EuroEco 2010 Wolfgang Strasdas
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EuroEco 2010 Wolfgang Strasdas

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Ecotourism and Climate Change - presentation by Wolfgang Strasdas at EuroEco 2010 - European Ecotourism Conference 26.- 30 of September in Pärnu, Estonia

Ecotourism and Climate Change - presentation by Wolfgang Strasdas at EuroEco 2010 - European Ecotourism Conference 26.- 30 of September in Pärnu, Estonia

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EuroEco 2010 Wolfgang Strasdas EuroEco 2010 Wolfgang Strasdas Presentation Transcript

  • European Ecotourism Conference 2010 Pärnu/Estonia, September 28 Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas Sustainable Tourism Management wolfgang.strasdas@hnee.de Ecotourism and Climate Change – How to adapt to a new challenge ? Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · Friedrich-Ebert-Straße 28 · D-16225 Eberswalde Prof. Dr. Max Mustermann · HNE Eberswalde (FH) · Modul Wirtschaftskreisläufe · Seite 1
  • Climate Change is not going away … Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 2
  • ... becoming a major problem for the tourism industry ! 40o in the shade ?? Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 3
  • Tourism and climate change 1. Tourism is affected by climate change  Adaptation strategies ! 2. Tourism contributes to climate change  Mitigation strategies ! Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 4
  • Tourism‘s contribution to global warming Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 5
  • Tourism‘s share of GHG emissions ... for sustainable tourism min. this ! of 5% is share ... of which 40% due to air traffic Long-haul trips: >90% of emissions caused by flight alone Photo: IIED Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 6
  • Shares of tourism subsystems Source: Deutsche Bahn Source: UNWTO/UNEP/WMO 2007 Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 7
  • Unfortunately, ecotourism is no exception … Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 8
  • Ecotourism – The access challenge  Same planes ...  Remote destinations ...  No public transport …  Multiple-site trips ...  Motorized on-site activities (4x4 vehicles, whale watching, helicopter flights ... )  New Zealand study: Nature-based tourism more energy- intensive than mainstream beach or city tourism  Ecotourism cannot be truly sustainable without solving the transportation problem ! Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 9
  • Mitigation strategies Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 10
  • Mitigation strategies 1. Technological (energy efficiency, fuel switch, renewables) 2. Managerial (flight, traffic, hotel, visitor management, etc.) 3. Modal shift (increase share of public/ground transport) 4. Climate-friendly travel behavior, products (length of stay, nearby destinations, muscle-powered leisure activities) 5. Carbon-offsetting 6. Government regulation (fuel taxes, emissions trading, etc.) Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 11
  • Steps for carbon management (companies or destinations) 1. Measure (carbon & other GHG emissions) 2. Eliminate/replace (type of product, certain activities) 3. Reduce (energy efficiency: technical or managerial) 4. Substitute (fuels, renewable energies) 5. Offset (remaining emissions) 6. Communicate (to employees, customers, suppliers and other business partners) Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 12
  • Accommodation: Climate-neutral hotels Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 13
  • Sustainable Transportation - The hardcore solution - Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 14
  • Sustainable transportation (more pragmatically ) Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 15
  • “Destination Nature“ (to protected areas in Germany/CH) • Marketing initiative of the German Railway since 2001 • Partners with conser- vation organisations, PA agencies, selected DMOs, local transport providers, hotels & tour operators • Encourages comple- mentary sustainable transport at local level Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 16
  • Climate-related certification of ecotourism operators • Combination of adaption and emission reduction strategies • Carbon footprint measurement • Systematic carbon management • Climate neutrality as ultimate goal • Excellent criteria for • TourCert applies to outbound local transport (ecotourism) operators • GHG emissions per PAX/day • Promotes public transit • Internal operations: to destination GHG emissions per staff • Promotes environmentally • Strict flight criteria friendly airlines Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 17
  • Tourism being affected by climate change Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 18
  • High vulnerability due to dependency on natural resources Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 19
  • Time scales for affected tourism segments City & cultural tourism - Heat waves Coastal tourism - Sea level rise Mountain tourism (summer) - extreme weather events, unstable slopes Source: Stock 2009 Alpine winter tourism – Lack of snow Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 20
  • Source: Xola Consulting 2010 Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 21
  • Source: Xola Consulting 2010 Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 22
  • Heat Related Fatalities and Wind Chill, 8 August 2003, 13 UTC Heat Stress 2,000 extreme high † 2,000 moderate 7,000 † slight † comfortable 15,000 slight moderate † high 1,000 extreme † 18,000 Cold Stress † Mortality: J. Robine, 2007 4,000 Wind Chill.: Deutscher Wetterdienst † © 2007 Geo Risks Research, Munich Re Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 23
  • Adventure tourism will be particularly affected Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 24
  • How climate change affects tourism …  Direct impacts (temperatures, precipitation, extreme weather events ...)  Indirect physical impacts (scenery, biodiversity, bodies of water ...)  Adaptation measures of other sectors (agriculture, forestry, water management ...)  Political mitigation measures (rising costs of energy, transportation …)  Changed tourism image, travel attitudes (e.g. preference of nearby destinations)  Shift of tourism flows (destinations, seasons)  Long-term economic, societal risks Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 25
  • 80% of Germans support the taxation of kerosene (BMU 2006) 83% believe that aviation is a major source of environ- mental pollution (BMU 2008) Wolfgang Strasdas · HNE Eberswalde (FH) · Projekt INKA-BB, Teilprojekt 17 Tourismus · Seite 26
  • Importance of climate protection among German population How important is climate protection to you? Men Women very important rather important Source: prognos/vzbv 2010 Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 27
  • Expectations from tour operators Source: Adlwarth, ITB 2010 Wolfgang Strasdas · HNE Eberswalde (FH) · Projekt INKA-BB, Teilprojekt 17 Tourismus · Seite 28
  • Segment-specific awareness High environ- mental awareness Source: INVENT Project (Germany) Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 29
  • Winners and losers by 2030 Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 30
  • Adaptation to warmer summers and water scarcity in East Germany Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 31
  • State of Brandenburg Eberswalde Berlin 32 Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 32
  • Water-based tourism in Brandenburg  Federal state that is richest in surface water …  … in spite of low precipitation  ca. 3,000 lakes + 33,000 km of water courses:  1,600 km suitable for motor boats  6,500 km2 of water surface suitable for on-motorised boats  65 marinas for 3,800 boats  Domestic (and increasingly int‘l) destination for water tourists Source: MBJS 2009 Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 33
  • Climate change projections for Brandenburg by 2055  Slightly rising temperatures   Warmer, drier summers   Extended season (spring, autumn)   Lousy winters (wetter, no snow)   More extreme weather events   Decreasing summer precipitation (up to one third less)   Falling water levels, water availability   Deteriorating water quality & ecology  Source: GERSTENGARBE 2003 (LUA 2006) Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 34
  • Vulnerability assessment Exposure Sensitivity (magnitude of external influence) (of the impacted system) Impact Adaptive (potential) capacity (mitigating or enhancing potential impact) Vulnerability Actual Adaptation Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 35
  • Results of vulnerability analysis for tourism in Brandenburg  Direct climate change: low exposure (positive potential)  Bodies of water: rel. high, short-term exposure (risks)  Shift of tourism flows: fair exposure (positive potential) (due to possible increase of domestic holidays & European demand)  Water tourism: highest sensitivity (incl. increased use conflicts) (risks)  Nature-based tourism: possibly long-term impacts due to expected biodiversity loss and deteriorating scenery (risks)  Land-based outdoor activities (cycling, horseback riding): positive potential  Day trips increasingly difficult to plan ahead (risks)  Adaptive capacity of stakeholders currently low (problems & opportunities partially understood, but: little strategic orientation, lack of resources available to SMEs, regional DMOs, public entities) (risks) Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 36
  • Adaptation strategies to be tested within the project Destination management  Integrate anticipatory CC adaptation into regional planning  Increase resilience of water-based ecosystems  Develop/market climate-friendly destination Business management (SMEs)  Innovation & risk management  Product diversification  Climate-friendly/neutral company Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 37
  • Test and disseminate new boat technologies  Boat hulls adapted to more shallow waters & producing less waves  Solar boats & biodiesel/hybrid engines  Muscle-powered houseboats  Bringing together technology developers and boat operators  Creating financial incentives  Create privileged access to sensitive waters Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 38
  • Thank you for your attention ! Coaching German Source: Stock 2009 cows for adaptation to sea level rise in 21XX Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 39