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Psyco241 ch3(2)social self2012wclass


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  • Self is an independent agent.\nSelf - core part of that person\nBased on core component of yourself is that you may interact with others and culture.\n\n
  • Self is an independent agent.\nSelf - core part of that person\nBased on core component of yourself is that you may interact with others and culture.\n\n
  • Self is an independent agent.\nSelf - core part of that person\nBased on core component of yourself is that you may interact with others and culture.\n\n
  • Unlike other animals, humans have a mental representation and a symbolic representation of self. Technically you are not the centre of diagram, but rather culture is.\nIf cultures differ, then self-concept should differ from culture to culture.\n
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  • A. Independent view if self -more shared characteristics with close relationships\n-circle does not overlap w/ any of the boarders -> independent individuals feel they are different and individual from others\n-X = self defining aspect of identity - each lies within different individuals and do not overlap.\n-boundary are not really seen between friends/family, but rather a distinctive boundary between self and stranger (out-group).\n B. Self is viewed as a social entity. This means that people realize that they are aware of others feelings, actions etc. and are interconnected to one another. \n-border overlaps with significant relationships\n-red X represent key aspect of identity are grounded in relationships with others.\n-strangers are still distinct to out-group and are more likely to put output into ingroup members as opposed to outgroup members\n
  • Task is to complete the same statement 20 times. \n“80% are a student” -Japanese\n“I am smart” - North Americans\n\n
  • Pattern of Insults is different from culture to culture.\nIndividualistic - target negative physical aspect\nRelational - target negative relationship i.e. family or friends. -\nInterdependent- sense of belonging, group goals, community achievement\n-more important to always be improving ones self rather than doing good. \n
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  • participants engage in 4 different tasks\nasked about structure of word, sound of adjective i.e. rhyming, semantic - meaning of word, adjective relative to you (one’s self knowledge)\nResults: Participants were more likely to remember adjectives that were self-relevant. The more you personalize it, the better able you can remember it.\n
  • Self- Discrepancy Theory:\n\n
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  • Asian Canadians and Asians see yourself through a 3rd pov\nEuropean Canadians - take your own perspective of you\n
  • People have biased views of oneself.\n
  • North American students believe that positive events are more likely to happen to them and think others will have negative events that will happen to them. UNREALISTIC VIEW\n
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  • Relationship being human well being and self-evaluation is difficult to understand and culture must be incorporated to make more sense of it.\n
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  • Rosenber Self - Esteem Scale\n
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  • Asians are not concerned with having a low self-esteem.\n\nDoes the level of self-esteem change when immigration occurs? Yes it increases to the same level of European Canadians.\n
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  • Transcript

    • 1. PSYCO 241 Social Psychology Chapter 3: The Social Self (2) Takahiko Masuda, Ph.D Department of Psychology University of Alberta PSYCO 241, Masuda 1
    • 2. Today’s Plan PSYCO 241, Masuda 2
    • 3. Today’s Plan• Culture & Self-Concept PSYCO 241, Masuda 2
    • 4. Today’s Plan• Culture & Self-Concept• Self-Knowledge • Self Schema • Self-Bias PSYCO 241, Masuda 2
    • 5. Today’s Plan• Culture & Self-Concept• Self-Knowledge • Self Schema • Self-Bias• Self-Evaluation • Self-Esteem • Cultural & Self-Esteem PSYCO 241, Masuda 2
    • 6. Culture and the Self-ConceptMarkus & Kitayama• People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self…These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very nature of individual experience, including cognition, emotion, and motivationOct 14, 2008 PSYCO 241, Masuda 3
    • 7. Independent vs. Interdependent View of the Self• Independent View of the Self – The self as detached from others and independently consisting of unique attributes – Dominant in North America and Western Europe• Interdependent View of Self – The self as connected with others and interdependently shaped in combination with social contexts – Dominant in Asia, Africa, South AmericaOct 14, 2008 PSYCO 241, Masuda 4
    • 8. Stranger OUT-GROUP Stranger OUT-GROUPOct 14, 2008 PSYCO 241, Masuda 5
    • 9. Twenty Statement TestsI am ____________I am ____________I am …………………North Americans defined themselves primarily in terms of personal attributesThe Japanese were three times more likely than North Americans to define themselves in terms of social roles, consisted with an interdependent self-construal. PSYCO 241, Masuda 6
    • 10. Insults in Independent vs. Interdependent CultureOct 14, 2008 PSYCO 241, Masuda 7
    • 11. Self-KnowledgePersonal Beliefs - beliefs about our personality traits, our unique abilities and attributes, and our idiosyncratic preferences, tastes and talentsSocial Beliefs - beliefs about the roles, duties, and obligations we assume in groupsRelational Self-Beliefs - beliefs about our identities in specific relationshipsCollective Self-Beliefs - our identity and beliefs as they relate to the social categories to which we belong PSYCO 241, Masuda 8
    • 12. 1. The Organizational Function of Self-Knowledgea. Memory and the self-reference effect self-reference effect - tendency to elaborate upon and recall information that is integrated into our self - knowledgeb. Self-schemas and self-understanding self-schemas - knowledge-based summaries of our feelings, actions, and others’ views about the selfc. Culture and Self-Beliefs PSYCO 241, Masuda 9
    • 13. Self-Reference Effect PSYCO 241, Masuda 10
    • 14. 2. The Motivational Function of Self-KnowledgeSelf-Discrepancy Theory:A theory that appropriate behaviour is motivated by cultural and moral standards regarding the ideal self and the ought self.Violations of these standards produce emotions like guilt and shame when they are not adhered to. Tory Higgins PSYCO 241, Masuda 11
    • 15. Self-Discrepancy TheoryActual self - the self we truly believe ourselves to beIdeal self - embodies the wishes and aspirations we and other people maintain about ourselves(promotion focus: approach motivation)Ought self - concerned with the duties, obligations, and external demands we feel we’re compelled to honor(prevention focus: avoidance motivation) PSYCO 241, Masuda 12
    • 16. 3. The Self As A Standard in Social PerceptionHow do we use our self-knowledge to judge other people?Self-Image Bias: The tendency to judge other’s personalities according to their similarity or dissimilarity to our own personalitySelf-Image Bias & Culture: Canadians were more likely than Asians to reproduce the scene from their original point of view, looking outward from their own perspective. PSYCO 241, Masuda 13
    • 17. Cultural Variation in Reference Points 1.5Amount of Third-person imageryin “Self at Center of Attention” 1.1 0.8 0.4 0 -0.4 1 European- Asian-Canadians Canadians & Asians PSYCO 241, Masuda 14
    • 18. 4. Illusions and Biases About the SelfOptimism: The sense that the future offers the promise of happiness and success—it works to maintain one’s well-being.Blimpy Burger in Ann Arbor, MI1. Type of buns2. Number of meat patties3. Types of Cheese4. Mushrooms: Grilled or not5. Onions: Grilled or not6. Bacon: How much?7. Toppings: Pickles, Tomato, Lettuce, and so on….8. Sauce9. Side Dishes PSYCO 241, Masuda 15
    • 19. PSYCO 241, Masuda 16
    • 20. Cultural Variations in Self-Bias & Well BeingThe cultural evidence suggests that self-Illusions do not automatically promote elevated well- being.• Japanese are less likely to assume they are better than average than Americans• Japanese are less likely to show evidence of unrealistic optimism than Canadians• People in Western societies are likely to have a stronger sense of personal control and freedom of choice than Asians. PSYCO 241, Masuda 17
    • 21. Self-Evaluation1. Trait and State Self-Esteem2. Contingencies of Self- Worth3. Social Acceptance and Self-Esteem4. Motives of Self-Evaluation5. Culture & Self-Esteem6. Culture Change PSYCO 241, Masuda 18
    • 22. 1. Trait and State Self-EsteemSelf-esteem - positive or negative overallevaluations you have of yourself*Trait self-esteem - enduring level of confidenceand affection that people have for their definingabilities and characteristics across time*State self-esteem - dynamic, changeable selfevaluations that are experienced as momentaryfeelings about the self PSYCO 241, Masuda 19
    • 23. PSYCO 241, Masuda 20
    • 24. 2. Contingencies of Self-WorthAn account of self-esteem that says that self-esteem is contingent on successes and failures indomains upon which a person has based his orher self-worth1. Approval, 2. Appearance, 3. God’s love,4.Family Support, 5. School Competence,6. Competition, 7. Virtue PSYCO 241, Masuda 21
    • 25. 3. Social Acceptance and Self- EsteemSociometer hypothesis: Self-esteem is an internal,subjective index or marker of the extent to which weare included or excluded by othersSocial animals including human beings thrive whenwe are in healthy social relationshipsGroup Inclusion  Elevated Self-EsteemGroup Exclusion Depressed Self-Esteem PSYCO 241, Masuda 22
    • 26. 4. Motives of Self-Evaluation Abraham Tessera. The Motive to Elevate Self-Esteem self-evaluation maintenance model - states that we are motivated to view ourselves in a favourable light, and that we do so through two processes: reflection and social comparisonb. The Motive to Find Out the Truth about the Self self-verification theory - states that we strive for stable, accurate beliefs about the self because such beliefs give us a sense of coherence. PSYCO 241, Masuda 23
    • 27. PSYCO 241, Masuda 24
    • 28. 5. Culture and Self-Esteem• North Americans – High Self-Esteem – Self-Enhancement (focus on success information) – Entity Theorists (Your ability & talents are stable)• East Asians – Low Self-Esteem but High Empathy Steven Heine – Self-Critical (focus on failure information) – Incremental Theories (Your ability & talents are changeable) PSYCO 241, Masuda 25
    • 29. What is the basis of intelligence?North Americans are more likely than Japanese to think thatour intelligence is innately fixed. Innate Abilities Innate Abilities Efforts Efforts North Americans JapaneseThe Japanese are more likely than North Americans to thinkthat our intelligence is shaped by our efforts. PSYCO 241, Masuda 26
    • 30. Positive vs. Negative feedback & PerseveranceThe Canadians worked longer on the task if they had succeeded on it.= The Canadians avoided being reminded of failureThe Japanese worked longer on the task if they had failed.= The Japanese used the occasion to improve PSYCO 241, Masuda 27
    • 31. 6. Culture Change and Self-Esteem PSYCO 241, Masuda 28
    • 32. Taka’s Thoughts• Having an illusory positive view towards one self, and having high self-esteem is positively correlate with one’s well-being.• It doesn’t mean that educators should spoil students, and let them have illusory self- esteem• There are perils of high self-esteem, and studies suggest the link between anti-social behaviors and narcissistic levels of self-esteem PSYCO 241, Masuda 29
    • 33. Summary of Today’s Lecture• There are several different foundations of the self-concept.• The self is profoundly shaped by whether people live in independent or interdependent cultures• Self-Esteem is more important and elevated in Western cultures than in East Asian cultures PSYCO 241, Masuda 30