EuroEco 2010 Wolfgang Strasdas

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Ecotourism and Climate Change - presentation by Wolfgang Strasdas at EuroEco 2010 - European Ecotourism Conference 26.- 30 of September in Pärnu, Estonia

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EuroEco 2010 Wolfgang Strasdas

  1. 1. European Ecotourism Conference 2010 Pärnu/Estonia, September 28 Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas Sustainable Tourism Management wolfgang.strasdas@hnee.de Ecotourism and Climate Change – How to adapt to a new challenge ? Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · Friedrich-Ebert-Straße 28 · D-16225 Eberswalde Prof. Dr. Max Mustermann · HNE Eberswalde (FH) · Modul Wirtschaftskreisläufe · Seite 1
  2. 2. Climate Change is not going away … Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 2
  3. 3. ... becoming a major problem for the tourism industry ! 40o in the shade ?? Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 3
  4. 4. Tourism and climate change 1. Tourism is affected by climate change  Adaptation strategies ! 2. Tourism contributes to climate change  Mitigation strategies ! Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 4
  5. 5. Tourism‘s contribution to global warming Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 5
  6. 6. Tourism‘s share of GHG emissions ... for sustainable tourism min. this ! of 5% is share ... of which 40% due to air traffic Long-haul trips: >90% of emissions caused by flight alone Photo: IIED Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 6
  7. 7. Shares of tourism subsystems Source: Deutsche Bahn Source: UNWTO/UNEP/WMO 2007 Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 7
  8. 8. Unfortunately, ecotourism is no exception … Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 8
  9. 9. Ecotourism – The access challenge  Same planes ...  Remote destinations ...  No public transport …  Multiple-site trips ...  Motorized on-site activities (4x4 vehicles, whale watching, helicopter flights ... )  New Zealand study: Nature-based tourism more energy- intensive than mainstream beach or city tourism  Ecotourism cannot be truly sustainable without solving the transportation problem ! Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 9
  10. 10. Mitigation strategies Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 10
  11. 11. Mitigation strategies 1. Technological (energy efficiency, fuel switch, renewables) 2. Managerial (flight, traffic, hotel, visitor management, etc.) 3. Modal shift (increase share of public/ground transport) 4. Climate-friendly travel behavior, products (length of stay, nearby destinations, muscle-powered leisure activities) 5. Carbon-offsetting 6. Government regulation (fuel taxes, emissions trading, etc.) Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 11
  12. 12. Steps for carbon management (companies or destinations) 1. Measure (carbon & other GHG emissions) 2. Eliminate/replace (type of product, certain activities) 3. Reduce (energy efficiency: technical or managerial) 4. Substitute (fuels, renewable energies) 5. Offset (remaining emissions) 6. Communicate (to employees, customers, suppliers and other business partners) Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 12
  13. 13. Accommodation: Climate-neutral hotels Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 13
  14. 14. Sustainable Transportation - The hardcore solution - Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 14
  15. 15. Sustainable transportation (more pragmatically ) Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 15
  16. 16. “Destination Nature“ (to protected areas in Germany/CH) • Marketing initiative of the German Railway since 2001 • Partners with conser- vation organisations, PA agencies, selected DMOs, local transport providers, hotels & tour operators • Encourages comple- mentary sustainable transport at local level Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 16
  17. 17. Climate-related certification of ecotourism operators • Combination of adaption and emission reduction strategies • Carbon footprint measurement • Systematic carbon management • Climate neutrality as ultimate goal • Excellent criteria for • TourCert applies to outbound local transport (ecotourism) operators • GHG emissions per PAX/day • Promotes public transit • Internal operations: to destination GHG emissions per staff • Promotes environmentally • Strict flight criteria friendly airlines Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 17
  18. 18. Tourism being affected by climate change Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 18
  19. 19. High vulnerability due to dependency on natural resources Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 19
  20. 20. Time scales for affected tourism segments City & cultural tourism - Heat waves Coastal tourism - Sea level rise Mountain tourism (summer) - extreme weather events, unstable slopes Source: Stock 2009 Alpine winter tourism – Lack of snow Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 20
  21. 21. Source: Xola Consulting 2010 Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 21
  22. 22. Source: Xola Consulting 2010 Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 22
  23. 23. Heat Related Fatalities and Wind Chill, 8 August 2003, 13 UTC Heat Stress 2,000 extreme high † 2,000 moderate 7,000 † slight † comfortable 15,000 slight moderate † high 1,000 extreme † 18,000 Cold Stress † Mortality: J. Robine, 2007 4,000 Wind Chill.: Deutscher Wetterdienst † © 2007 Geo Risks Research, Munich Re Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 23
  24. 24. Adventure tourism will be particularly affected Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 24
  25. 25. How climate change affects tourism …  Direct impacts (temperatures, precipitation, extreme weather events ...)  Indirect physical impacts (scenery, biodiversity, bodies of water ...)  Adaptation measures of other sectors (agriculture, forestry, water management ...)  Political mitigation measures (rising costs of energy, transportation …)  Changed tourism image, travel attitudes (e.g. preference of nearby destinations)  Shift of tourism flows (destinations, seasons)  Long-term economic, societal risks Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 25
  26. 26. 80% of Germans support the taxation of kerosene (BMU 2006) 83% believe that aviation is a major source of environ- mental pollution (BMU 2008) Wolfgang Strasdas · HNE Eberswalde (FH) · Projekt INKA-BB, Teilprojekt 17 Tourismus · Seite 26
  27. 27. Importance of climate protection among German population How important is climate protection to you? Men Women very important rather important Source: prognos/vzbv 2010 Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 27
  28. 28. Expectations from tour operators Source: Adlwarth, ITB 2010 Wolfgang Strasdas · HNE Eberswalde (FH) · Projekt INKA-BB, Teilprojekt 17 Tourismus · Seite 28
  29. 29. Segment-specific awareness High environ- mental awareness Source: INVENT Project (Germany) Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 29
  30. 30. Winners and losers by 2030 Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 30
  31. 31. Adaptation to warmer summers and water scarcity in East Germany Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 31
  32. 32. State of Brandenburg Eberswalde Berlin 32 Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 32
  33. 33. Water-based tourism in Brandenburg  Federal state that is richest in surface water …  … in spite of low precipitation  ca. 3,000 lakes + 33,000 km of water courses:  1,600 km suitable for motor boats  6,500 km2 of water surface suitable for on-motorised boats  65 marinas for 3,800 boats  Domestic (and increasingly int‘l) destination for water tourists Source: MBJS 2009 Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 33
  34. 34. Climate change projections for Brandenburg by 2055  Slightly rising temperatures   Warmer, drier summers   Extended season (spring, autumn)   Lousy winters (wetter, no snow)   More extreme weather events   Decreasing summer precipitation (up to one third less)   Falling water levels, water availability   Deteriorating water quality & ecology  Source: GERSTENGARBE 2003 (LUA 2006) Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 34
  35. 35. Vulnerability assessment Exposure Sensitivity (magnitude of external influence) (of the impacted system) Impact Adaptive (potential) capacity (mitigating or enhancing potential impact) Vulnerability Actual Adaptation Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 35
  36. 36. Results of vulnerability analysis for tourism in Brandenburg  Direct climate change: low exposure (positive potential)  Bodies of water: rel. high, short-term exposure (risks)  Shift of tourism flows: fair exposure (positive potential) (due to possible increase of domestic holidays & European demand)  Water tourism: highest sensitivity (incl. increased use conflicts) (risks)  Nature-based tourism: possibly long-term impacts due to expected biodiversity loss and deteriorating scenery (risks)  Land-based outdoor activities (cycling, horseback riding): positive potential  Day trips increasingly difficult to plan ahead (risks)  Adaptive capacity of stakeholders currently low (problems & opportunities partially understood, but: little strategic orientation, lack of resources available to SMEs, regional DMOs, public entities) (risks) Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 36
  37. 37. Adaptation strategies to be tested within the project Destination management  Integrate anticipatory CC adaptation into regional planning  Increase resilience of water-based ecosystems  Develop/market climate-friendly destination Business management (SMEs)  Innovation & risk management  Product diversification  Climate-friendly/neutral company Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 37
  38. 38. Test and disseminate new boat technologies  Boat hulls adapted to more shallow waters & producing less waves  Solar boats & biodiesel/hybrid engines  Muscle-powered houseboats  Bringing together technology developers and boat operators  Creating financial incentives  Create privileged access to sensitive waters Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 38
  39. 39. Thank you for your attention ! Coaching German Source: Stock 2009 cows for adaptation to sea level rise in 21XX Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Strasdas · Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development · EuroEco Estonia 2010 Page 39

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