Afaa pft anatomy and kinesiology


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Afaa pft anatomy and kinesiology

  1. 1. Chapter 3 Anatomy and Kinesiology
  2. 2. Anatomical Position
  3. 3. Sagittal Frontal Horizontal
  4. 4. General Joint Action Terms <ul><li>Flexion—characterized by the joint angle diminishing (most flexion movements are forwards, except for the knee joint) </li></ul><ul><li>Extension—return from flexion; joint angle increases </li></ul><ul><li>Abduction—movement away from the midline of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Adduction—movement toward the midline of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation—movement around an axis </li></ul><ul><li>Circumduction—movement in a 360 ° circle </li></ul>
  5. 5. Shoulder (Gleno-humeral) Joint Actions <ul><li>1. Shoulder Flexion </li></ul><ul><li>2. Shoulder Extension </li></ul><ul><li>3. Shoulder Abduction </li></ul><ul><li>4. Shoulder Adduction </li></ul><ul><li>5. Shoulder Horizontal </li></ul><ul><li>Adduction (or Flexion) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Shoulder Horizontal </li></ul><ul><li>Abduction (or Extension) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Shoulder Internal </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>8. Shoulder External </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>9. Shoulder Circumduction </li></ul>
  6. 6. Shoulder Girdle (Scapular) Actions: <ul><li>1. Scapular Elevation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Scapular Depression </li></ul><ul><li>3. Scapular Retraction </li></ul><ul><li>(Adduction) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Scapular Protraction </li></ul><ul><li>(Abduct ion) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Scapular Upward </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>6. Scapular Downward </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>7. Scapular Upward Tilt </li></ul><ul><li>8. Scapular Reduction of </li></ul><ul><li>Upward Tilt </li></ul>
  7. 7. ___________________________ <ul><li>A. Elevation B. Protraction </li></ul><ul><li>Depression Retraction </li></ul><ul><li>C. Upward D. Upward Tilt </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Downward of Upward </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation Tilt </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  8. 8. Elbow Joint: * Flexion * Extension <ul><li>Radio-Ulnar Joint </li></ul><ul><li>* Supination </li></ul><ul><li>* Pronation </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Spine <ul><li>Flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral Flexion </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pelvis * Anterior pelvic tilt * Posterior pelvic tilt * Lateral pelvic tilt <ul><li>Hip Joint </li></ul><ul><li>1. Hip flexion </li></ul><ul><li>2. Hip extension </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hip abduction </li></ul><ul><li>4. Hip adduction </li></ul><ul><li>5. Hip horizontal adduction </li></ul><ul><li>(flexion) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Hip horizontal abduction </li></ul><ul><li>(extension) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Hip internal rotation </li></ul><ul><li>8. Hip external rotation </li></ul><ul><li>9. Hip circumduction </li></ul>
  11. 11. Knee Joint * Flexion * Extension
  12. 12. Ankle Joint <ul><li>Dorsiflexion </li></ul><ul><li>Plantarflexion </li></ul><ul><li>Eversion </li></ul><ul><li>Inversion </li></ul>
  13. 13. Six (6) Major Upper Body Muscle Groups: 1. Biceps—elbow flexion 2. Triceps—elbow extension
  14. 14. Biceps Brachii * elbow flexion
  15. 15. Triceps Brachii * elbow extension
  16. 16. Upper Body Muscle Groups, cont’d <ul><li>3. Deltoids: shoulder flexion, shoulder abduction (anterior and medial portions) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Latissimus Dorsi: shoulder extension, shoulder adduction </li></ul>
  17. 17. Deltoids (anterior and medial) * shoulder flexion * shoulder abduction
  18. 18. Latissimus Dorsi * shoulder extension * shoulder adduction
  19. 19. Upper Body Muscle Groups, cont’d <ul><li>5. Pectoralis Major: shoulder horizontal adduction, shoulder flexion (clavicular), shoulder adduction and extension (sternal) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Mid-Trapezius, Rhomboids, and Posterior Deltoid: scapular retraction, shoulder horizontal abduction </li></ul>
  20. 20. Pectoralis Major * shoulder horizontal adduction - clavicular portion : shoulder flexion - sternal portion : shoulder adduction and shoulder extension
  21. 21. Middle Trapezius and Rhomboids * Scapular retraction Posterior Deltoid Posterior Deltoid * shoulder horizontal abduction Rhomboids 21 Ch. 3 – 5/2007 Mid-Trapezius
  22. 22. Other Upper Body Muscles: <ul><li>Scapular protractors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serratus Anterior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pectoralis Minor (also responsible for scapular depression) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Serratus Anterior Pectoralis Minor * scapular protraction * scapular protraction * scapular depression
  24. 24. Other Upper Body Muscles <ul><li>Rotator Cuff Muscles: </li></ul><ul><li>* S ubscapularis: shoulder internal rotation </li></ul><ul><li>* I nfraspinatus and T eres Minor: shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>external rotation </li></ul><ul><li>* S upraspinatus: shoulder abduction </li></ul>
  25. 25. Rotator Cuff Muscles Infraspinatus shoulder external rotation Teres Minor shoulder external rotation Supraspinatus shoulder abduction Subscapularis shoulder internal rotation 25 Ch 3 – 5/2007
  26. 26. Torso Muscles and Their Joint Actions <ul><li>Rectus Abdominis: spinal flexion </li></ul><ul><li>External and Internal Obliques: spinal flexion with rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse Abdominis: abdominal compression, vigorous exhalation and expulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Erector Spinae: spinal extension </li></ul><ul><li>Quadratus Lumborum: spinal lateral flexion </li></ul>
  27. 27. Rectus Abdominis * spinal flexion
  28. 28. External Obliques / Internal Obliques * spinal flexion with rotation
  29. 29. Transverse Abdominis * abdominal compression * vigorous exhalation and expulsion
  30. 30. Erector Spinae * spinal extension
  31. 31. Multifidus (multifidi) * spinal extension, spinal rotation, spinal lateral flexion
  32. 32. Quadratus Lumborum * spinal lateral flexion
  33. 33. Hip Joint Muscles and Their Primary Joint Actions <ul><li>Iliopsoas and Rectus Femoris : hip flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Gluteus Maximus and Hamstrings : hip extension </li></ul><ul><li>Gluteus Medius : hip abduction </li></ul><ul><li>Adductor Longus, Adductor Magnus, Adductor Brevis, Gracilis, Pectineus : hip adduction </li></ul><ul><li>Gluteus Minimus : hip inward rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Gluteus Maximus and the 6 Outward Rotators : hip outward rotation </li></ul>
  34. 34. Hip Flexors <ul><li>Rectus Femoris </li></ul><ul><li> * hip flexion </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Iliopsoas </li></ul><ul><li> * hip flexion </li></ul>
  35. 35. Hip Extensors <ul><li>Gluteus Maximus </li></ul><ul><li>* hip extension </li></ul><ul><li> Hamstrings </li></ul><ul><li> * hip extension </li></ul>
  36. 36. Gluteus Medius * hip abduction
  37. 37. Hip Adductors <ul><li>Adductor Adductor Adductor </li></ul><ul><li>Magnus Longus Brevis Pectineus Gracilis </li></ul>
  38. 38. Gluteus Minimus * hip inward rotation
  39. 39. Hip Outward Rotators <ul><li> Gluteus Maximus </li></ul>
  40. 40. Knee Joint Muscles and Their Joint Actions <ul><li>Quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis): knee extension </li></ul><ul><li>Hamstrings (biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus): knee flexion </li></ul>
  41. 41. Quadriceps * knee extension
  42. 42. Hamstrings * knee flexion <ul><li>1. Biceps Femoris </li></ul><ul><li>2. Semitendinosus </li></ul><ul><li>3. Semimembranosus </li></ul>
  43. 43. Major Ankle Joint Muscles and Their Actions <ul><li>Anterior Tibialis: ankle dorsiflexion </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrocnemius and Soleus: ankle plantarflexion </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior Tibialis and Posterior Tibialis: ankle inversion </li></ul><ul><li>Extensor Digitorum Longus, Peroneus Tertius, Peroneus Longus, and Peroneus Brevis: ankle eversion </li></ul>
  44. 44. Anterior Tibialis * ankle dorsiflexion
  45. 45. Ankle Plantarflexors <ul><li> Gastrocnemius Soleus </li></ul>
  46. 46. Ankle Invertors: Anterior Tibialis & Posterior Tibialis
  47. 47. Ankle Evertors <ul><li>Extensor Digitorum Peroneus Peroneus Peroneus </li></ul><ul><li>Longus Tertius Longus Brevis </li></ul>47 Ch 3 – 5/2007
  48. 48. Connective Tissues <ul><li>Ligament —a non-elastic band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone and provides joint stability </li></ul><ul><li>Tendon —dense, fibrous tissue that forms the end of a muscle and attaches muscle to bone </li></ul><ul><li>Fascia —fibrous tissue that forms sheaths for individual muscles, fasciculi, and muscle fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage —white, semi-opaque tissue that cushions joints and prevents wear on joint surfaces </li></ul>
  49. 49. Roles Muscles Play <ul><li>Agonist or Prime Mover —the muscle directly responsible for the movement that you see </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonist —the muscle that works in opposition to the prime mover </li></ul><ul><li>Assistor —the muscle that assists in performing a movement </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilizer —a muscle that maintains a static or isometric contraction and prevents unwanted movement </li></ul>
  50. 50. Muscle Actions <ul><li>Isometric—a held, static muscle action in which there is no change in the joint angle or muscle length. </li></ul><ul><li>Isotonic/Dynamic—joint movement occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Two Types: </li></ul><ul><li>* Concentric—shortening action </li></ul><ul><li>* Eccentric—lengthening action </li></ul>
  51. 51. Opposing Muscle Groups 51 Ch 3 5/2007 Extensor Digitorum Longus, Peroneals Tibialis Anterior, Tibialis Posterior Ankle Gastrocnemius, Soleus Tibialis Anterior Ankle Quadriceps Hamstrings Knee Hip Adductors Gluteus Medius Hip Gluteus Maximus, Hamstrings Iliopsoas, Rectus Femoris Hip Erector Spinae Rectus Abdominis Spine Pectoralis Minor, Serratus Anterior Mid-Trapezius, Rhomboids Scapulae Lower Trapezius, Pectoralis Minor Upper Trapezius Scapulae Infraspinatus, Teres Minor Subscapularis, Teres major Shoulder Latissimus Dorsi Deltoids, Supraspinatus Shoulder Posterior Deltoids Pectoralis Major Shoulder Triceps Biceps Elbow Primary Movers Primary Movers Joint