Ch. 6 = opportunity to learn new material and help studying for the exam
Continuing with the topics discussed in Ch. 5, our memory is not as good as we think it is.
link system requires that you first form a visual image of each item in the list (which means that the items have to be capable of being imaged), and second, associate the image for each item with the image for the next item. To use the link system in remembering these five items, you first form a visual association relating paper and tire. You might picture a car driving on paper tires, or yourself using a tire to erase writing from a paper. Next, associate tire and doctor. You might picture a tire running over a doctor, or a tire performing an operation. To associate doctor and rose, you might picture a doctor operating on a rose, or a doctor giving roses to a patient. Finally, to associate rose and ball, you might picture two people playing catch with a rose, or balls growing on a rose bush.
Examples of PM: Mail out rent check, meeting with club, taking medication, going to appt, mailing letters
Unskilled and unaware
Why would estimates be accurate for item-by-item and not overall score? Material in front of you WM vs. LTM Memory for positive events better than neg events Wishful thinking
Correlation between item difficulty and study time = +.30, why is it so high? People strategically choose which items to study or not Why so low? People still spend too much time on easier items
Zone of proximal learning Vygostsky—zone of proximal development/ Scaffolding
Guessing answer 20% to absolutely certain = 100% When students answered the question correctly, average certainty was 73%. When students answered the question incorrectly, average certainty was 64%.
5 metacognition ii
Cognition Chapter 6Memory Strategies and Metacognition II Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
Memory StrategiesA Comprehensive Approach to MemoryImprovement strategies too simplistic Douglas Herrmanns multimodal approach physical condition psychological well-being repertoire of several memory-improvement techniques Langer—mindfulness rather than mindlessness Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
Memory StrategiesImproving Prospective Memory prospective memory—remembering what you need to do in the future remembering that you need to do something AND remembering the content of what you need to do Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
Memory StrategiesResearch on Prospective Memory • demanding tasks and divided attention can lead to forgetting to complete an unrelated prospective- memory task • switching tasks can lead to forgetting a prospective- memory task later on • disrupting a customary schema, ↑ absentmindness • use encoding specificity for where you will be when you will need to remember to complete the prospective-memory task Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
Metacognitionmetacognition—your knowledge and control of your cognitive processessupervises the way you select and use your memory strategiesmetamemorymetacomprehension Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
MetacognitionMetamemory and the Prediction ofMemory Performance If you are confident about your performance on some memory task, is your memory indeed accurate? Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
MetacognitionTotal-Score Basis predict total number of correct responses foresight bias—people overestimate the number of correct answers they will provide on a future test Why? studying with the correct responses visible Dunning and coauthors (2003) estimate of total score after finishing exam less competent students overestimated performance
Dunning et al. (2003) Estimated Total Score vs. Actual Total Score 100 80% Correct 60 Estimated Score 40 Actual Score 20 0 Bottom Second Third Top Actual Performance Group
MetacognitionMetamemory on an Item-by-Item Basis Metamemory can be highly accurate when we consider people’s predictions about which individual items they’ll remember and which ones theyll forget (judgment of learning—JoL). word-pairs vs. more complex material delayed judgments more accurate Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
MetacognitionIndividual Differences: Metamemoryand Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder People with ADHD are even more likely than other people to overestimate their total score on memory tasks. Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
MetacognitionIndividual Differences: Metamemoryand Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Knouse and coauthors (2006) • metamemory item-by-item • word pairs, estimate likelihood of recall, immediate vs. delayed JoL, ADHD and non-ADHD • people with and without ADHD did not differ in the accuracy of their immediate judgments; both groups reasonably accurate in predicting future recall • no group difference after delay; both groups even more accurate in predicting future recall Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
Individual Differences: Metamemory & ADHDFigure 6.6a Accuracy of Predicting Which Items Will Be Correctly Recalled,When Making Judgments of Learning Immediately After Seeing a Pair Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
Individual Differences: Metamemory & ADHDFigure 6.6b Accuracy of Predicting Which Items Will Be Correctly Recalled,When Making Delayed Judgments Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
MetacognitionTake-home message: People with ADHD may overestimate their total scores on a memory test. However, they are highly accurate in estimating their performance on an item-by-item basis. Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
MetacognitionMetamemory and the Regulation ofStudy Strategies coordinating memory and decision making spending more time on difficult material Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
MetacognitionMetamemory and the Regulation ofStudy Strategies Allocating Time When the Task is Easy Nelson and Leonesio (1988) • examine how students distribute their study time when they can study at their own pace • students allocated more study time for the items that they believed would be difficult to master • students spend longer than necessary studying items they already know, and not enough time studying the items they have not yet mastered Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
MetacognitionAllocating Time When the Task is Easy(continued) Son and Metcalfe (2000)—students spend more time on difficult items in studies examining relatively easy material like learning pairs of words Do students adopt a different strategy in other circumstances? Difficult material? Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
MetacognitionAllocating Time When the Task isDifficult conceptual information limited study time Son and Metcalfe (2000) • test material—a series of eight encyclopedia-style biographies • time pressure—only 30 minutes to study • rank the biographies in terms of difficulty • students spent the majority of their study time on the biographies they considered easy, rather than those they considered difficult Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
MetacognitionAllocating Time When the Task isDifficult (continued) Other studies—when facing time pressure, students choose to study material that seems relatively easy to master Experts concentrate their time on more challenging material, compared to novices Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
MetacognitionMetacomprehension metacomprehension—our thoughts about comprehension Metacomprehension Accuracy • college students are not very accurate in metacomprehension skills--fail to spot inconsistencies or missing information in a passage • believe they have understood something because they are familiar with its general topic • fail to retain specific information • overestimate how they will perform when tested Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
MetacognitionMetacomprehension Accuracy Pressley and Ghatala (1988) • reading comprehension using SAT; essay followed by multiple choice questions • students rate how certain they were that they had answered each question correctly • little difference between estimates on correct and incorrect items • students believed that they understood the material even when they answered the questions incorrectly Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
MetacognitionMetacomprehension Accuracy Maki and coauthors (1994) metacomprehension accuracy and reading comprehension scores significantly correlated College students with low reading ability are overconfident when they estimate their scores on a difficult reading test; high-ability students tend to be underconfident Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
MetacognitionMetacomprehension Improving Metacomprehension pretests with feedback read and summarize reading strategies—make connections, use imagery, outline and summarize in your own words Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin Chapter 6
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