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P2 presenatation2r hoekstra1402587

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second presentation in the line of five. Graduation project: Urban Regeneration in a Market Oriented Decision Environment

second presentation in the line of five. Graduation project: Urban Regeneration in a Market Oriented Decision Environment

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  • 1. Urban Regeneration in a MarketOriented Decision EnvironmentRuud Hoekstra | P2 | Complex Cities Graduation StudioJanuary 24th, Room XDepartment of Urbanism | Delft University of Technology| Netherlands
  • 2. Content | PresentationContext Problem Oriented ScenarioPhysical locationurban regenerationplanning process S- RQ’s Main Research Question Planning Instruments SollutionProblem Oriented EndStatement ProductsAims S- RQ’s 2/67
  • 3. Introduction | Project Context Context Problem Oriented Scenario Physical location urban regeneration planning process S- RQ’s Main Research Question Planning Instruments Sollution Problem Oriented End Statement Products Aims S- RQ’s 3/67
  • 4. Urban Regeneration in a Market Oriented Decision Environment The Dutch Planning Process at Urban Regeneration of Deprived Neighbourhoods Re-evaluated The Speaker Says:source: blablablablablabla 4/67 4/67
  • 5. Introduction | Problem Neighbourhoods NetherlandsLeeuwarden 1 Groningen 2Alkmaar 1Zaanstad 1Amsterdam 5 Deventer 1The Hague 4 Enschede 1 Amersfoort 1Rotterdam 8 Arnhem 4Dordrecht 1 Nijmegen 1Utrecht 4 Eindhoven 3 Maastricht 1 Heerlen 1source: Google images, available on Google.com 5/67data: onderwerpen/aandachtswijken, available on: Rijksoverheid.nl
  • 6. Introduction | Deprived Neighbourhoods South-HollandDen Haag 5StationsbuurtSchilderswijkZuidwestTransvaalRotterdam 8Oude WestenOude NoordenCrooswijk Dordrecht 1tBergpolder Wielwijk / Crabbehof Crab bbehof fOverschieOud ZuidVreewijkZuidelijke Tuinsteden 6/67
  • 7. Introduction | Deprived Neighbourhoods Rotterdam Rotterdam 8 Oude Westen Oude Noorden Crooswijk Bergpolder Overschie Oud Zuid Vreewijk Zuidelijke Tuinsteden Feijenoord Chalois Afrikaanderwijk Carnisse / Zuidplein Bloemhof Oud-Charlois Hillesluis Tarwewijk Katendrecht 7/67
  • 8. Introduction | History Rotterdam-South1880 - 1940 explosive growth + + Nieuwe waterweg Feijenoord Charloissource: Stadsregio.info 8/67data: Zuid Werkt! Nationaal programma Kwaliteitssprong Zuid (19 september’11) available on: Rijksoverheid.nl
  • 9. Introduction | History Rotterdam-South1950 - 1960 reconstruction after WWII + + Europoort 1e maasvlakte Botlek IJsselmonde Pendrecht Lombardijen Zuidwijksource: Stadsregio.info 9/67data: Zuid Werkt! Nationaal programma Kwaliteitssprong Zuid (19 september’11) available on: Rijksoverheid.nl
  • 10. Introduction | History Rotterdam-South1960 - 1975 high unemployment andpauperizationsource: Stadsregio.info 10/67data: Zuid Werkt! Nationaal programma Kwaliteitssprong Zuid (19 september’11) available on: Rijksoverheid.nl
  • 11. Introduction | History Rotterdam-South1975 - 1990 urban renewal for low incomes + €-source: Stadsregio.info 11/67data: Zuid Werkt! Nationaal programma Kwaliteitssprong Zuid (19 september’11) available on: Rijksoverheid.nl
  • 12. Introduction | History Rotterdam-South1990 - 2010 the success of ‘Kop vanZuid’ Erasmus bridge Kop van Zuidsource: Stadsregio.info 12/67data: Zuid Werkt! Nationaal programma Kwaliteitssprong Zuid (19 september’11) available on: Rijksoverheid.nl
  • 13. Introduction | Erasmusbrugsource: Reahon, (2011) available at: http://reahon.deviantart.com/art/Erasmusbrug-Rotterdam-208575873. 13/67
  • 14. Introduction | Kop van Zuidsource: Cak-cak (2011). available at: www.flickr.com. 14/67
  • 15. Introduction | Rotterdam South Feijenoord 71. 532 8 neighbourhoods 4 problematic neighbourhoods Charlois 64. 020 9 neighbourhoods 3 problematic neighbourhoods
  • 16. Introduction | Rotterdam South Afrikaanderwijk Katendrecht HillesluisOud Chalois Tarwewijk Bloemhof Carnisse / Zuidplein 16/67
  • 17. Introduction | Facts d ie up x e s de cc m nt in co ro ra ty ig in ne fe m w ow sa im 7.1 € loRotterdam Totaal 48 % 33 % 7.3 53 %FeijenoordAfrikaanderwijk 86 % 10 % 5.1 64 %Bloemhof 74 % 21 % 4.8 64 %Hillesluis 82 % 26 % 4.3 63 %Katendrecht 58 % 29 % 7.6 57 %CharloisCarnisse / Zuidplein 58 % 48 % 5.6 65 %Oud Charlois 56 % 36 % 6.4 60 %Tarwewijk 76 % 29 % 3.9 68 %data: de stad in cijfers: available at: Rotterdam.nl/data 17/67
  • 18. 1e R N ui o m ta 1958 te lijk N e La ota O nd W rd s es en te 1960 in n g de 3e s R N ui o 1966 m ta 2e te O lijk rd Not e en a O in Ru rd g im 1974 en in te g lijk 4e R N e ui o m ta 1976 te Ve r Introduction | Spatial Planning lijk st e ed O el rd ijk en in 1988 in gs g no 5e ta R N 1992 ui o 4e m ta O te rd Not lijk en a e O in Ru g rd Ex imt 2001 en in tra elij g ke 4e Nota Ruimte18/67 2004
  • 19. Introduction | Spatial Planning 4e Nota Ruimte ta e ke lijk no ministry of spatial planning (gov.) s tra elij de te gs Ex imt im in n te ijk ng u in Ru ni R - Spatial memorandum (Nota) s es el de ota en a ed nd W rd Not g - Wro (law of spatial organization st La ota N r Ve 2e 4e N Randstad 2040 O national 1958 1966 1976 1992 2004 South wing (Randstad) 1960 1988 2001 Provincial g g g g in in in in en en en en rd rd rd rd Rotterdam 2020 O O O O Municipal e e e e m ta m ta m ta m ta lijk lijk lijk lijk ui o ui o ui o ui oR N R N R N R N te te te te 1e 3e 4e 5e 19/67
  • 20. Introduction | Spatial Planning 4e Nota Ruimte ta e ke lijk no ministry of spatial planning (gov.) s tra elij de te gs Ex imt im in n te ijk ng u in Ru ni R - Spatial memorandum (Nota) s es el de ota en a ed nd W rd Not g - Wro (law of spatial organization st La ota N r Ve 2e 4e N Randstad 2040 central organization O national 1958 1966 1976 vs.1992 2004 decentralized organization South wing (Randstad) 1960 1988 2001 Provincial g g g g in in in in en en en en rd rd rd rd Rotterdam 2020 O O O O Municipal e e e e m ta m ta m ta m ta lijk lijk lijk lijk ui o ui o ui o ui oR N R N R N R N te te te te 1e 3e 4e 5e 20/67
  • 21. Introduction | Spatial Planning government public National rigid process top-down planning horizontal approach actors Provincial pal municipalprivate civil 21/6 21/67 21/67
  • 22. Introduction | Spatial Planning governance public private civilarea based approaches (projects) easely manage-able. The public sector follows with goals and visions(competitive, economic oriented) development plans. 22/67
  • 23. Introduction | Spatial Planning cooperation public private civil 23/67
  • 24. Introduction | Spatial PlanningCompetitive orientedEconomic orientedsource: Uitvoeringsagenda Regio Rotterdam 2020: available at: RR2020.nl 24/67
  • 25. Introduction | Spatial Planning The role of the urban planner“Spatial planning is not a hobby of a limited number ofprofessionals. It has to be a service, promoting citizenparticipation and realizing consumer sovereignty. Forurban planners this means: generating alternative plans,and mobilizing long-term stakeholders to expresstheir preferences and to make choices.” Priemus and Hall (2004: 348)source: Priemus, H., Hall, P. (2004). Multifunctional Urban Planning of Mega-City- Regions. Journal of Built Environment, Vol. 30 (4). 25/67
  • 26. Introduction | Urban Regeneration“a broad and integrated vision and action that leads to solvingurban problems and which seeks for a lasting improvement in theeconomic, physical, social and environmental conditions of theplanning area.” Roberts and Sykes (2000: 17)source: Roberts, P., Sykes, H. (2000). Urban Regeneration: a handbook. London: Sage. 26/67
  • 27. Introduction | Urban RegenerationSocial orientedEconomic orientedPhysical orientedsource: Roberts, P., Sykes, H. (2000). Urban Regeneration: a handbook. London: Sage. 27/67
  • 28. Introduction | Urban Regeneration VS. 28/67
  • 29. Introduction | Urban Regeneration New built VS. Urban regeneration environment 7-12 % 3-6 % 29/67
  • 30. Content | Problem StatementContext Problem Oriented ScenarioPhysical locationurban regenerationplanning process S- RQ’s Main Research Question Planning Instruments SollutionProblem Oriented EndStatement ProductsAims S- RQ’s 30/67
  • 31. Problem Statement | ? on ati er en on ilt eg nt vir bu nr me en wly ba ne ur spatial policies (Wro) policies (GSB) governance process visions - current process bottleneck development plans visions (inclusion of needs,planning process (land use plan; development plans economic) bestemmingsplan) (bestemmingsplan) development process initiative - consensus building management design/ of presurving financing implementation spatial configuration - spatial configuration which is not inclusive 31/67
  • 32. Objectives | Aims & Goals Aim: The integration of people and needs into the planning process for a physical environment and spatial composition which is Goal: The re-evaluation of the urban regeneration process by integration of people and needs into the potential role of of the area into the region. 32/67
  • 33. Main Research Question |How to facilitate a consensus with distributional benefits1 withinthe Dutch planning process in urban regeneration of low incomeneighbourhoods in Rotterdam-South for a spatial configuration2which stimulates? space quality3? 33/67
  • 34. Research Questions | Fine Tuning How do the changing conditions in urban development in the Netherlands influence the urbanization / urban regeneration process? Urban Regeneration Strategyproblem literature review Strenghtsoriented mapping spatial issues Weakness Opportunities +2 Treats How to stimulate a spatial configuration which is all inclusive in the Dutch urban regeneration to integrate the production of place quality in the spatial planning process? literature review (theoretical framework) Spatial Effects mapping spatial fragments conclusions investigate the relation relate conclusion with - suggestions conditions that influence within the urban conclusions urban regeneration the spatial configuration - potentials development plans policies - bottlenecks = input for RQ4 Which actor participation strategies stimulate decision power within the spatial planning process of urban regeneration plans? literature review (theoretical framework, review paper) potentials of using Spatial Planning Process other potentialities actor participation concepts for the review criteria participation conceptssollution in matrix production of place quality: Strenghtsoriented case study current used participatory concepts in urban regeneration plans Rotterdam Weakness Opportunities Treats co-option (public-private) Strenghts .... Weakness .... input for planning instruments .... Opportunities .... Treats How do we reach consensus within the Dutch urban regeneration planning process and how can we stimulate distributional benefits? Spatial Planning Process literature review (theoretical framework) current situation review practical documents comparison about the results: potentials of embedding partici- conclusions suggestions patory concepts potentials potentials in creating place qual- botlenecks ity trough consensus 34/67
  • 35. Main Research Question | Sub-questionsHow to facilitate a consensus with distributional benefits1 within the Dutch planning processin urban regeneration of low income neighbourhoods in Rotterdam-South for a spatialconfiguration2 which stimulates? space quality3? problem oriented sollution oriented sub-questions sub-questions Consensus Empowerment Spatial Consensus Empowerment Spatial configuration configuration 1 2 3 4 5 6 35/67
  • 36. Content | Problem Oriented Sub-Research QuestionsContext Problem Oriented ScenarioPhysical locationurban regenerationplanning process S- RQ’s Main Research Question Planning Instruments SollutionProblem Oriented EndStatement ProductsAims S- RQ’s
  • 37. Sub-Research Questions | Consensus 1Which stakeholders are involved in the decision making process, withwhat interest and in what way can we see their interest expressed inthe development plans?
  • 38. Sub-research Question 1 | immigrants Katendrecht 28% Afrikaander- wijk 86% Tarwewijk Hillesluis Oud- 76% 82% Charlois Bloemhof 56% 74% Carnisse Zuidplein 58%
  • 39. Sub-research Question 1 | owner occupation Feijenoord 22% Charlois 41%
  • 40. Sub-research Question 1 | Represented GroupsStakeholders area stakeholders immigrants tenants young people 20-54jr 53 % low income 62 % housing coorperations: Havensteder Vestia Woonbron Woonstad Rotterdam Chairman sub-municipalities Charlois Feijenoord Ijsselmonde havenbedrijf Rotterdam Natuurmonumentensource data: http://www.kei-centrum.nl, visited jan. 21st 2012 40/67
  • 41. Sub-research Question 1 | Represented GroupsStakeholders area Pact op Zuid 2006-2016 stakeholders steering commitee immigrants Chairman tenants Alderman Social affairs, employment and GSB young people 20-54jr 53 % low income 62 % CEO’s housing coorperations: Chairman sub-municipalities Havensteder Charlois housing coorperations: Vestia Feijenoord Havensteder Woonbron Ijsselmonde Vestia Woonstad Rotterdam Woonbron Woonstad Rotterdam core team Policy makers: Chairman sub-municipalities OBR Charlois dS+V Feijenoord Ijsselmonde housing coorperations: sub-municipalities Vestia Charlois havenbedrijf Rotterdam Woonstad Rotterdam Feijenoord Natuurmonumenten Ijsselmondesource data: http://www.kei-centrum.nl, visited jan. 21st 2012 Program 41/67
  • 42. Sub-research Question 1 | Represented GroupsStakeholders area Pact op Zuid 2006-2016 represented groups steering commitee immigrants Chairman tenants Alderman Social affairs, employment and GSB young people 20-54jr 53 % low income 62 % CEO’s housing coorperations: Chairman sub-municipalities Havensteder Charlois housing coorperations: Vestia Feijenoord Havensteder Woonbron Ijsselmonde Vestia Woonstad Rotterdam Woonbron Woonstad Rotterdam core team Policy makers: Chairman sub-municipalities OBR Charlois dS+V Feijenoord Ijsselmonde housing coorperations: sub-municipalities Vestia Charlois havenbedrijf Rotterdam Woonstad Rotterdam Feijenoord Natuurmonumenten Ijsselmondesource data: http://www.kei-centrum.nl, visited jan. 21st 2012 Program 42/67
  • 43. Sub-research Question 1 | Plans Proposed approach to private property by housing coorperations small projects physical environmentsource data: Jaarprogamma kaart 2009 available on: http://www.pactopzuid.info, visited jan. 21st 2012
  • 44. Sub-research Questions | What Theory Contributes perspective perspective perspective perspective 1 2 3 4 monitor map Political strategists Political strategists livability private Citizens Finance groups counter money decision support systemsdecision support systems landscape public Dealing room Government Developers environment private counter permit Arbiter economy public Professional consultants transport agriculture urban design decision support systems source: Frieling, D.H. (2002). Design in Strategy, in: Jong, T.M. de, Voordt, D.J.M. van der (Edt.) (2002) Ways to study and Research: Urban, 44/67 Architectural and Technical Design. Delft: DUP Science.
  • 45. Sub-research Questions | What TheoryContributesClosed spaces: Here ‘decisions are made by a set of actors behind closed doors, without any pretence of broadening theboundaries of inclusion’. (Gaventa, 2004: 35).Invited Spaces: ‘Efforts to widen participation involves the creation of new or “invited” spaces, i.e. those people (as users,as citizens, as beneficiaries) are invited to participate by various kinds of authorities, be they government, supranational agencies or non-governmental organisations’ (Cornwall, 2002: 24).Claimed / created spaces: ‘spaces which are claimed by less powerful actors from or against the power-hold-ers, or created more autonomously by them, (Gaventa, 2004: 35). These might arise out of mobilization around issue based concerns orwhere organizations are formed to represent local interests’.source: Gaventa, J. (2004). Towards participatory governance: Assesing the transformative possibilities, in: Bailey, N. (2010) Understanding Community 45/67Empowerment in Urban Regeneration and Planning in England: Putiing Policy and Practice in Context. Planning Practice and Research, 25:3, 317-332.
  • 46. Sub Research Question | Variables ThatDetermine the Consensusthe actors in the dealing room (decision making process) seem todetermine the consensusthe type of governance space plays an important role for the level ofinfluence of the actors 46/67
  • 47. Sub-Research Questions | Empowerment 2Does community engagement or the tools being used help to build aconsensus to representate underrepresented groups? 47/67
  • 48. Sub-Research Questions | Spatial Effects 3How do the changing conditions in urban development in theNetherlands influence the urbanization and urban regenerationprocess?
  • 49. Strategy | Gaps and Botlenecks Consensus Empowerment Spatial configuration problem oriented sub-questionsConsensus Empowerment Spatial configuration Plan A ? Plan 1 2 3 B 49/67
  • 50. Project | Orientation Urban Regeneration in a Market Oriented Decision Environment governance spatial VS. configuration 50/67
  • 51. Project | Orientation the combination of production of a actors = certain plan or outcome The Dutch Planning Process at Urban Regeneration of Deprived Neighbourhoods Re-Evaluated 51/67
  • 52. Project | Organization problem oriented sollution oriented sub-questions sub-questionsConsensus Empowerment Spatial Consensus Empowerment Spatial configuration configuration gaps and botlenecks in urban regeneration 1 2 3 4 5 6 52/67
  • 53. Content | Sollution Oriented Sub-Research QuestionsContext Problem Oriented ScenarioPhysical locationurban regenerationplanning process S- RQ’s Main Research Question Planning Instruments SollutionProblem Oriented EndStatement ProductsAims S- RQ’s
  • 54. Sub-Research Questions | 1,2 & 3 Problem Oriented123 gaps and botlenecksProblem orientedresearch questions1 2 3 Spatial Effects SQ 4 Spatial Planning Process other potentialities SQ 5 Spatial Planning Process current situation SQ 6 Strenghts Weakness Opportunities Treats 54/67
  • 55. Sub-Research Questions | Spatial Effects 4How to stimulate a spatial configuration which is all inclusive in theDutch urban regeneration to integrate the production of place qualityin the spatial planning process? SQ literature review (theoretical framework)1,2,3 mapping spatial fragments S conclusions W investigate the relation - suggestions O within the urban conclusions - potentials development plans T - bottlenecks conditions that influence relate conclusion with the spatial configuration urban regenera- = input for SQ-6 tion policies 55/67
  • 56. Sub-Research Questions | Empowerment 5Which actor participation strategies stimulate decision power withinthe spatial planning process of urban regeneration plans? literature review (theoretical framework) review criteria participation concepts in matrix case study current used participatory concepts in SQ 4 urban regeneration plans Rotterdam co-option (public-private) Strenghtspotentials of using .... Weaknessactor participation .... Opportunitiesconcepts for the ....production of place Treatsquality = input for planning instruments 56/67
  • 57. Sub-Research Questions | Consensus 6How do we reach consensus within the Dutch urban regenerationplanning process and how can we stimulate distributional benefits? literature review (theoretical framework) review of practical documents SQ 4 conclusionStrenghts comparison about the potentials of embeddingWeakness results: participatory concepts suggestions potentials in creating placeOpportunities potentials quality trough consensusTreats botlenecks 57/67
  • 58. Sub-Research Questions | Methodological StrategyProblem oriented Spatial Effects Spatial Planning Spatial Planningresearch questions Process Process other potentialities current situationSQ-1 SQ-2 SQ-3 SQ-4 SQ-5 SQ-6 ScenarioPlanning instruments Actor combination vs. plan or outcome other potentials of socio-spatial integration to reach an better consensus among stakeholders 58/67
  • 59. Content | ScenarioContext Problem Oriented ScenarioPhysical locationurban regenerationplanning process S- RQ’s Main Research Question Planning Instruments SollutionProblem Oriented EndStatement ProductsAims S- RQ’s
  • 60. Scenario | Concept an pl ialComposition of actors at Sp =source: Robert-Bunsens200th-BirthdayGlobal. retrieved jan 22th 12’,available on: Google.com/doodle 60/67
  • 61. Scenario | Methods survey case study actor relational approach South Limburg Hillside delight case study ? normative approach Vienna 61/67
  • 62. Scenario | PositionResearch questions ScenarioProblem oriented Spatial Effects Spatial Planning Spatial Planningresearch questions Process other potentialities Process current situation survey case study How to stimulate a spatial con- Which actor participation How do we reach consensus actor relational approach figuration which is all inclusive in strategies stimulate decision within the Dutch urban regener- the Dutch urban regeneration to power within the spatial planning ation planning process and how integrate the production of place process of urban regeneration can we stimulate distributional quality in the spatial planning plans? benefits? process? literature review (theoretical framework) literature review (theoretical framework) literature review (theoretical framework) mapping spatial fragments review practical documents Strenghts review criteria participation conclusionsgaps and Weakness conclusions investigate the relation concepts in matrixbotlenecks Opportunities - suggestions within the urban comparison about the results: - potentials case study current used suggestions Treats case study development - bottlenecks participatory concepts in plans potentials urban regeneration plans Rotterdam botlenecks relate conclusion with urban regeneration conclusions co-option (public-private) .... normative approach policies conditions that potentials of using actor .... .... Strenghts Weakness Opportunities Treats potentials of embedding participatory concepts potentials in creating place quality ? influence the spatial participation concepts trough consensus configuration for the production of = input for planning = input for SQ-6 place quality instrumentsSQ-1 SQ-2 SQ-3 SQ-4 SQ-5 SQ-6 Planning instruments 62/67
  • 63. Content | End ProductsContext Problem Oriented ScenarioPhysical locationurban regenerationplanning process S- RQ’s Main Research Question Planning Instruments SollutionProblem Oriented EndStatement ProductsAims S- RQ’s
  • 64. End Products | Planning Instruments“ A set of planning instruments aimed to improve theintegration of people and needs into the planning process ”of Urban Regeneration plans for a better stakeholderconsensus at the local level 64/67
  • 65. Managment Principles | Area Development process management project management Netherlands uses this brance to direct area development on the basis of land allocation / land resource confersions. management The aimed planning instruments / tools are therefore positioned in this branche. management tools/instruments shaping regulating activating stimulating plans rules actors network subsidies objectives approach marketingsource: Heurkens, E. (Forthcoming). Management Principles for Area Development. 65/67
  • 66. Problem Statement | Position Planning Instruments ? on ati er en on ilt eg nt vir bu nr me en wly ba ne ur spatial policies (Wro) policies (GSB) governance process visions development plans visionsplanning process (land use plan; development plans bestemmingsplan) (bestemmingsplan) initiative development process participation consensus management of presurving design/ financing implementation spatial configuration needs and interest stakeholders 66/67
  • 67. rs ay s: ea keT he sp y o u ! th a n k ilable at; htt p://www.slid eshar e.net/Ru udHoe kstra on is ava ntati this prese