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  • Sky cover is reported in eighths of the sky covered TCU - towering cumulus CB - cumulonimbus CEILING - lowest broken or overcast layer aloft or vertical visibility into an obscuration. AGL - clouds are reported height above ground level
  • Sky cover is reported in eighths of the sky covered TCU - towering cumulus CB - cumulonimbus CEILING - lowest broken or overcast layer aloft or vertical visibility into an obscuration. AGL - clouds are reported height above ground level
  • MIFG SHALLOW FOG SLP993 999.3 HECTOPASCALS 6//// An indeterminable amount of precipitation has occurred over the last 3 hours T01500139 15.0 C / 13.9 C 56012 atmospheric pressure lower since previous 3 hours 5 = element 6= Decreasing then steady; or decreasing more slowly 012 = 1.2 hectopascals
  • Transcript

    • 1. Multiengine Commercial Faster For Sure LESSON 05
    • 2. Printed Weather Reports <ul><li>Radar Summary Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Constant Pressure Analysis Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Composite Moisture Stability Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Winds and Temperatures Aloft Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Significant Weather Prognostic Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Convective Outlook Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Products </li></ul>
    • 3. Basic Weather Theory Weather Theory
    • 4. The Atmosphere
    • 5. 10-2 Layers of the atmosphere
    • 6. One square inch of atmosphere weights approximately 14.7 pounds Aneroid barometer
    • 7. 10-6 Station pressure is converted to, and reported in. sea level pressure
    • 8. Sun JUNE DECEMBER
    • 9. Sun Northern Spring Southern Autumn JUNE DECEMBER 23.5 ° Northern Autumn Southern Spring Northern Summer Southern Winter Southern Summer Northern Winter
    • 10. NORTHERN SUMMER SOUTHERN WINTER Same amount of heat energy spread over a much smaller area than: Heat Energy form the Sun
    • 11. High Pressure Low Pressure P 1 P2 Distance Magnitude of the Pressure Gradient P1 - P2 Distance
    • 12. 10-8 Circulation pattern in a static environment
    • 13. 10-9 Three-cell circulation pattern due to the earths rotation Low High Low High Polar Cell Ferrel Cell Hadley Cell
    • 14. Coriolis Force
    • 15. A B B’ A’ A” Earth’s Rotation
    • 16. A B B’ A’ Earth’s Rotation A” B”
    • 17. Coriolis Force Northeast Trade Winds Prevailing Westerlies Polar Easterlies
    • 18. 10-10 Circulation pattern about areas of low pressure L
    • 19. 10-10 Circulation pattern about areas of high pressure H
    • 20. 10-11 Wind near high-pressure system
    • 21. 10-19 Isobars reveal the pressure gradient of an area of high-or-low pressure areas
    • 22. High Pressure Low Pressure P 1 P2 Distance Magnitude of the Pressure Gradient P1 - P2 Distance
    • 23. Friction Effects Friction Effects N 2,000 AGL
    • 24. Local Wind The name tells where the breeze is coming from!
    • 25. Sea Breeze
    • 26. Land Breeze
    • 27. Valley Breeze
    • 28.  
    • 29.  
    • 30. Mountain Breeze
    • 31. Katabatic Wind Warm Down Slope Winds
    • 32. Katabatic Wind Cold Down Slope Winds -30 C High Low 0 C
    • 33. Weather Patterns Weather Patterns
    • 34. Atmospheric Stability
    • 35.  
    • 36.  
    • 37. Lapse Rate 2° C per 1,000 feet is Average INVERSION Lapse Rate 15 °C 2 ° C 1” Hg
    • 38. Evaporation Heat Absorbed Evaporation
    • 39. Sublimation Sublimation
    • 40. 10-20 Relative Humidity
    • 41. Moisture Saturation Dewpoint is the temperature that you have to lower the atmosphere down to for it to become 100% saturated Calculate the base of cloud.
    • 42. Clouds Humidity and Condensation Nuclei are main ingredients.
    • 43. Clouds are divided into four basic groups, or FAMILIES do to their height range  LOW CLOUDS  MIDDLE CLOUDS  HIGH CLOUDS  CLOUDS WITH VERTICAL DEVELOPENT
    • 44. Basic Cloud Types
    • 45. Types of Fog <ul><li>Ground Fog </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation Fog </li></ul><ul><li>Advection Fog </li></ul><ul><li>Upslope Fog </li></ul>
    • 46.  
    • 47.  
    • 48.  
    • 49.  
    • 50. Advection Fog
    • 51.  
    • 52. Basic Cloud Types
    • 53. Weather Patterns Airmasses
    • 54. Air Mass Source Regions
    • 55. Fronts WHAT IS A FRONT THE BOUNDARY LAYER BETWEEN TWO TYPES OF AIR MASSES
    • 56.  
    • 57. 1-=25 Chart Symbols for Surface Fronts
    • 58. Frontal Discontinuities WIND CHANGE TEMPERATURE CHANGE PRESSURE CHANGE
    • 59. Fronts 10-27 Cold Front
    • 60. COLD FRONTS <ul><li>PRIOR TO THE PASSAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cirriform or towering cumulus clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulonimbus clouds are possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain showers, Haze (due to rapid development of clouds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind from SSW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High dewpoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Falling barometric pressure </li></ul></ul>
    • 61. COLD FRONTS <ul><li>AS THE COLD FRONT PASSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Towering cumulus clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulonimbus clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy rain showers, lighting, thunder, hail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tornadoes (more severe cold fronts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winds variable and gusty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature and dewpoint drop rapidly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barometric pressure bottoms out, then begins gradual increase </li></ul></ul>
    • 62. COLD FRONTS <ul><li>AFTER FRONTAL PASSAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Towering cumulus and cumulonimbus clouds began to dissipate to cumulus clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winds WNW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures remain cooler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barometric pressure continues to rise </li></ul></ul>
    • 63. Fronts 10-27 Cold Front
    • 64. Warm Front
    • 65. WARM FRONT <ul><li>PRIOR TO THE PASSAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cirriform or stratiform clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fog (along the frontal boundary) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(summer months) cumulonimbus clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light to moderate precipitation (rain, sleet, snow, drizzle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind from SSE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing dewpoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barometric pressure falling until front passes </li></ul></ul>
    • 66. WARM FRONT <ul><li>AS THE FRONT PASSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statiform clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drizzle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visibility is generally poor but improves with variable winds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature rises steadily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dewpoint remains steady </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure levels off </li></ul></ul>
    • 67. WARM FRONT <ul><li>AFTER FRONTAL PASSAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratocumulus clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain showers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visibility improves, but hazy conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind from SSW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures and dewpoint rises and than levels off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slight rise in barometric pressure, followed by decrease </li></ul></ul>
    • 68. Warm Front
    • 69. Stationary Front When the opposing forces of two airmasses are relatively balanced The weather in a stationary front is usually a mixture of that found in both warm and cold fronts
    • 70. Occluded Front
    • 71. OCCLUDED FRONT <ul><li>PRIOR TO THE PASSAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cirriform or stratiform clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light to heavy precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dewpoint steady </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barometric pressure falling </li></ul></ul>
    • 72. OCCLUDED FRONT <ul><li>AS THE FRONT PASSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nimbostratus, cumulonimbus clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Towering cumulus possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light to heavy precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winds variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barometric pressure leveling off </li></ul></ul>
    • 73. OCCLUDED FRONT <ul><li>AFTER FRONTAL PASSAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nimbostratus, altostratus clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation decreasing and clearing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visibility improving </li></ul></ul>
    • 74. Occluded Front
    • 75. Weather Hazards Hazards
    • 76.  
    • 77.  
    • 78.  
    • 79. Thunderstorms <ul><li>Airmass Thunderstorms </li></ul><ul><li>Severe Thunderstorms </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal Thunderstorms </li></ul><ul><li>Single Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Super Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Multi Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Squall Line </li></ul>
    • 80.  
    • 81.  
    • 82. What do T-storms need Sufficient Water Vapor Unstable Air Lifting Action
    • 83. 10-23 Life Cycle
    • 84. Thunderstorms <ul><li>Turbulence </li></ul><ul><li>Lightning </li></ul><ul><li>Hail </li></ul><ul><li>Tornadoes </li></ul>
    • 85.  
    • 86.  
    • 87. Cumulonimbus Mamma
    • 88. * Don't know where they landed - didn't say!   This is what can happen if &quot;can do&quot; takes over in common sense and flying through thunderstorms. 2 Navy T-38's land here* last night IFE,  They flew through a hail storm.  The pilots today thought that their maintenance guys were going to wave a magic wand and let them fly home .
    • 89.  
    • 90.  
    • 91.  
    • 92.  
    • 93.  
    • 94.  
    • 95.  
    • 96.  
    • 97.  
    • 98.  
    • 99.  
    • 100.  
    • 101. Is moist air, for the same temperature, less dense than dry air? Moist Air Vs Dry Air YES NO Moist air, for the same temperature, is 62% less dense than dry air.
    • 102. 78% Nitrogen 4 to 1 = 5 molecules 20% Oxygen replaced by H 2 O Atomic Weight Hydrogen - 1 H 2 = 2 Oxygen - 16 O 2 = 32 Nitrogen - 14 N 2 = 28 DRY AIR O 2 = 32 X 1 = 32 32 + 112 = 144 N 2 = 28 X 4 = 112 MOIST AIR H 2 = 2 O = 16 16 + 2 = 18 X 5 = 90 DRY = 144 MOIST = 90 90 / 144 = 62%
    • 103.  
    • 104. Turbulence
    • 105.  
    • 106. 10-15 Turbulence
    • 107.  
    • 108.  
    • 109. 10-16 Mountain Wave
    • 110.  
    • 111. MOUNTAIN WAVE
    • 112.  
    • 113.  
    • 114.  
    • 115. Rotor
    • 116. Line of rotor
    • 117. LENTICULAR CLOUDS
    • 118. Wind Shear Wind Shear
    • 119. Wind Shear <ul><li>Inversion </li></ul>Close to the surface in strong winds
    • 120. 10-17 Microburst
    • 121.  
    • 122. Microburst a
    • 123. Microburst b
    • 124. Microburst c
    • 125. Microburst d
    • 126. Microburst e
    • 127. Microburst f **
    • 128.  
    • 129.  
    • 130. Icing
    • 131. Icing <ul><li>Rime </li></ul><ul><li>Clear </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed </li></ul>NEED MORE ON ICEING
    • 132. Restrictions to Visibility <ul><li>Haze </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke </li></ul><ul><li>Smog </li></ul><ul><li>Dust </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic Ash </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t see traffic. </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t find references. </li></ul><ul><li>Your eyes focus too close. </li></ul><ul><li>It is harder to avoid clouds. </li></ul><ul><li>It is easier to get lost. </li></ul><ul><li>Your stress level rises. </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t see the horizon. </li></ul><ul><li>They simply make VFR difficult. </li></ul>
    • 133. JET STREAM
    • 134. High Altitude Weather <ul><li>Jetstream </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A narrow band of high speed winds that reaches its greatest speed near the tropopause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical speeds range from 60 - 240 knots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polar jet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exists year-round </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>higher, weaker, and farther north during the Summer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subtropical jet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strongest in Winter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonexistent in summer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 135. High Altitude Weather <ul><li>Clear Air Turbulence: CAT </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually encountered above 15,000’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However can take place at any altitude </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be present in non-convective clouds (not necessarily “clear air”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAT may be caused by interaction of layers of air with differing speeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It often develops in or near the jet stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“wave-like” cloud formation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden variation in wind speeds </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 136.  
    • 137.  
    • 138.  
    • 139.  
    • 140.  
    • 141.  
    • 142. Forecasting Process JEPP 7-2 Forecasting
    • 143.  
    • 144. 7 Days Now Forecasting
    • 145. Printed Reports And Forecasts Reports
    • 146. “ METAR”
    • 147. “ METAR” ELEMENTS ELEMENTS
    • 148. “ METAR” <ul><li>METAR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed 45 minutes after the hour and transmitted 50 minutes after the hour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SPECI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A non-routine aviation weather report taken when any of the SPECI criteria have been observed </li></ul></ul>
    • 149.  
    • 150. “ METAR” The METAR uses ICAO (international civil aviation organization four-letter station identifiers that follow the type of report. IN the continuous US, the three-letter identifier is prefixed with K.
    • 151. “ METAR”
    • 152. “ METAR” <ul><li>AUTO = identifies the report as an automated weather report with no human intervention </li></ul><ul><li>If AUTO is shown in the body of the report, AO1 or AO2 will be encoded in the remarks section of the report to indicate the type of precipitation sensor used at the station </li></ul><ul><li>AO1 = station does not have a precipitation discriminator </li></ul><ul><li>AO2 = station has a precip discriminator </li></ul><ul><li>The absence of AUTO indicates that the report was made manually or the automated report had human augmentation/backup </li></ul>
    • 153. “ METAR” “ G”: denotes gusts “ KT”: denotes the use of knots for wind speed “ V”: denotes when wind direction is variable by 60 degrees or more “ VRB”: denotes when wind direction is variable and wind speed less then 6 knots “ PK WND”: denoted when facility have a wind recorder and a peak wind exists “ WSHFT”: denoted in the remarks section when a windshift occurs. A windshift is indicated by a change in wind direction of 45 degrees or more in less than 15 minutes with sustained winds of 10 knots or more. “ FROPA”: denotes that the wind shift was due to a frontal passage
    • 154. “ METAR” <ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>33018KT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>09014G35KT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>340105KT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>08012G25KT 040V120 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VRB04KT </li></ul></ul>
    • 155. “ METAR” <ul><li>If tower or surface visibility is less than 4 SM, the lesser of the 2 will be reported in the body of the report; the greater will be reported in the Remarks element </li></ul><ul><li>Automated reporting stations will show visibility less than ¼ SM as M1/4SM and visibility 10 or greater as 10SM </li></ul>
    • 156. “ METAR” <ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/2SM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7SM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10SM </li></ul></ul>
    • 157. “ METAR” <ul><li>RVR is shown in a METAR if the airport has equipment and whenever the prevailing visibility is 1SM or less and the RVR value is 6000 feet or less </li></ul>
    • 158.  
    • 159. “ METAR” <ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R31/2600FT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R15R/4000FT </li></ul></ul>
    • 160. “ METAR” <ul><li>Qualifiers </li></ul><ul><li>Weather Phenomena </li></ul>
    • 161. “ METAR” <ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SN BLSN FG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>+SN FG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-RA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MIFG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>+TSRA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-TSRA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BR </li></ul></ul>
    • 162. “ METAR” ** SKC will be reported at manual stations. The abbreviation CLR shall be used at automated stations when no clouds are detected below 12,000’**
    • 163. CEILING Defined as the lowest layer of clouds or obscuring phenomena aloft reported as BROKEN or OVERCAST
    • 164. “ METAR” AC-00-45E 2-1 Cloud bases are reported in hundreds of feet above ground level (AGL) Ceiling - lowest broken or overcast layer aloft or vertical visibility into an obscuration
    • 165. <ul><li>Sky condition reported in the following format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sky cover contractions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cloud bases reported with 3 digits in 100’s of feet AGL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clouds above 12,000’ cannot be detected by automated reporting systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At reporting stations in the mountains, if the cloud layer is below the station level, the height of the layer will be shown as /// </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If towering cumulus clouds, TCU , or cumulonimbus clouds, CB, are present, they are reported after the height that represents their base </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 166. <ul><li>Additional Sky Condition remarks </li></ul><ul><li>Indefinite ceiling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The height into an indefinite ceiling is preceded with VV followed by 3 digits indicating the vertical visibility in 100’s of feet above the ground (VV002) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partial Obscuration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of obscuration is reported in the body of the METAR when the sky is partially obscured by a surface-based phenomenon by indicating the amount of the obscuration as FEW, SCT, or BKN followed with 3 zeros (FG FEW000) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Whenever the ceiling is below 3,000’ and is variable, the remark CIG will be shown in the Remarks element followed with the lowest and highest ceiling heights separated with a “V”, CIG 005V010 </li></ul>
    • 167. “ METAR” <ul><li>EXAMPLE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OVC004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCT080 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BKN008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VV002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SKC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CLR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCT008 BKN090 SCT100 OVC250 </li></ul></ul>
    • 168. “ METAR” Celsius 100 32 21 16 15 0 -40 212 90 70 61 59 32 -40 Fahrenheit Dewpoint is the temperature at which air reaches a state where it can hold no more water. When the dewpoint is reached, the air contains 100% of the moisture it can hold at that temperature, and it is said to be saturated.
    • 169. “ METAR” <ul><li>When the pressure is rising or falling rapidly at the time of observation, Remarks element will show PRESRR or PRESFR </li></ul>
    • 170. “ METAR” Sea Level Pressure (SLP) Some Stations also include sea-level pressure which is different from altimeter. It is shown in the Remarks element as SLP being followed by the sea-level pressure in hectopascals, a unit of measurement equivalent to the millibar
    • 171. “ METAR” <ul><li>SLP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: SLP982 = 998.2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: SLP093 = 1009.3 </li></ul></ul>
    • 172. “ METAR” T 0150 0139 0 if temperature 0 °C or higher 1 if temperature below 0 °C 015.0 013.9
    • 173. METAR METAR KMKL 021250Z 33018KT 290V360 1/2SM R31/2600FT +SN BLSN FG VV008 01/M03 A2991 RMK RAE42SNB42 SLP045 T00111032 T 0 0111032 T0 01.1 1032 T0011 1 032 T00.11 03.2 T 001.1 ---- 1 03.2 + -
    • 174.  
    • 175.  
    • 176. KBDL 011451Z 04003KT 10SM BKN070 OVC130 11/09 A3017 RMK A02 SLP217 60000 T01060089 50000 <ul><ul><li>What is the altimeter setting? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the pressure in hectopascals/millibars? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the wind? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What type of automated weather system does this metar have? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the lowest ceiling? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On what date was this metar given? </li></ul></ul>
    • 177. Metar Issued = hourly Valid = until next metar or a SPECI
    • 178. METAR METAR KSFO 031453Z VRB02KT 7SM MIFG SKC 15/14 A3012 RMK SLP993 6//// T01500139 56012 METAR KLAX 101549Z AUTO 22010G16KT 1/4SM R18/1200FT BR SCT005 OVC010 19/16 A2989 RMK SLP130 AO2 METAR KJFK 040555Z AUTO 09014G35KT 1/4SM +SN FG VV002 01/01 A2975 RMK AO2 TWR VIS 1/2 RAE08SNB08
    • 179. METAR METAR KTPA 122150Z 08020G38KT 1/2SM R36L/2400FT +TSRA SCT008 OVC012CB 20/18 A2995 RMK TSB24RAB24 METAR KLAX 101549Z 22010G16KT 1/4SM R18/1200FT SCT005 OVC010 FG 35/35 A2989 RMK SLP130 METAR KJFK 040555Z AUTO 15035G50KT 15SM BKN035TCU 43/35 A3004 RMK PRESFR
    • 180. <ul><li>METAR KSPS 301656Z 06014KT 020V090 3SM -TSRA FEW040 BKN060CB 12/12 A2982 RMK OCNL LTGICCG NE TSB17 TS E MOV NE PRESRR SLP093 </li></ul>
    • 181. “ SD” Radar Weather Reports Jep 7-16 / AC 00-45E 3-6 SD KNPA 1935 LN 10 TRWX 86/40 164/60 12W C2430 MT 440 AT 159/65
    • 182. “ SD” Radar Weather Reports Jep 7-16 / AC 00-45E 3-6 TLX 1935 LN 8 TRW++ 86/40 164/60 20W C2425 MTS570 AT 159/65 AUTO Location and time UTC Echo pattern (LN LINE) (AREA) (CELL) Coverage, in tenths Type and intensity of weather
    • 183. SYMBOL INTENSITY (-) Light (none) Moderate (+) Heavy (++) Very Heavy X Intense XX Extreme SYMBOL MEANING R Rain RW Rain shower S Snow SW Snow shower T Thunderstorm
    • 184. “ SD” Radar Weather Reports Jep 7-16 / AC 00-45E 3-6 TLX 1935 LN 8 TRW++ 86/40 164/60 20W C2425 MTS570 AT 159/65 AUTO Azimuth,referenced to true north, and range, in NM from the radar site. 86degrees/40 NM Dimension of echo pattern (20NM wide) Cell movement (240 degrees at 25 Kts) Max tops and location (57,000 159 degrees 65NM
    • 185. TLX 1935 LN 8 TRW++ 86/40 164/60 20W C2425 MTS570 AT 159/65 AUTO 40 NM 60 NM 20 NM wide 86 degrees 164 degrees Max top 57,000MSL 159 degrees 8/10
    • 186. “ SD” Radar Weather Reports Jep 7-16 / AC 00-45E 3-6 GRB 1135 AREA 4TRW+ 9/100 130/75 50W C2425 MT 310 AT 45/47 AUTO ICT 1935 LN 9TRWX 275/80 210/90 20W C2430 MTS 440 AT 260/48 AUTO GGW 1135 AREA 3S- 90/120 150/80 34W MT100 AT 130/49
    • 187.  
    • 188. 11-4 PIREP
    • 189. PIREPS UA/ OV FWA 075025/ TM 1600/ FL 100/ TP C206/ SK SCT070- TOPUNKN/ WX FV05SM HZ/ TA M04/ WV 24040KT / TB LGT 055-075/ RM IN CLR / OV = Over / TM = Time / FL = Altitude / TP = Type / SK = Sky Cover / WX = Weather / TA = Temperature / WV = Wind Speed / TB = Turbulence / IC = Icing / RM = Remarks AC 00-45E 3-1
    • 190. AC 00-45E 3-1 UUA/OV ABQ090045/TM 1430/FL 130/TP BE30/TB SEV /RM BROKE ALL THE BOTTLES IN THE BAR UA/OV KMRB-KPIT/TM 1600/FL 100/TPBE55/SK BKN024-TOP032/BKN-OVC043-TOPUNKN /TA M12/IC LGT-MOD RIME 055-080 UA/OV KOKC-KTUL/TM 1800/FL 120/TPBE90/SKBKN018- TOP055/OVC072-TOP089/CLR ABV/TA M7/WV 08021/TB LGT 055-075/IC LGT-MOD RIME 072-089
    • 191. Printed Reports And Forecasts Forecasts
    • 192. Aviation Terminal Forecast 5-statute-mile radius / 24-hour period / 4-times a day AC 00-45E 4-1 TEMPO FM PROB 30/40 BECMG
    • 193. TAF TAF KPIR 111140Z 111212 13012KT P6SM BKN100 WS020/35035KT TEMPO 1214 5SM BR FM1500 16015G25KT P6SM SCT040 BKN250 FM0000 14012KT P6SM BKN080 OVC150 PROB40 0004 3SM TSRA BKN030CB FM0400 14008KT P6SM SCT040 OVC080 TEMPO 0408 3SM TSRA OVC030CB BECMG 0810 32007KT= VALID PERIOD OF THE FORCAST PREVAILING VISIBILITY (greater than 6 SM) Wind shear AGL Temporary 12:00 -> 14:00 FROM 15:00
    • 194. TAF TAF KPIR 111140Z 111212 13012KT P6SM BKN100 WS020/35035KT TEMPO 1214 5SM BR FM1500 16015G25KT P6SM SCT040 BKN250 FM0000 14012KT P6SM BKN080 OVC150 PROB40 0004 3SM TSRA BKN030CB FM0400 14008KT P6SM SCT040 OVC080 TEMPO 0408 3SM TSRA OVC030CB BECMG 0810 32007KT= 40% PROBABILITY 00:00 -> 04:00 BECOMING 08:00 -> 10:00
    • 195. TAF TAF KMEM 121720Z 121818 20012KT 5SM HZ BKN030 BECMG 2022 1SM TSRA OVC008CB FM2200 33012G20KT P6SM BKN015 OVC025 PROB40 2202 3SM SHRA FM0200 35012KT OVC008 PROB40 0205 2SM -RASN BECMG 0608 02008KT BKN012 BECMG 1012 00000KT 3SM BR SKC TEMPO 1214 1/2SM FG FM1600 VRB06KT P6SM SKC= KOKC 051130Z 151212 14008KT 5SM BR BKN030 TEMPO 1316 1 1/2SM BR FM1600 18010KT P6SM SKC BECMG 2224 20013G20KT 4SM SHRA OVC020 PRB40 0006 2SM TSRA OVC008CB BECMG 0608 21015KT P6SM SCT040=
    • 196. Amended TAF
    • 197. 11-6 “FA” Aviation Area Forecast AC 00-45E 4-17
    • 198. “ FA” <ul><li>. Heading Information </li></ul><ul><li>. Precautions </li></ul><ul><li>. Synopsis </li></ul><ul><li>. VFR Clouds and Weather </li></ul>4 PARTS
    • 199. Heading And Precaution Sections SLCC FA 141045 SYNOPSIS AND CLDS/WX SYNOPSIS VALID UNTIL 150500 CLDS/WX VALID UNTIL 142300 . . . OUTLK VALID 142300-150500 ID MT NV UT WY CO AZ NM SEE AIRMET SIERRA FOR IFR CONDS AND MTN OBSCN. TSTMS IMPLY PSBL SVR OR GTR TURBC SVR ICG LLWS AND IFR CONDS. NON MSL HGTS ARE DENOTED BY AGL OR CIG.
    • 200. Synopsis Section SYNOPSIS . . . HIGH PRES OVER NERN MT CONTG EWD GRDLY. LOW PRES OVR AZ NM AND WRN TX RMNG GENLY STNRY. ALF . . . TROF EXTDS FROM WRN MT INTO SRN AZ RMNG STNRY.
    • 201. VFR Clouds And Weather Section ID MT FROM YXH TO SHR TO 30SE BZN TO 60SE PIH TO LKT TO YXC TO YXH. 70-90 SCT-BKN 120-150. WDLY SCT RW-. TOPS SHWRS 180. OTLK . . . VFR RMNDR AREA . . . 100-120. ISOLD RW- MNLY ERN PTNS AREA. OTLK . . . VFR . UT NV NM AZ 80 SCT-BKN 150-200. WDLY SCT RW-/TRW-. CB TOPS 450. OTLK . . . VFR
    • 202. 11-7 “FD” Winds and Temperatures Aloft AC 00-45E 4-35 FT
    • 203. FD 73-50 = 230 deg. from 19+100 = 119 knots 60 = neg. 60 deg. C 9900
    • 204. 9900 FWA 6299-20 Wind light and variable 62 – 50 = 120 ° 99 + 100 = 199 ≤ Temperature (-20)
    • 205.  
    • 206.  
    • 207. AIRMETS (WA) AC 00-45E 4-23 MODERATE Icing or Turbulence Sustained Winds Over 30 Knots Less than 1,000 ft. Ceiling or 3 miles Extensive Mountain Obscuration S = IFR Conditions T = Turbulence Z = Icing LIGHT AIRCRAFT
    • 208. SIGMETS (WS) SEVERE Icing Extreme Turbulence, Duststorms, Sandstorms, Volcanic Eruptions N through Y (Except S, T, and Z)
    • 209. Convective SIGMETs (WST) <ul><li>Severe or Greater Turbulence </li></ul><ul><li>Severe Icing </li></ul><ul><li>Low Level Wind Shear </li></ul>ALWAYS IMPLIED
    • 210. Convective SIGMETs (WST) <ul><li>Tornadoes </li></ul><ul><li>Lines of Thunderstorms </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Areas of, or Embedded Thunderstorms </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Than 3/4 inch Hail or 50 Knots Wind </li></ul>Eastern Central Western
    • 211. Convective SIGMETs (WST) E = Eastern C = Central W = Western
    • 212. Graphic Weather Products Graphics
    • 213. Surface Analysis Chart AC 00-45E 5-1
    • 214. AC 00-45E 5-1
    • 215.  
    • 216. AC 00-45E 5-4
    • 217.  
    • 218. 11-9 WX CHART SYMBOLS AC 00-45E 5-5
    • 219. AC 00-45E 6-1
    • 220. AC 00-45E 5-10
    • 221. AC 00-45E 5-9
    • 222. AC 00-45E 5-5
    • 223. Weather Depiction Chart AC 0045E 6-1
    • 224. AC 00-45E 6-1
    • 225.  
    • 226.  
    • 227.  
    • 228. AC 00-45E 5-9
    • 229. AC 00-45E 6-3
    • 230. Visibility reduced by smoke Visibility reduced by haze Widespread dust in suspension in the air, NOT raised by the wind at time of observation Dust or sand raised by wind at time of observation Well developed dust devil(s) within past hour Dust storm or sand storm within sight of or at station during past hour
    • 231. Patches of shallow fog at station, NOT deeper than 6 feet on land Light fog More or less continuous shallow fog at station, NOT deeper than 6 feet on land Lightning visible, no thunder heard Thunder heard, but no precipitation at the station
    • 232. Intermittent drizzle (NOT freezing),slight at time of observation continuous drizzle (NOT freezing),thick at time of observation slight freezing drizzle Moderate or thick freezing drizzle
    • 233. Intermittent rain (NOT freezing),slight at time of observation Moderate or thick freezing rain Continuous fall of snowflakes, heavy at time of observation Moderate or heavy shower(s) of rain and snow mixed
    • 234. AC 00-45E 5-9
    • 235.  
    • 236.  
    • 237. Radar Summary Chart AC 00-45E 7-1
    • 238. Radar Summary NE OM NA SLD TRW RW 440 AC-00-45E 7-1
    • 239.  
    • 240.  
    • 241. Line or area movement is no longer indicated Change of intensity is no longer indicated Assume that all precipitation on this chart is reaching the surface
    • 242.  
    • 243. Graphic Weather Charts Satellite
    • 244. Low-Level Significant Weather Prognostic AC 00-45E 11-1
    • 245.  
    • 246. AC 00-45E 11-3 & 11-4
    • 247. 11-13 SIGNIFICANT WEATHER PROGNOSTIC CHART
    • 248. 11-14 36-48 PROGNOSTIC CHART
    • 249.  
    • 250. Sources of Weather Information Sources AC 00-45E 1-10
    • 251. 1-800-WX-BRIEF 1-800-992-7433 <ul><li>Preflight Weather Briefing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of flight (VFR or IFR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aircraft identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aircraft type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Departure point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed time of departure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flight altitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Route of flight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimated time en route (ETE) </li></ul></ul>
    • 252. Weather Briefings <ul><li>Outlook JEPP 7-46 AC 00-45E 1-11 </li></ul><ul><li>Standard JEPP 7-45 AC 00-45E 1-11 </li></ul><ul><li>Abbreviated JEPP 7-46 AC 00-45E 1-11 </li></ul>
    • 253. Outlook An “outlook” briefing will be provided when the proposed departure is 6 hours or more from the time of the briefing. Briefing will be limited to applicable forecast data needed for proposed flight.
    • 254. (FSS/AFSS) Briefings <ul><li>Standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adverse Conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VFR Flight Not Recommended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synopsis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enroute Forecast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destination Forecast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winds and Temperatures Aloft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATC Delays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Information </li></ul></ul>
    • 255. <ul><li>Only what you ask for </li></ul><ul><li>Not a total brief </li></ul>(FSS/AFSS) Briefings <ul><li>An “abbreviated” briefing will be provided at the user’s request: </li></ul><ul><li>To supplement mass disseminated date </li></ul><ul><li>To update a previous briefing </li></ul><ul><li>To request that the briefing be limited to specific information </li></ul>
    • 256. TIBS AC 00-45E 1-5 Telephone Information Briefing Service
    • 257. DUATS Direct User Access Terminal Service
    • 258. Preflight Weather Sources Telephone Computer Television Radio
    • 259. In-Flight Weather Sources Enroute Flight Advisory Service “ Flight Watch” 122.0
    • 260. TWEB Transcribed Weather Broadcast AC 00-45E 1-3 T T
    • 261. HIWAS Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service H AC 00-45E 1-6
    • 262. HIWAS Hazardous In-Flight Weather Advisory Service AIRMETS SIGMETS Convective SIGMETS Urgent PIREPS
    • 263. CWA Center Weather Advisory ARTCC AC 00-45E 1-7
    • 264. AWOS And ASOS Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) Automated Surface Observation System (ASOS) JEPP 7-52
    • 265. High Altitude Weather <ul><li>Jetstream </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A narrow band of high speed winds that reaches its greatest speed near the tropopause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical speeds range from 60 - 240 knots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polar jet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exists year-round </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>higher, weaker, and farther north during the Summer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subtropical jet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strongest in Winter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonexistent in summer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 266. High Altitude Weather <ul><li>Clear Air Turbulence: CAT </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually encountered above 15,000’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However can take place at any altitude </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be present in non-convective clouds (not necessarily “clear air”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAT may be caused by interaction of layers of air with differing speeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It often develops in or near the jet stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“wave-like” cloud formation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden variation in wind speeds </li></ul></ul></ul>

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