PSYCO 241 Social Psychology  Chapter 4: Understanding Others (1)      Takahiko Masuda, Ph.D     Department of Psychology  ...
Today’s Plan  PSYCO 241, Masuda   2
Today’s Plan• Why do Social  Psychologists Study  Causal Attribution?                  PSYCO 241, Masuda   2
Today’s Plan• Why do Social  Psychologists Study  Causal Attribution?• Common Sense  Psychology                  PSYCO 241...
Today’s Plan• Why do Social  Psychologists Study  Causal Attribution?• Common Sense  Psychology• The Process of Causal  At...
Today’s Plan• Why do Social  Psychologists Study  Causal Attribution?• Common Sense  Psychology• The Process of Causal  At...
Why Social Psychologists Study          Attributionattribution - linking a cause to an instance of behavior   - one’s own ...
Explanation Styles• If you attribute all positive experiences to  external/unstable and specific factors,  and all negativ...
PSYCO 241, Masuda   5
Common Sense Psychology:    Physical World                            Fritz Heider        PSYCO 241, Masuda               ...
Common Sense Psychology:    Physical World                            Fritz Heider        PSYCO 241, Masuda               ...
Common Sense Psychology:    Physical World                            Fritz Heider        PSYCO 241, Masuda               ...
Common Sense Psychology:    Physical World                            Fritz Heider        PSYCO 241, Masuda               ...
Common Sense Psychology:   Psychological World        PSYCO 241, Masuda   7
Common Sense Psychology:   Psychological World        PSYCO 241, Masuda   7
Common Sense Psychology:   Psychological World        PSYCO 241, Masuda   7
Common Sense Psychology:   Psychological World        PSYCO 241, Masuda   7
Common Sense Psychology:   Psychological World        PSYCO 241, Masuda   7
The Processes of Causal Attribution1. Attribution and Single-Instance Observation2. Attribution and Covariation3. Attribut...
1. Attribution and Single-Instance                 ObservationDiscounting principle - idea that we should assign   reduced...
PSYCO 241, Masuda   10
2. Attribution and CovariationCovariation Principle –idea that we should attributebehavior to potential causesthat co-occu...
3 types of covariation information • Consensus: What most people would do in a given situation • Distinctiveness: What an ...
Shall We Dance?    PSYCO 241, Masuda   13
Is Richard Gere Clumsy?Richard Gere mistakenly stepped on Jeniffer    Lopez’s feet…• Consensus: Do most people step on the...
Internal vs. External AttributionsInternal Attribution: Attributing the causes of  one’s behavior to the person’s personal...
PSYCO 241, Masuda   16
3. Attribution and Imagining an         Alternate Chain of Eventscounterfactual thoughts - thoughts of what might   have, ...
PSYCO 241, Masuda   18
Olympic Athletes’            Emotional ReactionEmotional Amplification - a ratcheting up of anemotional reaction to an eve...
Olympic Athletes’            Emotional ReactionEmotional Amplification - a ratcheting up of anemotional reaction to an eve...
Olympic Athletes’            Emotional ReactionEmotional Amplification - a ratcheting up of anemotional reaction to an eve...
Olympic Athletes’            Emotional ReactionEmotional Amplification - a ratcheting up of anemotional reaction to an eve...
Olympic Athletes’            Emotional ReactionEmotional Amplification - a ratcheting up of anemotional reaction to an eve...
PSYCO 241, Masuda   20
Errors and Biases in Attribution1. The Self-Serving Bias2. The Actor-Observer Effect3. The False-consensus effect4. The Fu...
1. The Self-Serving BiasTendency to attribute failure and other bad eventsto external circumstances, and attributesuccess ...
1. The Self-Serving BiasTendency to attribute failure and other bad eventsto external circumstances, and attributesuccess ...
1. The Self-Serving BiasTendency to attribute failure and other bad eventsto external circumstances, and attributesuccess ...
2. The Actor-Observer Difference in          Causal AttributionsDifferences in attribution based on who is makingthe causa...
An actor’s vs. an Observer’s         Point of ViewActor’s Point of View                       Observer’s Point of View    ...
An actor’s vs. an Observer’s         Point of ViewActor’s Point of View                       Observer’s Point of View    ...
An actor’s vs. an Observer’s         Point of ViewActor’s Point of View                        Observer’s Point of View   ...
An actor’s vs. an Observer’s         Point of ViewActor’s Point of View                        Observer’s Point of View   ...
An actor’s vs. an Observer’s         Point of ViewActor’s Point of View                        Observer’s Point of View   ...
Processes that give rise to the Actor-         Observer Effect1. Assumptions about what it is that needsexplaining can var...
3. False-Consensus EffectTendency for people to think that their behavior (aswell as their attitudes, values, or responses...
False-Consensus Effect: Actual Results• About half of the participants agreed with  wearing the sandwich board.• Our causa...
4. The Fundamental Attribution ErrorTendency to believe that a behaviour is due to aperson’s disposition rather than the s...
Empirical Research: Free Essay     Castro is a     great leader     Pro-Castro Essay      Castro is a      dangerous      ...
Empirical Research: Free Essay                                        This person thinks     Castro is a                  ...
Empirical Research: Free Essay                                        This person thinks     Castro is a                  ...
Empirical Research:Request to     Forced Essay support Castro              Castro is a              great leader          ...
Empirical Research:Request to     Forced Essay support Castro              Castro is a                   ????             ...
Empirical Research:Request to     Forced Essay support Castro              Castro is a                   ????             ...
PSYCO 241, Masuda   31
Can we reduce FAE?• Snider & Jones (1974) asked  participants to experience  situational constraints• Participants were li...
The Induced Choice Paradigm     The Respondent                                The Inducer Option 1      Option 2Statements...
The Induced Choice Paradigm                      Please                      read option                      1     The Re...
The Induced Choice Paradigm                      Please                      read option                      1     The Re...
The Induced Choice Paradigm                      Please                 The responder                      read option    ...
PSYCO 241, Masuda   34
The Questioner vs. Contestant                 ParadigmAm I smarter     The observerthan the                          Who i...
PSYCO 241, Masuda   36
Causes of the Fundamental            Attribution Error1. Dispositional inferences can be comforting2. People tend to attri...
PSYCO 241, Masuda   38
PSYCO 241, Masuda   39
Taka’s Thoughts• Are there any cultural  variations in socio-  cognitive biases?• If so, what are the causes  of the cultu...
Summary of Today’s Lecture• Interpretation of human behavior is different from  that of physical movement. You need to tak...
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Psyco241 ch4(1)understanding others2012wclass

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  • Asked participants of 6 possible causes of 6 negative experiences and 6 positive experiences - Turned out to be 3 dimensional\nThe amount of possibility of the experience happening again in the future (i.e. car accident) - stable/unstable.\nP\n
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  • When you see a person jump:\n1)external factor i.e. wind\n2) persons intentions\nEach time we observe another persons behaviour we debate between whether the action was an external or internal factor.\n
  • When you see a person jump:\n1)external factor i.e. wind\n2) persons intentions\nEach time we observe another persons behaviour we debate between whether the action was an external or internal factor.\n
  • When you see a person jump:\n1)external factor i.e. wind\n2) persons intentions\nEach time we observe another persons behaviour we debate between whether the action was an external or internal factor.\n
  • When you see a person jump:\n1)external factor i.e. wind\n2) persons intentions\nEach time we observe another persons behaviour we debate between whether the action was an external or internal factor.\n
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  • The key factor was to be sociable = extraverted was told to one group.\nThe key factor was to be able to be alone in isolation = introverted was told to the other group.\n\n
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  • Because of her allergy to the wine - she died. Others would think of the alternative dish w/o wine sauce\n
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  • Silver medalists are more focussed on how things they could have done differently to get gold.\n
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  • Actor - more sensitive to situational factor.\nObserver - more focus to person’s action as opposed to the situation.\n\nThe actor and observer each are biased, paying attention to one more than the other.\n
  • Actor - more sensitive to situational factor.\nObserver - more focus to person’s action as opposed to the situation.\n\nThe actor and observer each are biased, paying attention to one more than the other.\n
  • Actor - more sensitive to situational factor.\nObserver - more focus to person’s action as opposed to the situation.\n\nThe actor and observer each are biased, paying attention to one more than the other.\n
  • Actor - more sensitive to situational factor.\nObserver - more focus to person’s action as opposed to the situation.\n\nThe actor and observer each are biased, paying attention to one more than the other.\n
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  • Observer was far more biased and thought the questioner was smarter than the contestant. \n
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  • Psyco241 ch4(1)understanding others2012wclass

    1. 1. PSYCO 241 Social Psychology Chapter 4: Understanding Others (1) Takahiko Masuda, Ph.D Department of Psychology University of Alberta PSYCO 241, Masuda 1
    2. 2. Today’s Plan PSYCO 241, Masuda 2
    3. 3. Today’s Plan• Why do Social Psychologists Study Causal Attribution? PSYCO 241, Masuda 2
    4. 4. Today’s Plan• Why do Social Psychologists Study Causal Attribution?• Common Sense Psychology PSYCO 241, Masuda 2
    5. 5. Today’s Plan• Why do Social Psychologists Study Causal Attribution?• Common Sense Psychology• The Process of Causal Attribution PSYCO 241, Masuda 2
    6. 6. Today’s Plan• Why do Social Psychologists Study Causal Attribution?• Common Sense Psychology• The Process of Causal Attribution• Error and Biases in Attribution PSYCO 241, Masuda 2
    7. 7. Why Social Psychologists Study Attributionattribution - linking a cause to an instance of behavior - one’s own or that of other people1. The Pervasiveness and Importance of Attribution2. Explanatory Style and AttributionExplanatory style - a person’s habitual way of explaining events, typically assessed along three dimensions: internal/external, stable/unstable, and global/specific. PSYCO 241, Masuda 3
    8. 8. Explanation Styles• If you attribute all positive experiences to external/unstable and specific factors, and all negative experiences to internal / Chris Peterson @ Michigan external/ and global factors, you will be very pessimistic.• If you attribute all positive experiences to internal/stable/ and ______ factors, and all negative experiences to ______/ _______/ and ______ factors, you will be Martin Seligman @ Princeton very optimistic PSYCO 241, Masuda 4
    9. 9. PSYCO 241, Masuda 5
    10. 10. Common Sense Psychology: Physical World Fritz Heider PSYCO 241, Masuda 6
    11. 11. Common Sense Psychology: Physical World Fritz Heider PSYCO 241, Masuda 6
    12. 12. Common Sense Psychology: Physical World Fritz Heider PSYCO 241, Masuda 6
    13. 13. Common Sense Psychology: Physical World Fritz Heider PSYCO 241, Masuda 6
    14. 14. Common Sense Psychology: Psychological World PSYCO 241, Masuda 7
    15. 15. Common Sense Psychology: Psychological World PSYCO 241, Masuda 7
    16. 16. Common Sense Psychology: Psychological World PSYCO 241, Masuda 7
    17. 17. Common Sense Psychology: Psychological World PSYCO 241, Masuda 7
    18. 18. Common Sense Psychology: Psychological World PSYCO 241, Masuda 7
    19. 19. The Processes of Causal Attribution1. Attribution and Single-Instance Observation2. Attribution and Covariation3. Attribution and Imagining an Alternate Chain of Events PSYCO 241, Masuda 8
    20. 20. 1. Attribution and Single-Instance ObservationDiscounting principle - idea that we should assign reduced weight to a particular cause of behaviour if there are other plausible causes that might have produced it Contextual Factor IntentionAugmentation principle - idea that we should assign greater weight to a particular cause of behaviour if there are other causes present that normally would produce the opposite outcome. Contextual Factor Intention PSYCO 241, Masuda 9
    21. 21. PSYCO 241, Masuda 10
    22. 22. 2. Attribution and CovariationCovariation Principle –idea that we should attributebehavior to potential causesthat co-occur with thebehavior Harold Kelly PSYCO 241, Masuda 11
    23. 23. 3 types of covariation information • Consensus: What most people would do in a given situation • Distinctiveness: What an individual does in different situations • Consistency: What an individual does in a given situation on different occasions. PSYCO 241, Masuda 12
    24. 24. Shall We Dance? PSYCO 241, Masuda 13
    25. 25. Is Richard Gere Clumsy?Richard Gere mistakenly stepped on Jeniffer Lopez’s feet…• Consensus: Do most people step on their partner’s feet when they dance?• Distinctiveness: Does Richard Gere step on other’s feet in different situations?• Consistency:Does Richard Gere step on his partner’s feet next time when they dance? PSYCO 241, Masuda 14
    26. 26. Internal vs. External AttributionsInternal Attribution: Attributing the causes of one’s behavior to the person’s personality, skill, talent, and abilities (e.g. Richard Gere is clumsy!)External Attribution: Attributing the causes of one’s behavior to situational factors (e.g. Dancing is very difficult!) PSYCO 241, Masuda 15
    27. 27. PSYCO 241, Masuda 16
    28. 28. 3. Attribution and Imagining an Alternate Chain of Eventscounterfactual thoughts - thoughts of what might have, could have, or should have happened “if only” something had been done differently WO/Wine Sauce W/Wine Sauce W/ Wine Sauce Her Decision… An Alternative Decision PSYCO 241, Masuda 17
    29. 29. PSYCO 241, Masuda 18
    30. 30. Olympic Athletes’ Emotional ReactionEmotional Amplification - a ratcheting up of anemotional reaction to an event that is proportional tohow easy it is to imagine the event not happening Silver medalists were less happy than the bronze medalists Goal PSYCO 241, Masuda 19
    31. 31. Olympic Athletes’ Emotional ReactionEmotional Amplification - a ratcheting up of anemotional reaction to an event that is proportional tohow easy it is to imagine the event not happening Silver medalists were less happy than the bronze medalists I win! Goal PSYCO 241, Masuda 19
    32. 32. Olympic Athletes’ Emotional ReactionEmotional Amplification - a ratcheting up of anemotional reaction to an event that is proportional tohow easy it is to imagine the event not happening Silver medalists were less happy than the bronze medalists I failed to get a gold Medal! I win! Goal PSYCO 241, Masuda 19
    33. 33. Olympic Athletes’ Emotional ReactionEmotional Amplification - a ratcheting up of anemotional reaction to an event that is proportional tohow easy it is to imagine the event not happening Silver medalists were less happy than the bronze medalists OK. I failed to I could be get a gold a medalist! Medal! I win! Goal PSYCO 241, Masuda 19
    34. 34. Olympic Athletes’ Emotional ReactionEmotional Amplification - a ratcheting up of anemotional reaction to an event that is proportional tohow easy it is to imagine the event not happening Silver medalists were less happy than the bronze medalists OK. I failed to I could be get a gold a medalist! Medal! I win! … Goal PSYCO 241, Masuda 19
    35. 35. PSYCO 241, Masuda 20
    36. 36. Errors and Biases in Attribution1. The Self-Serving Bias2. The Actor-Observer Effect3. The False-consensus effect4. The Fundamental Attribution Lee Ross Error Richard Nisbett PSYCO 241, Masuda 21
    37. 37. 1. The Self-Serving BiasTendency to attribute failure and other bad eventsto external circumstances, and attributesuccess and other good events to oneself Grade Grade A+ D- PSYCO 241, Masuda 22
    38. 38. 1. The Self-Serving BiasTendency to attribute failure and other bad eventsto external circumstances, and attributesuccess and other good events to oneself I made it, I am smart Grade Grade A+ D- PSYCO 241, Masuda 22
    39. 39. 1. The Self-Serving BiasTendency to attribute failure and other bad eventsto external circumstances, and attributesuccess and other good events to oneself I am I made it, I smart. But am smart the exam is too difficult Grade Grade A+ D- PSYCO 241, Masuda 22
    40. 40. 2. The Actor-Observer Difference in Causal AttributionsDifferences in attribution based on who is makingthe causal assessment: the actor (who is relativelydisposed to make situational attributions) or theobserver (who is relatively disposed to makedispositional attributions) Richard Nisbett Edward Jones @ Michigan PSYCO 241, Masuda @ Duke 23
    41. 41. An actor’s vs. an Observer’s Point of ViewActor’s Point of View Observer’s Point of View PSYCO 241, Masuda 24
    42. 42. An actor’s vs. an Observer’s Point of ViewActor’s Point of View Observer’s Point of View PSYCO 241, Masuda 24
    43. 43. An actor’s vs. an Observer’s Point of ViewActor’s Point of View Observer’s Point of View I am surrounded by situations PSYCO 241, Masuda 24
    44. 44. An actor’s vs. an Observer’s Point of ViewActor’s Point of View Observer’s Point of View I am surrounded by situations PSYCO 241, Masuda 24
    45. 45. An actor’s vs. an Observer’s Point of ViewActor’s Point of View Observer’s Point of View The person I am is the center surrounded of this event by situations PSYCO 241, Masuda 24
    46. 46. Processes that give rise to the Actor- Observer Effect1. Assumptions about what it is that needsexplaining can vary for actors and observers2. The perceptual salience of the actor and thesurrounding situation is different for the actor andthe observer3. Actors and observers differ in the amount andkind of information that they have about the actorand the actor’s behavior PSYCO 241, Masuda 25
    47. 47. 3. False-Consensus EffectTendency for people to think that their behavior (aswell as their attitudes, values, or responses moregenerally) is relatively commone.g., Participants who agree with wearing a large sandwitch-board. > 63% would do so.. Participants who refused to ware the board >23% would do so … PSYCO 241, Masuda 26
    48. 48. False-Consensus Effect: Actual Results• About half of the participants agreed with wearing the sandwich board.• Our causal attribution is strongly biased by our own behavior and attitude. PSYCO 241, Masuda 27
    49. 49. 4. The Fundamental Attribution ErrorTendency to believe that a behaviour is due to aperson’s disposition rather than the situation inwhich the person finds himself PSYCO 241, Masuda 28
    50. 50. Empirical Research: Free Essay Castro is a great leader Pro-Castro Essay Castro is a dangerous leader Anti-Castro Essay PSYCO 241, Masuda 29
    51. 51. Empirical Research: Free Essay This person thinks Castro is a “Castro is a great leader great leader” Pro-Castro Essay Castro is a dangerous leader Anti-Castro Essay PSYCO 241, Masuda 29
    52. 52. Empirical Research: Free Essay This person thinks Castro is a “Castro is a great leader great leader” Pro-Castro Essay Castro is a This person thinks dangerous “Castro is a leader dangerous leader” Anti-Castro Essay PSYCO 241, Masuda 29
    53. 53. Empirical Research:Request to Forced Essay support Castro Castro is a great leader Pro-Castro EssayRequest to criticize Castro Castro is a dangerous leader Anti-Castro Essay PSYCO 241, Masuda 30
    54. 54. Empirical Research:Request to Forced Essay support Castro Castro is a ???? great leader Pro-Castro EssayRequest to criticize Castro Castro is a dangerous leader Anti-Castro Essay PSYCO 241, Masuda 30
    55. 55. Empirical Research:Request to Forced Essay support Castro Castro is a ???? great leader Pro-Castro EssayRequest to criticize Castro Castro is a ???? dangerous leader Anti-Castro Essay PSYCO 241, Masuda 30
    56. 56. PSYCO 241, Masuda 31
    57. 57. Can we reduce FAE?• Snider & Jones (1974) asked participants to experience situational constraints• Participants were likely aware of the fact that the content in one’s essay Mark Snider can be completely incongruent with @ Minnesota their true attitude towards the target issue.• But the error was very robust. Edward Jones PSYCO 241, Masuda 32
    58. 58. The Induced Choice Paradigm The Respondent The Inducer Option 1 Option 2Statements Stetements of Of Altruistic Selfish Behavior Behavior Dan Gilbert PSYCO 241, Masuda 33
    59. 59. The Induced Choice Paradigm Please read option 1 The Respondent The Inducer Option 1 Option 2Statements Stetements of Of Altruistic Selfish Behavior Behavior Dan Gilbert PSYCO 241, Masuda 33
    60. 60. The Induced Choice Paradigm Please read option 1 The Respondent The Inducer Option 1 Option 2 I an willingStatements Stetements to help of Of others! Altruistic Selfish Behavior Behavior Dan Gilbert PSYCO 241, Masuda 33
    61. 61. The Induced Choice Paradigm Please The responder read option must be altruistic 1 The Respondent The Inducer Option 1 Option 2 I an willingStatements Stetements to help of Of others! Altruistic Selfish Behavior Behavior Dan Gilbert PSYCO 241, Masuda 33
    62. 62. PSYCO 241, Masuda 34
    63. 63. The Questioner vs. Contestant ParadigmAm I smarter The observerthan the Who is smarter?contestant? The contestant Question 1 Lee Ross Answer 1 @ StanfordThe questioner Am I smarter than the questioner? PSYCO 241, Masuda 35
    64. 64. PSYCO 241, Masuda 36
    65. 65. Causes of the Fundamental Attribution Error1. Dispositional inferences can be comforting2. People tend to attribute behavior to dispositions (they are motivated to do this) just-world hypothesis – people get what they deserve3. People are more salient causes than situations4. Behavioral information is considered first, before situational factors5. Because the behavioral (personality) characterization is rather automatic, it is incorruptible (hard to reverse). PSYCO 241, Masuda 37
    66. 66. PSYCO 241, Masuda 38
    67. 67. PSYCO 241, Masuda 39
    68. 68. Taka’s Thoughts• Are there any cultural variations in socio- cognitive biases?• If so, what are the causes of the cultural differences in cognitive biases? PSYCO 241, Masuda 40
    69. 69. Summary of Today’s Lecture• Interpretation of human behavior is different from that of physical movement. You need to take into account both internal and external factors• Human attribution processes are not accurate. There are various cognitive biases such as self- serving bias, fundamental attribution error, the actor-observer effect, and the false consensus effect PSYCO 241, Masuda 41

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