Climate, Technology, and GovernancePath to Success Globalization’s Negative Effects Environmental Degradation Geoengineering is a Tool Governance is the Solution The Future is in our hands
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceThe Globalization Effect
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceEnvironmental Degradation Water Pollution Less than 3% of the World’s water is usable Water contamination Chain effect of Global Warming Soil Pollution Globalization hastens Erosion & Deforestation Waste-dumping, pesticides & fertilizers Air Pollution Greenhouse gas emissions Effect on the Ozone Layer
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceGeoengineering“large-scale engineering of our environment in order tocombat or counteract the effects of changes inatmospheric chemistry” - National Academy of SciencesGeoengineering Approaches Carbon Sequestration/Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) Solar Radiation Management (SRM)
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceCDR Approaches Land Based Ocean BasedEnhanced Air Capture CO2Weathering Oceanic Upwelling Ocean Fertilization or Down welling(Olivine) (Artificial Trees)
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceArtificial Trees Brain child of Columbia University Professor Claus Lackner. In one day, each tree capture same amount of CO2 emitted by 20 vehicles "This is an industry still in its infancy and will eventually rival (Artificial the size of todays energy markets." Billy Gridley of Global Research Technologies ) (Olivine Trees)
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceSolar Radiation Management Reduce incidence and absorption of solar radiation Sunlight is reflected/diverted Desert Reflectors Surface Albedo Ocean Albedo Cloud AlbedoStratospheric Aerosols Space Based
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceCloud Albedo Projectfunded by Bill Gates Machines spray seawater 3,000 feet into air The machines are developed by Silver Lining, based in San Francisco
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceStratospheric Aerosols Approach similar to the effects of Volcanic Eruption of Mount Pinatubo (Philippines) in 1991. Mount Pinatubos various gases reached 21 miles high into the atmosphere within two hours of the eruption. The aerosol cloud spread around the earth in two weeks and covered the planet within a year. The entire planet was cooled 0.4 to 0.5°C.
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceStratospheric AerosolsMount Pinatubo Eruption Geoengineered release of Aerosols
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceSpace-based Techniques Positioning Sun Shields in space to reflect or deflect solar radiation Where (L1)? How many? Design? Deployment?
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceMethod Comparison
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceWhat we have seen… Technologies have been presented that address what to do. The Challenge is how to execute them correctly – droplet size, type of aerosol, mirror configuration etc…. Disruptive technologies also exist that have proven how to execute the technology. Our challenge now is : what to do about it.
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceGreat Power, Great Responsibility
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceGovernance Kyoto Protocol initiated in 1997 Adaptation Mitigation Modest emission-reduction targets are missed Countermeasures (geoengineering) needed
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceGovernance No treaty explicitly addresses Geoengineering 2009 Royal Society report Existing national land use planning and environmental controls are likely to be applicable 1972 London Convention on Marine Dumping
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceGovernance Models Unilateral Consortium InternationalDecision Making: Fastest Fast SlowestLegitimacy: Least More MostCost Sharing: Least More Most Unilateral Unlikely unless already feeling the dramatic results Consortium Most likely for research and advocacy International Most likely
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceGovernance Requirements Policy and budget guidelines Cost sharing and technology transfer strategies Dispute settlement, compensation and liability Answer difficult questions Which strategies should be researched/implemented? Balance global warming and side effects? Take the edge off or substitute for mitigation? Long term solution or emergency measure?
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceGovernance UNFCCC Best candidate for International Governance Significance between Protocol and UNFCCC Encouraged vs Committed Protocol Mechanisms Protocol Goals
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceConclusion Technology & Governance Battling Climate Change Like most technologies Regulation is necessary Geoengineering capable of significant positive or negative impacts Ethical Positions vs Reality
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceConclusion Winning the Battle against Climate Change We have the ability to question & understand the problem We have the ability to solve the problem Tech & Globalization the tools that caused the problem served as the vehicle for increased industrial activity the same tools will fix the problem
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceConclusion Geoengineering Not the only answer Part of the solution Combined w/ Governance & Commitment Reversing the effects of Climate Change
Climate, Technology, and GovernanceGovernance Kyoto Q&A Protocol/UNFCCC