Language Discourse Power Assignment 3
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  • 1. Israel Porter
      Language Discourse and Power Linguistic Imperialism Linguicism
  • 2. Linguistic Imperialism
    • The transfer of a dominant language to speakers of other languages.
    • 3. e.g. French to New Caledonia
    • 4. e.g. Russian to Soviet states
    • 5. e.g . English to Maori speaker
    • 6. To assimilate minorities
  • 7. The Kurds
    • Kurdistan divided into four pieces among Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey.
  • 8. Treaty Agreements
    • Article 38(1): The Turkish Government undertakes to accord all inhabitants of Turkey full and complete protection of their life and liberty, without distinction of birth nationality, language, race and religion.
    • 9. Article 39(4): No restriction shall be imposed on the free use by any Turkish national of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, religion, in the press, or in publications of any kind or at public meetings.
    • 10. Article 39(5): notwithstanding the existence of the official language, adequate facilities shall be given to Turkish nationals of non-Turkish speech for the oral use of their own language before the courts.
    • 11. Article 37: Turkey undertakes that the stipulations contained in Articles 38 to 44 shall be recognised as fundamental laws, and that no law or regulation, no official action shall conflict or interfere with these stipulations, nor shall any law, regulation, nor official action prevail over them.
  • 12. What happened?
    • Kurdish language and culture regulated.
    • 13. Print allowed, but monitored.
    • 14. Kurds became “mountain Turks”.
    • 15. Turkish becomes official language of court and education MOI.
    • 16. Kurdish banned.
  • 17. Linguistic Imperialism and Linguicism
    • Turkish language imposed on Kurds.
    • 18. Attacking language means attacking culture.
    • 19. Kurdish generally discouraged.
    • Kurdish not allowed in official communications.
    • 20. Kurdish not allowed in school.
  • 21. Slovakia
    • A very diversely populated country.
    █ = 50 -100% Hungarian █ = 10 -50% Hungarian █ = 0 – 10% Hungarian
  • 22. Language Law
    • At first, Hungarian can be used in areas of high population.
    • 23. Punishments for foreign language use in official communication.
    • 24. High deinsity minority areas can receive hospital care.
  • 25. Linguicism
    • Those who do not speak Slovak do not get official support.
    • 26. Even where support is offered, it is offered only to larger minorities.
  • 27. Gatekeeping
    • The language you speak directly affects your access to services, goods or information.
    • 28. Applied by powerful groups onto less powerful groups.
    • 29. Very common experience in multilingual contexts.
    • 30. Speaking dominant language will 'open gates'
    ¿ Hablar espanol?
  • 31. Linguistic Capital
    • The dominant language is said to have linguistic capital.
    • 32. More power is given to speakers of dominant languages.
    • 33. Similar principle to gatekeeping.
    • 34. Minority languages lack linguistic capital.
  • 35. References:
    • The Kurds: Culture and Language Rights
    • 36. In Slovakia speak Slovak
    • 37. Study Guide (2009) Language, Discoure and Power. Massey University.