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Estimating the requirements determination of a project
 

Estimating the requirements determination of a project

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This webinar presented a good balance between stressing the business basis for requirements, and an approach to estimating what it will take to obtain them in a product initiative. Considering the ...

This webinar presented a good balance between stressing the business basis for requirements, and an approach to estimating what it will take to obtain them in a product initiative. Considering the three levels of requirements:

•Business Requirements - "Why the project is being undertaken."
•User Requirements - "What users will be able to do with the product."
•Engineering Requirements - "What engineers need to develop."

Success is going to be about getting the upstream business requirements right, and then ensuring logical flow between downstream activities.

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    Estimating the requirements determination of a project Estimating the requirements determination of a project Presentation Transcript

    • The Business Basis for Software Requirements and Estimating the Requirements Determination Portion of a Product Development Project By Harry F. Gilbert http://www.hfgilbert.comCopyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Purposes• Provide a solid understanding of the business basis for requirements, and,• How to estimate the time and resources needed to conduct the requirements determination phase of a software development project.• While primarily focused on software development, the concepts here are applicable to the development of any product, not just software. Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Getting it Wrong Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Formal requirements come from three sources Level 3: Product What developers need to build Level 2: User What users will be able to do with the product Level 1:Market Business Why the project is being undertaken from a business perspective Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Context of Requirements Determination EstimatingWhy is requirements estimating performed? • Respond to a request for estimate • Help client to define the scope of a project • Define resources, skills, and effort • Fit schedule and resource availability Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Context of Requirements Determination Estimating When is estimating performed? • Pre-planning • Response to request • Negotiations Limits of the estimate: • Covers only the requirements determination part of a development project Plan Requirements Determination Define Design Construct Test Deploy Maintain Retire Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Requirements Determination and the Systems Life Cycle Requirement Determination Work from the abstract to the concrete:Scope W Estimate H Understand Y the problemHigh-Level (Business) Requirements W HDetailed (System) Requirements A TDesignConstruct H SolveTest O W the problemImplement…. Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Understanding the Scope Statement Scope Statement Scope Statement Industry Business Process and Data Objectives Identifies the key business Frameworks features of the proposed Business Functional solution, and the systems, Process Diagrams Summary agents and organizations which define the boundaries Feature Set for the solution. Interfaces to External This is the scope of the solution Environment Context rather than the project scope. Diagrams Interfaces within Client Environment Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Understanding High-Level Requirements Business Requirements Business Business (High-Level) Requirements Requirements A collection of statements that identify the breadth of what a User Requirements Initial solution must provide in order to Use Case meet the business needs. ID, System Summary, Interface Actor List, Requirements Diagrams Provides an overview of end-to-end Functional business activities, identification Requirements of functions and interfaces, applicable business policies, Business Identify Business and non-functional constraints. Policies Rules Non-Functional Requirements (Constraints) Conceptual Enhancement or support Business projects may have logical Data Model data models available at this level also Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Information Flow within Requirements Determination Scope Statement Business Requirements System Requirements Industry Business BusinessProcess and Functional Data Objectives Requirements RequirementsFrameworksBusiness User Process Functional Requirements Initial UserDiagrams Summary Use Requirements Case Estimate ID, Use Cases System Summary, System Feature Interface Actor List, Interface Set Requirements Diagrams Requirements Functional Business Requirements Rules Interfaces to External Environment Context Identify Non-Functional Requirements (Constraints) Business Diagrams Policies Business Interfaces Rules within Quality Security Client Attributes Requirements Environment Non-Functional Requirements (Constraints) Performance Safety Requirements Requirements Conceptual Enhancement or support Business projects may have logical Logical Data Model data models available at Business this level also Data Model Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • How to estimate requirements time and resources• Estimating the requirements determination phase of a development project is an iterative process• It requires cooperative interaction between the client, the project / program management, and the requirements determination team Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Requirements Determination ActivitiesThe estimate can not and does not include: • Tasks outside of requirements determination • Work performed by 3rd party suppliers • Impact of resource unavailability * • Impact of quality or availability of documentation not meeting commitments* • Changes to overall scope after project is initiated* • Changes to complexity discovered during the requirements determination work sessions* * These items are handled via change request Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Critical Success Factors for Accurate Estimates• Defined business goals, context, and rationale.• Functionally decomposed business model.• Analysis of functional complexity.• Skilled, trained RD team following process and methodology.• Committed SMEs and stakeholders providing business, regional, user, and technical knowledge.• Participants have adequate time for preparation and participation to follow planned work session schedule.• Adequate physical / communication facilities.• Regional and cultural issues are considered.• Quality is built into the requirements determination process, not “inspected in” afterward Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • FunctionsDecompose the project scope into functions • A function designed to perform a business purpose • What something is used for, how it is expected to perform. • A not-yet-formalized requirement, or set of requirements. • Functions must align to business goals and objectives. • Example: Functions such as “Provide Payments to Contractors” and “Enable Schedulers to Estimate and Schedule Jobs” should align with one or more business goals such as “Provide Accurate Estimates for Prospective Customers,” or with an objective such as “Ninety Percent of All Estimate Requests will result in a Scheduled Job.” Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • FeaturesFunctions decompose into features • Features are the characteristics and implementation details of functions • Features align to functions • They are based on user requirements, business rules, constraints, and quality attributes* • Features determine the complexity of functions * Non-functional requirements used to evaluate the performance of a system. Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Deriving Functions from a Scope Statement “We need to allow schedulers to be able toStatement assign contractors to jobs within the contractor’s local area” • Maintain a list of authorized schedulers • Add, View, Edit, Report • Maintain a list of authorized contractors and theFunctions contractor’s location and area of operation • Browse, View, Query, Add, Edit, Status, Report, Define area of operation • Maintain a list of jobs and the area in which the job isFeatures performed • Browse, View, Query, Add, Edit, Status, Report Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Where to obtain information for Plan & Define estimates?• Preliminary discussions • Discussions with customer and Subject Matter Experts, which lead to a Project Profile • Context and Business Process Model diagrams • Existing requirements documentation • Existing system documentation • Decomposition of existing screens• Service Request documentation • Project Charter • Project Description • Question and response documents• Detailed requirements estimating negotiations Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Business Process Modeling Operational DefinitionsProcess: A series of activities with a defined deliverable (Example: the goal of a Sales Process is a signed contract)Activity: A sub-process, function, or objective within the process (Example: Identify a potential customer)Task: A component of an activity (Example: Establish creditworthiness)Step: An action taken to accomplish a task (Example: Look up the credit history) • A business accomplishes its goals and needs through processes. • A process consists of activities assigned to resources • Resources perform tasks (consisting of steps).Business Need Processes Activities Tasks Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Business Process DecompositionBusiness 1. Produce 2. 3. & DeliverNeeds Product 1.1. Plan & 1.2. Convert 1.3. Processes Acquire Resources to Resources Products 1.1.1. Obtain 1.1.2. 1.1.3. Activities Materials & Schedule Supplies Production 1.1.1.1. 1.1.1.2. 1.1.1.3. Tasks Complete Send Purchase Order to Order Supplier Steps….. Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Multi-Level and End-to-End Business Process Models Level 2Level 3 Level 1 Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Multi-Level and End-to-End Business Process Models Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Cli Sales Process – page 1 of 2 ent E xam New Incremental pleBusiness Business 1 2 3 4 Identify Contact Attract Develop Customer Customer Interest Interest 1.1 Gather contact 2.1 Call account executive 3.1 Determine customer 4.1 Determine customer information for account 2.2 Call sales executive audience audience and sales executives 3.2 Assemble presentation 4.2 Assemble presentation and customer 2.3 Provide follow-up information (e.g., service team team 1.2 Gather customer line portfolio) 3.3 Give Level 1 4.3 Prepare demonstration information presentation. Marketing materials and 2.4 Educate and coordinate 1.3 Determine sales activity with account and reviews presentation equipment (if needed) approach sales executives 3.4 Provide follow-up 4.4 Give Level 2 1.4 Review & track. 2.5 Send customized contact information (e.g., further presentation, detailed letter to customer. offerings detail, preview presentation, and / or Marketing reviews letter material for next demonstration. presentation) Marketing reviews 2.6 Call customer presentation / 3.5 Review & track. Inform 2.7 Provide follow-up account, marketing, demonstration information (e.g., sales, and support 4.5 Provide follow-up brochures, etc.) organizations of information (e.g., 2.8 Review & track. Inform presentation results contact information, account, marketing, (Stop or Continue) meeting schedules) sales, and support 4.6 Review & track. Inform organizations of contact account, marketing, results (Stop or sales, and support Continue) organizations of presentation results (Stop or Continue) For immediate For immediate opportunities Proceed opportunities Proceed to Identify Opportunity to Identify Opportunity Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • CliSales Process – page 2 of 2 ent E xam ple Renewal Business 5 6 7 Identify Pursue Close Opportunity Opportunity Sale 5.1 Support and delivery 6.1 Pursuit team meets and 7.1 Delivery team identified organizations meet and follow-up with customer 7.2 Business Partner follow-up with customer to define opportunity Agreements are to identify opportunities (repeat as needed) formalized between (repeat as needed) 6.2 Account, marketing, account and delivery 5.2 Account, marketing, sales, and support organizations sales, and support organizations produce 7.3 Delivery team leaders organizations prioritize proposal for customer. meet with customer to identified opportunities Marketing reviews define project and (Stop or Continue) proposal develop Statement of 5.3 Pursuit team is 6.3 Delivery organizations Work, if necessary organized to further are notified of potential (repeat as needed) define opportunity for staffing requirements 7.4 Customer signs proposal development and availability date Statement of Work, if 5.4 Review, document & 6.4 Respond to customer necessary - delivery track. Inform account, inquiries and requests begins marketing, sales, and for further information 7.5 Account establishes support organizations of 6.5 Assist customer with billing arrangements identified opportunities purchasing process with customer requirements and 7.6 Review, document & responds / negotiates as track. Inform account, needed marketing, sales, and 6.6 Review & track. Inform support organizations of account, marketing, deal results sales, and support organizations of pursuit status. (Stop or Continue) Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Project ProfileA formal set of interview questions asked to better understand the purpose of a project Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Project Profile Can be created pre- or post-Service Request Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Cli ent E xamExtract from Project Charter and Scope Documents ple PROJECT SCOPE PROJECT SCOPE This project will determine best practices and products to develop aaproduct This project will determine best practices and products to develop product track and trace application that meets the global requirements of each user track and trace application that meets the global requirements of each user region (Asia Pacific, North America, Europe) in our corporation. This region (Asia Pacific, North America, Europe) in our corporation. This includes manufacturing, assembly, and co-located joint venture and supplier includes manufacturing, assembly, and co-located joint venture and supplier operations. operations. The system architecture will be scalable in design to support both low and The system architecture will be scalable in design to support both low and high volume plants. high volume plants. The system interfaces will be required to meet the needs of both in plant and The system interfaces will be required to meet the needs of both in plant and off-site manufacturing operations. The reporting toolbox will be compliant off-site manufacturing operations. The reporting toolbox will be compliant with Quality and Engineering business owner requirements to track local, with Quality and Engineering business owner requirements to track local, regional and global common parts from birth to end-product fielding. regional and global common parts from birth to end-product fielding. Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Cli ent E xam Extract from Project Charter and Scope Documents plePROJECT OBJECTIVES ––Business Functionality PROJECT OBJECTIVES Business FunctionalityDesign aasoftware application that supports one global business process for shipping zero defect Design software application that supports one global business process for shipping zero defectparts. These plan and define efforts shall include but not limited to: parts. These plan and define efforts shall include but not limited to: 1.Build aaset of manufacturing quality requirements in accordance to be approved by the Corporate 1.Build set of manufacturing quality requirements in accordance to be approved by the Corporate Manufacturing Committee Manufacturing Committee 2.Build aaset of manufacturing quality requirements in accordance with Corporate Quality 2.Build set of manufacturing quality requirements in accordance with Corporate Quality Procedures. These plan and define efforts should include but not limited to: Procedures. These plan and define efforts should include but not limited to: a. Trace quality data for all corporate-made components. a. Trace quality data for all corporate-made components. b. Trace the following quality on-site manufacturing operations: load, unload, component b. Trace the following quality on-site manufacturing operations: load, unload, component marriage points, component divorce points, scrap, rework, hot test, cold test, racking, marriage points, component divorce points, scrap, rework, hot test, cold test, racking, storage, shipping. storage, shipping. c. Trace manufacturing operations performed off-site of the plant c. Trace manufacturing operations performed off-site of the plant d. Trace storage locations both plant on-site and off-site d. Trace storage locations both plant on-site and off-site e. Trace manufacturing process operations performed off-site e. Trace manufacturing process operations performed off-site f.f.Trace supplier in-bound material. This requirement is dependent on global labeling Trace supplier in-bound material. This requirement is dependent on global labeling standards and therefore may remain as aarequirement for future execution. standards and therefore may remain as requirement for future execution. g. Create business case for trace functionality at casting plants. g. Create business case for trace functionality at casting plants. h. Traceability of software versions used in the product h. Traceability of software versions used in the product 3.Capability to support stand alone manufacturing plants or those manufacturing plants collocated 3.Capability to support stand alone manufacturing plants or those manufacturing plants collocated with assembly operations with assembly operations Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Cli Extract from Customer Overview Diagrams ent E xam ple Track and Trace Program Overview Track and Trace Program OverviewProduction Load Test ECV/ Button Up Inventory Flow - Repair Out Loop In • Traceability of software versions in all modules as shipped Expanded • Expanded traceability to support off line Care traceability by processing and WinTerm lot number • Traceability of purchased parts Rack Shipping Plant Configuration Data & Reporting Expanded containment capability for internal CDM Expanded traceability of common or commercial products across regions customers WinTerm Report Admin. • Support of shipping processes for delivery off or on campusQUALITY • Expanded traceability for off-site locations •Campaign Manager •Repairs & Quality GatesCDM •Export and Import Serial Numbers •Retrieve Serial Number History Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Cli Extract from Customer Overview Diagrams ent E xam ple Track and Trace Program Overview Track and Trace Program Overview Functional FunctionsProduction Load Test Groupings ECV/ Button Up Inventory Traceability of software version in Flow - all module as shipped Repair Out Loop In Expanded traceability to support off-line processing • Traceability of software versions in all modules as shipped Traceability of purchased parts Expanded Care • Expanded traceability to support off line and Traceability of common products across by WinTerm traceability processing Traceability Rack lot number • Traceability of purchased parts regions Shipping Traceability by lot number Expanded containment capability for Plant Configuration Data & Reporting internal or commercial customers Expanded containment Support of shipping processes for deliver on- or off-campus capability for internal CDM Expanded traceability of common or commercial products across regions Expanded traceability for off-site customers WinTerm locations Report Admin. Quality Quality functions Global Multi-lingual / global support • Support of shipping processes for delivery Reporting Expanded reporting capability off or on campusQUALITY • Expanded traceability for off-site locations Analysis of Vendor Capabilities •Campaign Manager Comparison to project requirements COTS Analysis •Repairs & Quality GatesCDM •Export and Import Serial Numbers COTS vendor short-list selection •Retrieve Serial Number History Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Cli entExtract from Existing or Prototype Screens E xam ple Plant Overview Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Prioritizing Functions• Prioritization is essential to successfully estimate requirements determination activities.• Prioritization is the process of assigning a precedence that orders or ranks one function or requirement over another.• Prioritization allocates resources to the most important requirements and facilitates making decisions about which to implement and when to implement them. Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Prioritization Benefits• Helps stakeholder focus• Surfaces trade-offs among competing project goals• Minimizes politics and personal biases• Improves communications• Creates stakeholders buy-in• Control scope creep• Framework for ongoing prioritization• Plan software releases Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • High-level overview of requirements estimating process1. Work with the scope statement, process models, other documentation, and the customer to get a reasonably clear idea of the project2. Break the solution down into functional groups, component functions and the complexity of each (features)3. Prioritize the functionality (at this point requirements not uncovered)4. Consider cultural and environmental issues, and the knowledge and availability of participant stakeholders5. Consider the skills needed to do the requirements determination6. Estimate the raw effort hours needed to elicit and document the requirements7. Adjust the raw effort hours for cultural and environmental factors8. Calculate the man-hours based on resourcing9. Calculate calendar time based on schedules, and cost10. Iterate, negotiate. Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Quality / Availability of Business Process Models Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Cli entEstimating Functional Requirements E xam ple Functional Functions Groupings Traceability of software version in all module as shipped Expanded traceability to support off-line processing Traceability of purchased parts Traceability of common products across Traceability regions Traceability by lot number Expanded containment capability for internal or commercial customers Support of shipping processes for deliver on- or off-campus Expanded traceability for off-site locations Quality Quality functions Global Multi-lingual / global support Reporting Expanded reporting capability Analysis of Vendor Capabilities COTS Analysis Comparison to project requirements COTS vendor short-list selection Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Cli ent Estimating Functional Requirements E xam ple Business Functional Use External Business Quality Business System Functions Complexity Need BPM Requirements Groupings Cases Interfaces Rules Attributes Requirements Requirements Traceability of software version in engine M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 or transmission module as shipped Expanded traceability to support off-line M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 processing Traceability of purchased parts M Yes 1 5 3 3 3 5 Traceability of common products across M Yes 1 3 3 3 3 5 Traceability regions Traceability by lot number M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 Expanded containment capability for M Yes 1 5 3 3 3 5 internal or commercial customers Support of shipping processes for deliver None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 on- or off-campus Expanded traceability for off-site None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 locations Quality Quality functions M Yes 1 0 3 3 3 5 Global Multi-lingual / global support M Yes 1 0 3 3 3 5 Reporting Expanded reporting capability H Yes 1 2 5 5 5 10 Analysis of Vendor Capabilities None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 COTS Analysis Comparison to project requirements None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 COTS vendor short-list selection None No 0 0 0 0 0 0Standard Nonfunctional From Nonfunctional Tab 15 0 0 0 15 15 15 45Complexity = Number and Complexity of Features such as screens, reports, calculations, rules, constraints Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Cli ent Estimating Functional Requirements E xam ple Business Functional Use External Business Quality Business System Functions Complexity Need BPM Requirements Groupings Cases Interfaces Rules Attributes Requirements Requirements Traceability of software version in engine M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 or transmission module as shipped Expanded traceability to support off-line M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 processing Traceability of purchased parts M Yes 1 5 3 3 3 5 Traceability of common products across M Yes 1 3 3 3 3 5 Traceability regions Traceability by lot number M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 Expanded containment capability for M Yes 1 5 3 3 3 5 internal or commercial customers Support of shipping processes for deliver None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 on- or off-campus Expanded traceability for off-site None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 locations Quality Quality functions M Yes 1 0 3 3 3 5 Global Multi-lingual / global support M Yes 1 0 3 3 3 5 Reporting Expanded reporting capability H Yes 1 2 5 5 5 10 Analysis of Vendor Capabilities None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 COTS Analysis Comparison to project requirements None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 COTS vendor short-list selection None No 0 0 0 0 0 0Standard Nonfunctional From Nonfunctional Tab 15 0 0 0 15 15 15 45Complexity = Number and Complexity of Features such as screens, reports, calculations, rules, constraints Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Cli ent Estimating Functional Requirements E xam ple Business Functional Use External Business Quality Business System Functions Complexity Need BPM Requirements Groupings Cases Interfaces Rules Attributes Requirements Requirements Traceability of software version in engine M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 or transmission module as shipped Expanded traceability to support off-line M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 processing Traceability of purchased parts M Yes 1 5 3 3 3 5 Traceability of common products across M Yes 1 3 3 3 3 5 Traceability regions Traceability by lot number M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 Expanded containment capability for M Yes 1 5 3 3 3 5 internal or commercial customers Support of shipping processes for deliver None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 on- or off-campus Expanded traceability for off-site None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 locations Quality Quality functions M Yes 1 0 3 3 3 5 Global Multi-lingual / global support M Yes 1 0 3 3 3 5 Reporting Expanded reporting capability H Yes 1 2 5 5 5 10 Analysis of Vendor Capabilities None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 COTS Analysis Comparison to project requirements None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 COTS vendor short-list selection None No 0 0 0 0 0 0Standard Nonfunctional From Nonfunctional Tab 15 0 0 0 15 15 15 45Complexity = Number and Complexity of Features such as screens, reports, calculations, rules, constraints Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Cli ent Estimating Functional Requirements E xam ple Business Functional Use External Business Quality Business System Functions Complexity Need BPM Requirements Groupings Cases Interfaces Rules Attributes Requirements Requirements Traceability of software version in engine M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 or transmission module as shipped Expanded traceability to support off-line M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 processing Traceability of purchased parts M Yes 1 5 3 3 3 5 Traceability of common products across M Yes 1 3 3 3 3 5 Traceability regions Traceability by lot number M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 Expanded containment capability for M Yes 1 5 3 3 3 5 internal or commercial customers Support of shipping processes for deliver None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 on- or off-campus Expanded traceability for off-site None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 locations Quality Quality functions M Yes 1 0 3 3 3 5 Global Multi-lingual / global support M Yes 1 0 3 3 3 5 Reporting Expanded reporting capability H Yes 1 2 5 5 5 10 Analysis of Vendor Capabilities None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 COTS Analysis Comparison to project requirements None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 COTS vendor short-list selection None No 0 0 0 0 0 0Standard Nonfunctional From Nonfunctional Tab 15 0 0 0 15 15 15 45Complexity = Number and Complexity of Features such as screens, reports, calculations, rules, constraints Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Cli ent Estimating Functional Requirements E xam ple Business Functional Use External Business Quality Business System Functions Complexity Need BPM Requirements Groupings Cases Interfaces Rules Attributes Requirements Requirements Traceability of software version in engine M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 or transmission module as shipped Expanded traceability to support off-line M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 processing Traceability of purchased parts M Yes 1 5 3 3 3 5 Traceability of common products across M Yes 1 3 3 3 3 5 Traceability regions Traceability by lot number M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 Expanded containment capability for M Yes 1 5 3 3 3 5 internal or commercial customers Support of shipping processes for deliver None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 on- or off-campus Expanded traceability for off-site None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 locations Quality Quality functions M Yes 1 0 3 3 3 5 Global Multi-lingual / global support M Yes 1 0 3 3 3 5 Reporting Expanded reporting capability H Yes 1 2 5 5 5 10 Analysis of Vendor Capabilities None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 COTS Analysis Comparison to project requirements None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 COTS vendor short-list selection None No 0 0 0 0 0 0Standard Nonfunctional From Nonfunctional Tab 15 0 0 0 15 15 15 45Complexity = Number and Complexity of Features such as screens, reports, calculations, rules, constraints Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Cli ent Estimating Functional Requirements E xam ple Business Functional Use External Business Quality Business System Functions Complexity Need BPM Requirements Groupings Cases Interfaces Rules Attributes Requirements Requirements Traceability of software version in engine M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 or transmission module as shipped Expanded traceability to support off-line M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 processing Traceability of purchased parts M Yes 1 5 3 3 3 5 Traceability of common products across M Yes 1 3 3 3 3 5 Traceability regions Traceability by lot number M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 Expanded containment capability for M Yes 1 5 3 3 3 5 internal or commercial customers Support of shipping processes for deliver None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 on- or off-campus Expanded traceability for off-site None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 locations Quality Quality functions M Yes 1 0 3 3 3 5 Global Multi-lingual / global support M Yes 1 0 3 3 3 5 Reporting Expanded reporting capability H Yes 1 2 5 5 5 10 Analysis of Vendor Capabilities None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 COTS Analysis Comparison to project requirements None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 COTS vendor short-list selection None No 0 0 0 0 0 0Standard Nonfunctional From Nonfunctional Tab 15 0 0 0 15 15 15 45Complexity = Number and Complexity of Features such as screens, reports, calculations, rules, constraints Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Cli ent Estimating Functional Requirements E xam ple Business Functional Use External Business Quality Business System Functions Complexity Need BPM Requirements Groupings Cases Interfaces Rules Attributes Requirements Requirements Traceability of software version in engine M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 or transmission module as shipped Expanded traceability to support off-line M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 processing Traceability of purchased parts M Yes 1 5 3 3 3 5 Traceability of common products across M Yes 1 3 3 3 3 5 Traceability regions Traceability by lot number M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 Expanded containment capability for M Yes 1 5 3 3 3 5 internal or commercial customers Support of shipping processes for deliver None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 on- or off-campus Expanded traceability for off-site None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 locations Quality Quality functions M Yes 1 0 3 3 3 5 Global Multi-lingual / global support M Yes 1 0 3 3 3 5 Reporting Expanded reporting capability H Yes 1 2 5 5 5 10 Analysis of Vendor Capabilities None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 COTS Analysis Comparison to project requirements None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 COTS vendor short-list selection None No 0 0 0 0 0 0Standard Nonfunctional From Nonfunctional Tab 15 0 0 0 15 15 15 45Complexity = Number and Complexity of Features such as screens, reports, calculations, rules, constraints Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Cli ent Estimating Functional Requirements E xam ple Business Functional Use External Business Quality Business System Functions Complexity Need BPM Requirements Groupings Cases Interfaces Rules Attributes Requirements Requirements Traceability of software version in engine M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 or transmission module as shipped Expanded traceability to support off-line M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 processing Traceability of purchased parts M Yes 1 5 3 3 3 5 Traceability of common products across M Yes 1 3 3 3 3 5 Traceability regions Traceability by lot number M Yes 1 1 3 3 3 5 Expanded containment capability for M Yes 1 5 3 3 3 5 internal or commercial customers Support of shipping processes for deliver None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 on- or off-campus Expanded traceability for off-site None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 locations Quality Quality functions M Yes 1 0 3 3 3 5 Global Multi-lingual / global support M Yes 1 0 3 3 3 5 Reporting Expanded reporting capability H Yes 1 2 5 5 5 10 Analysis of Vendor Capabilities None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 COTS Analysis Comparison to project requirements None No 0 0 0 0 0 0 COTS vendor short-list selection None No 0 0 0 0 0 0Standard Nonfunctional From Nonfunctional Tab 15 0 0 0 15 15 15 45Complexity = Number and Complexity of Features such as screens, reports, calculations, rules, constraints Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Non-Functional RequirementsNon-functional requirements do not directly address aclient business or application need. They address: A property the end product must possess, such as safety or availability The standards by which it must be created The supporting structure that makes it possible The architecture or regulatory environment in which it must exist Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Non-Functional RequirementsNF Requirement Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Non-Functional RequirementsNF Requirement Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Non-Functional RequirementsNF Requirement Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Non-Functional RequirementsNF Requirement Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Non-Functional RequirementsNF Requirement Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Non-Functional RequirementsNF Requirement Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Non-Functional RequirementsNF Requirement Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Non-Functional RequirementsNF Requirement Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Resource Requirements Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Resource RequirementsResource Skills Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Resource Requirements Planning Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Resource Requirements Business Process Modeling Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Resource Requirements Preparation Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Resource Requirements JAD Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Resource Requirements Requirements Management Entry Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Resource Requirements Quality Assurance Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Resource Requirements Revision Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Resource Requirements Process Delay Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimating Resource Requirements Resource Source Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Environmental Correction Factors Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Number of JAD Participants Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Location of Work Sessions Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Languages spoken Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Cultural Considerations Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Quality of Existing Documentation Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Customer / SME Knowledge Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Number of 3rd Party Vendors Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Prototyping / Visualization part of RD Activities Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Number of User Locations Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Number of Supporting Locations Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Number of Impacted Customer Groups Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Number of Impacted Vendor Groups Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Working Session (JAD) Working Environment Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Estimate Summary Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Review• It is necessary to understand the underlying business need in order to estimate and gather good requirements with which to satisfy the underlying business need.• In order to obtain quality results, the requirements determination and estimating activities need to follow solid processes and methodologies.• It is possible to estimate the time and resources needed for the requirements determination phase of a development project.• While primarily focused on software development, the concepts presented here are applicable to the development of any product, not just software. Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.
    • Questions Harry F. Gilbert harry@hfgilbert.com http://www.hfgilbert.com Copyright © 2010 Fish, Gilbert & Associates, LLC, All Rights Reserved http://www.hfgilbert.com.