls down eastwards. To the south the land rises from 0.7-1.2m wets to east as an embankment that was the location of the former Horsham to Guildford railway Line., falling down to Cranleigh waters which run parallel. At the east border of the site, Cranleigh waters crosses from south to west under Gosden aqueduct before turning eastwards and continuing its route. GEOLOGY AND SOILS The Shalford area is located on Wealden Greensand, just south of the North Downs. The soils are slightly acidic and free draining. HYDROLOGY The region of Shalford is part of the River Wey’s catchment area which flows into the River Thames. The North and South Wey join at Tilford, where the Wey runs past Shalford to be joined by Cranleigh waters and the River Tillingbourne further north. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF SITE PAGE 3
  • 5. HISTORY OF SITE From left to right, Tanyard lane road and horse bridge, site of old tannery, remains of Gosden aqueduct. •First mentioned in the Doomsday book of 1086 as Scaldefor. • Agriculture main land-use of area, producing cereal crops of oats, wheat, barley and hay. • Other industries include Tanneries and Breweries. • 1816 witnesses construction of Wey and Arun Canal and Tannery Lane horse bridge. • 1860, Road bridge built in preparation to take traffic over proposed railway track. • 1865, Completed construction of Guildford to Horsham Railway. • Local population increases. Fig. 1 1873 Map of Guildford to Horsham • 1871 sees closure of Shalford to Guildford Railway through Peamarsh to Bramley and section of Wey and Arun Canal. Wonerash. Tanyard lane site highlighted. • 1958 Site becomes part of Surrey Hills AONB. LEGEND • 1965 sees closure of Guildford to Horsham railway line. Guildford to Horsham Line • 1984 old railway route becomes Downs link connecting North and South Downs. Wey and Arun Canal Ref: Cranleigh railway HISTORY OF TANYARD LANE SITE PAGE 4
  • 6. LAND-USE OF TANNERY LANE Farmland SITE N Industrial land and buildings Tanyard Lane Cranleigh waters Tanyard Lane Bridge Residential Fig.1 Image of Tanyard horsebridge Fig.2 Fringe of woodland area Horse bridge Brook gardens from Gosden aqueduct by brook. Educational buildings Woodland Public open LEGEND Cranleigh waters space Educational and brook buildings Secondary Public open Residential Downs link succession space dwellings Secondary Industrial Path succession buildings Woodland Industrial Horse and land footbridge Gosden aqueduct Residential Farmland Tannery lane gardens bridge & Gosden aqueduct Downs link Path LAND-USE OF TANNERY LANE SITE PAGE 5
  • 7. IMAGES OF RESOURCESSITE 1. Gosden Aqueduct 3. View of site from Tannery Lane Bridge 2. Downs Link Trail 4. View of site from Tannery Bridge Lane 6. Tannery Lane Bridge 5. Cranleigh Waters and weir IMAGES OF SITE PAGE 6
  • 8. HABITATS e ridg Lane B nery Within the Tannery Lane site two distinct habitats can be found. The first Tan which dominates the central section is that of Secondary succession. This is a result of the original Broad-leafed woodland being cleared to illustrate the sites potential for a pilot scheme by the Wey and Arun Trust in the re- introduction of a length of the Wey and Arun canal. The consequence of the clearance has been the greater penetration of light to the ground layer and the pre-existing soil resulting in the re-establishment of the plant community on disturbed land, towards to climax community of the Broad- leafed woodland. The existing vegetation is composed in the main by the voracious Urtica dioca (stinging nettle). Other species found within this habitat and that of the Broad-leafed woodland are displayed within the plant material section. The habitat of the broadleaved woodland surrounds the area untouched by Cranleigh the previous clearance work. The Broad-leafed woodland depicts the waters climax community which has developed through ecological succession over time, arriving at a consistent state. The woodland has matured as a product of the plant community best adapted to the conditions of the region. It could be argued however that as a Coppice and Standard woodland which has been continually harvested in the past that it too is a site of secondary succession. Fig.1 Lanyard Lane site before clearance by Wey and Arun Trust. LEGEND Broad-leaf Secondary Gosden woodland succession aqueduct Ref: Wey & Arun Trust Fig.2 Montage illustrating habitats existing within Tanyard Lane site. HABITATS PAGE 7
  • 9. PLANT MATERIAL Illustrated here are the main members of the plant community found within the habitats of Tannery Lane site. The examples of the trees and shrubs are those found within the Broad-leaf woodland and exhibit varieties whose timber is used in the practice of coppicing (Hazel, Willow and Alder) and those grown as standards (Oak, Beech and Ash). The annuals and perennials are a selection of the species of plants located within and around the perimeter of the habitat of secondary succession. TREES AND SHRUBS ANNUALS AND PERENNIALS Trees and shrubs: Woody perennials with one or more stems arising from Annuals: Plant that completes its entire life cycle in one year. the ground. Both can be deciduous or evergreen Perennial: Plant whose life cycle covers more than two year and does not die after flowering Field maple, Acer Ash, Fraxinus Goat willow, Alder, Alnus Stinging nettle, Great Burdock, Mare’s tail, Himalayan balsam, campestre excelsior salix caprea glutinosa Urtica dioica Artium lappa Equisetum arvense Impatiens granduifera Hawthorn, Holly, Ilex Hazel, Corylus Ivy, Hedera *Foxglove, *Herb Robert, Grasses, variety of *Ragged robin, Crategus monogyna aquifolium avellana helix Digitalis purpurea Geranium species Lychnis flos-cuculi robertanium * Ref: Photographs from River Wey &Navigations Oak, Quercus Sycamore, Acer Bramble, Rubus Walnut, Bindweed, Genus *Common water plantain, *Great Reedmace, *Wild Teasal, robur pseudoplatanus fruticosus agg Juglens regia Convolvulus Alisma plantago-aquatica Typha latifolia Dipsacus fullonum PLANT MATERIAL PAGE 8
  • 10. CONCEPT MODEL OF PROPOSED INTERVENTIONS AIMS: 1. CONSERVATION OF BROAD-LEAF 1 WOODLAND 1 2. CREATION OF 1 GRASSLAND MEADOW 2 3. RE- 2 ESTABLISHMENT OF CANAL ROUTE 3 4. OUTDOOR 2 4 EDUCATION CENTRE 2 3 2 1 5. ACCESSIBILITY FOR ALL. 1 1 Fig 1. Plan elevation of concept model for Tannery Lane Site CONCEPT MODEL OF PROPOSED INTERVENTIONS PAGE 9
  • 11. AIMS & OBJECTIVES OF MANAGEMENT PLAN Appraisal, explanations and methods of fulfilling the objectives concerning the management of conserving the broad-leaf woodland at Tannery Lane will be defined as a precursor to outlining the work programmes to be prescribed in achieving continued enjoyment of these resources for current users and a legacy for future generations. Coup B. CONSERVATION OF EXISTING BROADLEAVED HABITAT Aims & Objectives Coup C. 1. Enhance and maintain habitat of existing broad-leaf woodland. 2. Increase and maintain biodiversity of flora and fauna of habitat. 3. Enable conditions to monitor and combat the effects of climate change. 4. Preserve traditional rural crafts. 5. Sustainable source of timber. Images of coup divisions within Coup A. Tannery Lane site. Below Coup D. AIMS & OBJECTIVES OF MANAGEMENT PLAN PAGE 10
  • 12. CONSERVATION OF BROAD-LEAF WOODLAND TYPES OF BROAD-LEAF WOODLAND Britain has different varieties of woodland which has evolved naturally through contrasting soil types, climate, geology and topography. Management and past land- use will also influence the sort of woodland that matures. In the main woodland is generally classed by the primary tree species growing in that particular wood. Nevertheless in reality it is unusual to find one specific species of tree prevalent and a wood will include a Varity of tree types. TANNERY LANE BROAD-LEAF WOODLAND The broad-leaf woodland at Tannery Lane can be defined as Alder-wet woodland due to the dominance of Alders which prosper on the wet soils. This type of woodland is typically located along the banks of streams, rivers or wherever poor drainage persists. The process of succession transforms wetlands into wet woodlands through siltation and evaporation, providing anchorage for tree growth. Alder woodland will climax to be superceded by Oak woodland as further drying of the soil favours a drier woodland type. Contractor: Coppice worker harvesting MANAGEMENT OF BROAD-LEAF WOODLAND branches. Ref Greenwood centre. Broad-leaf woodlands are managed for several purposes. Traditionally it concerned generating the greatest yield for economically viable products and game which operates in tandem with our aims of conservation and increased biodiversity. Indigenous British woodland was managed to provide a sustainable source of timber by coppicing woodland Tree to be Cut close Shoots rapidly Coppice ready on a rotational cycle. Coppicing utilises the self- Coppiced. to base in grow from for harvest regeneration properties of trees by cutting the tree winter. stool the between 7-20 near to ground level to create a stool from which Drawing authors own work following spring. years branches regenerate at similar thicknesses to be harvested for the desired needs. COPPICING CONSERVATION OF BROADLEAVED WOODLAND PAGE 11
  • 13. COPPICE WITH STANDARDS Coppice with Standards developed at the time of King Henry IIIV, when he declared an edict that twelve standards or mature uncut trees should be left within each acre of woodland for timber. The system combines mature standards that occupy the canopy layer creating greater visual continuity to the woodland and a selection of coppice of different ages and species to provide various types and dimensions of wood for required demand within the under-story. The system also maintains structural diversity to the under-storey and improved conditions for wildlife conservation. The coppice is managed on a rotational basis varying from 2-20 years again depending on the variety of tree and demand of wood. The short cycle increases the amount of light penetration reaching the ground layer expanding the level of biodiversity within the woodland and improving stability of the flora and fauna. COPPICE WITH STANDARDS Drawing authors own work - Canopy - under-storey 10M - Field layer - Ground layer 10M Fig.1 Above Coppice and Standard Broadleaved Woodland of Tannery Lane site. Fig.2 Above Coppicing of woodland at Tannery Lane site. WOODLAND LAYERS TYPICAL SPECIES Canopy/Tree layer : The mature trees (standards). Oak, Ash, Beech, Birch Under-storey/Shrub layer : Consists of younger trees with Field maple, Hawthorn, Hazel, shrubs adapted to lower light conditions (coppice). Holly, Wild cherry, Alder. Field layer : Best developed where light penetrates Ferns, Grasses, Sedges, woodland floor, for example a newly coppiced area. herbs PRECEDENT: Bradfield Woods, Nr Bury St.Edmunds. National Ground layer. Mosses, Ivy, Lichens, Fungi Nature Reserve which employed Coppice with Standards management since1252. Ref: Suffolk Wildlife Trust. COPPICE WITH STANDARDS PAGE 12
  • 14. COPPICE WITH STANDARDS MANAGEMENT PLAN THE MANAGEMENT PLAN The process of coppicing begins each winter, between the months of November and March traditionally after the harvest when work on the COUP B land has slowed down. This season coincides with the dormant period of deciduous plant life, with trees shed their leaves to halt the process of COUP A photosynthesis and the movement of sap up the tree to protect its energy reserves and the effects of frost damage. The reduction of sap content within the wood also makes it a more efficient COUP C source of fuel when most needed. The wood is divided into a number of coups to improve the efficiency of managing the woodland. Depending on the rotational cycle which will could be between two to twenty years, the coup COUP D selected to be coppiced will have its shoots or poles cut to lengths and stacked in heaps which are customary known as a cord with each stack being known as cordwood. Cranleigh waters The thinning of standards is required every five years to reduce the density of canopy and increase Fig 1. Tree size and density of broad-leaf woodland at Tannery Lane with coup divisions. the penetration of light to the ground layer. The selection process involves removing poorly formed, SPECIALIST CONTRACTORS weak and diseased branches of the trees. The trade of the Coppice worker has declined sharply since the demand for the by- In any one coup there will be a number of products from coppice wood has fallen. The craft continues however on a smaller scale standards of various ages. Up to 40% of the canopy to retain and teach those interested in the traditional skills of the countryside and as a should be occupied by standards as to many will means of conserving existing woodland under the management of coppicing. result in poor coppice growth through insufficient Although originally the work of the Coppice worker or Woodman, the coppicing of light. woods can equally be carried out by contracted Arboriculturalists or trained volunteers. COPPICE WITH STANDARDS MANAGEMENT PLAN PAGE 13
  • 15. COPPICE WITH STANDARDS MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME The existing broad-leaf woodland at Tannery Lane site covers an area of 9200 m2 or 0.98 Hectares. It takes a Coppice worker 400 man hours to harvest one hectare of woodland, which with our site would equate 392 man hours. These hours are divided by the number of coup divisions, resulting in 98 man hours per coup on a yearly rotational basis. With the addition of a trained volunteer to reduce costs the total time required each year to harvest a coup would be 49 man hours or 6.125 days. The estimated cost for these workers would be £1010.65 per year with Coppice worker at £150 per day and volunteer with £15 expenses per day. Fig.1 Table illustrating Coppice with Standards Management Programme for Tannery Lane Broadleaved woodland COUP DIVISION OF BROADLEAVED A COUP WOODLAND B COUP C COUP D THINNING OF STANDARDS NOV- NOV- NOV- NOV- NOV- NOV- NOV- NOV- TASK / MAR MAR MAR MAR MAR MAR MAR MAR TIME 2010 2008 2009 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 TIME Broadleaved woodland covers 9200 m2 = 0.98 Hectares 392 man/hrs divided by 4 coups = 98 man/hrs = 12.25 days 400 man/hrs to coppice 1 Hectare = 392 man/hrs Each coup to take 1x Coppice worker & one x Volunteer 6.125 days per year Ref : Lowland landscape design guidelines COPPICE WITH STANDARDS MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME PAGE 14
  • 16. ECOLOGICAL CANAL BANK PROTECTION As explained in the opening of the report, it acts as an extension to proposals developed CANAL BANK CONSTRUCTION with the Wey and Arun Trust, which centered on the re-establishment of the former Wey and Arun Canal. With the constant activity MARGINAL Native planting experienced at the banks of canals with mooring SHALLOWS craft, embarking, disembarking crews and erosion from the swash of passing vessels. The delicate ecology of the canal is under continuous threat. BANK AND 200mm x 50mm boards to 1m wide Hoggin towpath TOWPATH To help secure these habitats I proposed the protect bank from colliding installation of stone and timber bank protection boats and dismounting 2 x 600mm wide x 600mm as employed by the National Trust at Dapdune passengers. deep x 500mm high Wharf, Guildford. The stone gambions were galvanised steel square held in place with two rows of round timber mesh gambions filled with Canal water level posts which dually served to support timber regular stone to protect soil boards acting as barriers against mooring boats bank from wash generated and the passage of crew members, so protecting by passing boats. the establishing flora and fauna of the marginal 1.4m shallows and bank. 150mm round poles staked into canal bed every 500mm. Galvanised steel square mesh and geo-textile membrane fixed behind poles to retain soil bank. NAVIGATION CHANNEL Authors own drawing 1. NAVIGATIONAL CHANNEL 2. MARGINAL SHALLOWS 3. BANK & TOWPATH Fish - Bream, Fish - Sticklebacks, Minnows. Mammals - Brown rat. Tench, Roach, Amphibians - Newts, Frogs. Plants - Birds - Kingfisher. Birds-dabchick White water lily, Flowering rush, Plants - Bur-reed, Canal bed Common reed, Sege, Nettles. Birds - Yellow flag. Reed-bunting, Reed warbler Fig.1 Image of bank construction at Dapdune HABITAT CANAL ZONES Drawing authors own work Wharf on River Wey by National Trust. ECOLOGICAL CANAL BANK PROTECTION PAGE 15
  • 17. CRITICAL ANALYSIS FUTURE PREDICTIONS The main challenges to the idea of implementing a management Climate change is a result of human activity generating greater plan to conserve the existing broad-leaf woodland at Tannery Lane concentrations of Carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Forecasts for is firstly the availability of funding to continue the vital works Britain indicate higher temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, required to initiate the process of restoring a wood which has been greater wind speeds, cloud cover and humidity, all of which will have a neglected for several decades and maintaining the works to establish direct consequence on the growth structure of trees and their the benefits of increased biodiversity and an appreciation of this environment. essential natural resource. Current Carbon concentrations are not at their optimum for the Volunteer groups are at the core of forwarding works, displaying process of photosynthesis and with rising levels initial growth increases tremendous passion and imitative to carry out the works. These are expected. With higher temperatures an extension of the growing efforts only exist on obtainable funding, of which private donations season will occur which may cause harm through delayed or are finite. Without the additional assistance from local and national incomplete winter hardening of trees provoking further frost damage. statutory bodies objectives can become staggered and lethargic with In addition warmer winters might reduce chilling requirements for the real ambitions always a finger tip away. flowering and seed germination effecting the natural regeneration of tree species. Lower summer rainfall and increased evaporation rates Secondly and most importantly is the effects of climate change upon will lead to extended periods of drought stress on trees making them the fabric of the broad-leaf woodlands and the strategies that will more prone to attack from pests and pathogens, while greater rainfall have to be readdressed and installed to monitor and maintain their during winter may induce water logging of soils and lower their ability stability and future prosperity. to stabilize trees. Higher wind speeds can lead to the increased severity, unpredictable nature and frequency of storms promoting greater damage to woodland areas. Practical responses to the threats posed by climate change cover two fundamental areas, adaptation and mitigation. Adaptation measures attempt to minimise the effects of climate change as it progresses and mitigation responses try to limit the extent of climate change. The greatest uncertainty however concerning Britain’s broad-leaf woodlands is the inability to predict the way that human society will change and in particular how effective its efforts to mitigate climate change will be. CRITICAL ANALYSIS & FUTURE AIMS PAGE 16
  • 18. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS WEBSITES Nature through the seasons, Richard Adams. www.offwellwoodland&wildlifetrust.org The Outdoor Classroom, Department of Education and science www.weynavigations.org Lowland landscape design guidelines, the Forest Authority. www.naturalengland.org.uk Community woodland design guidelines, the Forestry Commission. www.btcv.org.uk Forest landscape design guidelines, the Forest Authority. www.weyandarun.co.uk Along the Riverbank, The Living Countryside. www.Countrysideandguildford.gov.uk www.naturescape.co.uk BIBLIOGRAPHY PAGE 17