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Why information architects are needed in the kitchen?
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Why information architects are needed in the kitchen?

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Presentation given at the EuroIA 2008 (Amsterdam). For the storyline I refer to the article on Infodesign: http://www.informationdesign.org/special/ruissaardbogaards_article.htm

Presentation given at the EuroIA 2008 (Amsterdam). For the storyline I refer to the article on Infodesign: http://www.informationdesign.org/special/ruissaardbogaards_article.htm

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  • Why information architects are needed in the kitchen Better content management through information architecture I am an IA for Informaat in the Netherlands. I design for websites and intranets. In my work I do not only focus on the design to obtain an optimum user experience for the end user of a site. I also advise organisation how to set up their content management organization and processes.
  • Keywords: Looking for inspiration In CM com. UX thinking is not on top of their mind CM takes place in the BS Frutiger wrt Roman Bullet is 32pnt Subbullet: 24 pnts Verbazing kenbaar maken: flabbergasted Interaction mailing lists Information architecture mailing list Bij de IA in de CM com. alleen melden dat ik twee bronnen heb bekeken waaruit bleek dat IA not on top of mind is en vooral gekoppeld is aan data architectuur. Het UX denken is grotendeels afwezig. SIGIA 11000 posts IxDA 13000 posts Ik heb allen naar de subject headers gekeken en niet naar de message The area of content management. In my role as an information architect i have had a chance to see many organizations from within. When i get involved in a redesign of a website or intranet i have noticed that organizations are often struggling with issues related to content management. These issues may concern the content management processes, the tools, or the people involved. When i am looking for inspiration or lessons learned with respect to CM, I have also noticed that content management is not a very popular topic in the IA community. While preparing for this conference i scanned the presentations that were devote to CM on the EuroIA and the IA summit. On the euro IA so far only one or two topics dealt with this subject. When looking at the International IA summit only 7% of all presentations have some relevance to content management. In the year 2007 and 2008 the attention dropped to less than 1%. Of course there are other sources that deal with content management such as Steptwo or Metatorial Services founded by Bob Boiko or the Rockley Group founded by Ann Rockley. Yet these sources are not presenting themselves as information architects whereas i believe that Ias can do a lot of good work within the content management domain. So for this conference i decided to take on the challenge and put content management back 0n the map. And as this conference theme is about redrawing the map i will try to build a case that content management is a domain in which the IA can do some useful work.
  • Points of view User perspective: ziet eerste drie. User undergoes a ux. IA perspective: IA is engaged in UX thinking The front stage is the place where an organization delivers its services or products to the intended audience. It is also the place where the Information architect hopes his design enhances the UX on the basis of his design.
  • BS is the kitchen Amount of attention from the IA community with respect to the backstage and frontstage are not in balance. I refer to content management as the backstage or as the title of my presentation says: the kitchen. The backstage is the place where the content is being made, processed and ultimately published. To do this succesfully the backstage needs to implement the right content management organization, content management processes and CM tools. These three aspects of CM I refer to as the backstage and need equal attention from the IA as the frontstage.
  • Now this statement may not sound like big idea to you. Or may be you think it is a trodden truth. But judging from the amount of attention to content management I believe it is a relevant idea. Nevertheless I would like to take this statement one step further by arguing that …. Now the amount of attention from the IA community with respect to the backstage and frontstage are not in balance. The reasons for the lack of attention for backstage may differ from person to person but among them are the following: Motivation (not sexy, fascination) Benefits Complexity (technical, Experience and skills Whatever the reasons are I believe it is important that we raise our awareness AND involvement of the backstage and infiltrate the kitchen. The main reason for this is that a positive UX of the frontstage is tied to a well organized backstage.
  • When we look at the world around us we can see many examples where backstage is fundamental for the front stage. However our awareness of the backstage may differ. Let us explore this by means of one example. Also I would like to illustrate the importance of the backstage by means of one example. This example show not only the importance of the backstage but also that our awareness of the backstage can differ significantly. I would like to show the relationship of the BS and FS by means of an example in our surrounding world in order to show the importance of the BS The awareness of a BS-FS may from person to person depending on the role. E.g theatre play.
  • 14 mei 1886 - 17 september 1942 Time of the great depression: iedereen ging naar de film om de ellende van alle dag vergeten. The first example takes us to the the building we are in today. It was built in commission of Abraham Icek Tuschinski and was opened in 1921. The frontstage of this example formed by the façade of the building which is richly decorated in a sort of Art Deco style. The purpose of the façade with its prominent towers, was to function as a sort of advertisement and lure the audience to come inside and enter a world of illusion. One could say that Tuschinsky applied the design principle of persuasion in way that was very appropriate at that time. Once inside, the audience would see a luxurious and extravagant interior which served as a prelude for what was coming. When everyone had taken their seats the cinema show began supported by a live cinema organ or theatrical orchestra. This entourage become very successful and gave the audience a great UX. What many people are not aware off is that the theater was built onr 1200 wooden poles to prevent the building from sinking. Abraham Icek Tuschinski
  • Scale: from one building to the city of Amsterdam So when you walk through the streets of Amsterdam I hope you will have a great experience while at the same have a better understanding of why the city is build the way it is. And remember your Amsterdam experience would be quite different without this backstage water management system.
  • As you may know the old center of Amsterdam is built on marshland and many of the houses along its canals are supported by wooden poles. For instance the Amsterdam central railway system was built on 8600 poles. The groundwater must be kept at a stable level. If it is too high the cellars will flood. If it is too low the poles will rot and become unreliable. So when the city of Amsterdam was growing it became obvious that without some form of water management the city would not last a hunderd years. And gradually the Dutch developed a technique of building dikes and canals and sluices to manage the water. Actually these techniques were used already in the 16th and 17th century to dry lakes. The reclamation of land started with outlet sluices that was suppose to drain of the land at low tide. Then there were windmills pumping the excess water and today they have been replaced with electricity- and diesel-driven pumps.
  • Looking at this map all the blue lines represent canals in the old city of amsterdam. The main canals are laid ouy in curved patterns and can serve as a way to navigate across the city.
  • As time progressed the Dutch developed more sophisticated systems to control the water. Land drainage Part of the cultuaral history More than 1100 windmills left The Netherlands is so closely associated with windmills, that it's often the first fact people recall about the country. The Dutch built windmills for many centuries (and to some extent, the windmills built the country itself, since without them much of the land drainage could not have occured). In that time the mills were developed for corn milling, land drainage, saw milling, and in fact all manner of industrial purposes . Despite this widespread use, Dutch mills are in may ways quite primitive - using canvas sails, and turned to wind by hand (as distinct from the automated mechanisms that were developed for English windmills, including the fantail, and shuttered sails). There are a very pleasing number of remaining windmills in the Netherlands - the number is about 1150 and rising, in that the Dutch only count complete workable mills, and in the past 10 years especially many extensive rebuilds have occured to add to this number.
  • Today high standard Level of water and quality of water Parallel with CM Today the mechanism and systems and knowledge have reached a very high standard There are flood control dams, sluices, dykes, sluices and water pumping stations to control the water level. The activities to control the ground and surface water is called water management. The purpose of water management is to protect the dutch from floods and to ensure the presence and supply of water of good quality. Stuw= Flood control dams Sluis= Sluice Dijk= Dykes Gemaal= Pumping station
  • Pole sitting (human perspective) Redrawing the map of hOlland (national perspective) Water has reclaimed the land
  • Visibility Integration (of the BS/FS) Awareness So what we can learn from the water management example is that it has to do lot with awareness and visibility. In the case of water management the visibility of the backstage is limited by its mere size and dimensions. One may be aware of its existence but it is only possible so grasp the totality of the system if one has at least a birdseye view. Now this is not always the case. When we apply backstage and frontstage thinking to a more common environment the visibility of the backstage can vary significantly. For example in the case of a drive in restaurant the backstage is reduced to a speaker through which we communicate what we want and a small window from where the food is dispensed. In this example conveniance and speed are the customer’s highest priority and the backstage is organized in such a way that this is possible. Now we can contrast this with the situation in which the backstage and frontstage are almost overlapping or complemetary. When we look for example at a shushi bar there is only a bar that seperates the guest from the backstage. In shushi bar the UX of the guest is not determined by speed and convenience but also by the interaction with the people in the backstage and the dynamics in the restaurant. So if we are lookin for an analogy within the context of content management and information architecture I believe that the current practice of the IA resembles the Drive in rather than a sushi bar. Whereas I pledge that we need to focus more on the backstage and become not only aware of the backstage but also involved. n example hoone must know that there is backstage that regulates the flow and level of water. So the awarenes of this mechanism is low as it is not visible. Also the mere size of water management is so big that we can only see and understand if we have a birdseye view of the system as whole. The example shows the limited awareness of users for the backstage. When looking at examples in our surrounding world we can see that the relationship between BS and FS may differ significantly. In some cases the Backstage is hardly visible and in other cases the Backstage is much more dominant. This also depends on the perspective of the beholder. In case of a website the consumer won’t be aware of the backstage at all. Where as a UX designer i will look at the elements that influence the UX of a visitor. Being an IA i need to be aware of the backstage in order to see if ……. In the case of a restaurant the awareness of a backstage is much higher. Maybe you are familiar with Gordon Ramsey’s Kitchen Nightmare. In his TV show “Kitchen Nightmares”, Gordon Ramsay provides genuine inspiration for IAs entering the content management kitchen. He is a famous chef who helps restaurants that are on the verge of bankruptcy to get their act together and become successful again. Like Ramsay does in restaurants, IAs must identify problems and disorder in faltering content management organizations and propose solutions. Let us apply a few of Ramsay’s rules of thumb to the field of IA Now The first example shows the limited awareness of users for the backstage. When looking at examples in our surrounding world we can see that the relationship between BS and FS may differ significantly. In some cases the Backstage is hardly visible and in other cases the Backstage is much more dominant. This also depends on the perspective of the beholder. In case of a website the consumer won’t be aware of the backstage at all. Where as a UX designer i will look at the elements that influence the UX of a visitor. Being an IA i need to be aware of the backstage in order to see if ……. So let us go to the second example: A restaurant. In a restaurant we are much more aware of the backstage. Sometimes we can even see the chef doing his work an d we can observe the interaction between the chef and the staff. But even in restaurants where we do nit see the chef at work we still know that the quality of what we eat is determined by the activities in the kitchen. So when the food tastes bad than the customer knows that somethiong went wrong with the preparation of the food. As a matter of fact the UX of the customer is determined by a lot of elements in the kitchen and Ruth Ellison points them out accurately. In the case of a restaurant the awareness of a backstage is much higher. Maybe you are familiar with Gordon Ramsey’s Kitchen Nightmare. In his TV show “Kitchen Nightmares”, Gordon Ramsay provides genuine inspiration for IAs entering the content management kitchen. He is a famous chef who helps restaurants that are on the verge of bankruptcy to get their act together and become successful again. Like Ramsay does in restaurants, IAs must identify problems and disorder in faltering content management organizations and propose solutions. Let us apply a few of Ramsay’s rules of thumb to the field of IA
  • En samenvattend: wat zijn in die verschillende verhoudingen van BS en FS in een restaurant die elementen die de UX bepalen (een pos/neg, hybride) Mag ik dan nu iemand introduceren die over de verhouding BS en FS zijn beroep heeft gemaakt in de gastroniomische wereld.
  • May be you are familiar with this guy. It is Gordon Ramsay. Ramsay visits failing restaurant s and acts as a troublesho oter to help i mprove the establishment in just one week. Ramsay has to overcome several obstacles such as incompetent chefs, rude staff, a lack of customers and nonhygenic circumstances. Ramsey has adopted a holistic approach to a restauarant and tries to organize both the backstage and frontstage of the restauarant. Now he is doing is a rather aggressive manner and I would not suggest we adopt his swearing and grunting but we can learn a lot of his rules to bring order to the restaurant. What we can learn from this example is that Gordon Ramsey being a chef has decided to come to the rescue of restaurant owners. He does not only focus on the food and the menu but also on other aspects. The parallel with our work is that our failing restaurants are IT projects or more specific web projects.
  • So one can say that Ramsay provides evidence for my statement earlier that there can be…. There can be no restaurant if the focus is on the menu only
  • Question: What would Ramsay say if could inspect the current state of our CM kitchen. I would like to explore this idea by looking at: The current CM practice The chance to carry out a cm project successfully The current status of CM in organizations
  • Systems is tools to effectively store, track, control, and retrieve content. CM is reduced to system thinking and is approached as an IT project.
  • Examples Do Say Make I conclude+ CM= IT topic What is the track record Conclusie: te veel aandacht voor systemen en de features van die systemen. Ik leidt hiervan af dat CM een IT onderwerp is. Gedomineerd door IT mens. Laten we eens kijken wat hun track record is.Daar kan nog wel wat in verbeterd worden. Where to focus We have to watch what people do ; we have to listen to what people say and to recognize what decisions people make – and by observing we have to evaluate and understand why they do this and that. Why and what kind of visual elements will the user like, prefer and or understand? Why and what kind of mental model, navigation or function do they respond to? From: http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/ux-design-planning by Holger Maassen
  • Examples Do Say Make I conclude+ CM= IT topic What is the track record Conclusie: te veel aandacht voor systemen en de features van die systemen. Ik leidt hiervan af dat CM een IT onderwerp is. Gedomineerd door IT mens. Laten we eens kijken wat hun track record is.Daar kan nog wel wat in verbeterd worden. Where to focus We have to watch what people do ; we have to listen to what people say and to recognize what decisions people make – and by observing we have to evaluate and understand why they do this and that. Why and what kind of visual elements will the user like, prefer and or understand? Why and what kind of mental model, navigation or function do they respond to? From: http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/ux-design-planning by Holger Maassen
  • Source: http://advice.cio.com/remi/two_reasons_why_it_projects_continue_to_fail Source: http://www.infoworld.com/article/08/05/22/25-percent-of-Web-projects-over-budget_1.html Source: http://www.sixapart.com/blog/2005/04/why-content-management-fails.html So Gordon has his found his mission. What is the mission of the iinformation architect? Well. Looking at the success rate of IT projects we can see some disturbing figures. Source: http://advice.cio.com/remi/two_reasons_why_it_projects_continue_to_fail Datum march 20 2008 Van hieruit verder gaan met web projects en content management projects http://www.infoworld.com/article/08/05/22/25-percent-of-Web-projects-over-budget_1.html
  • Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/6720547.stm Factor 11= Sweden/Netherlands Emotie inbrengen
  • In the literature….Reading many reports….. The reasons we usually hear to explain why these projects fail often have to do with requirements, insufficient or badly managed budget, and too many or inconsisten stakeholdes. And that is true. When looking at the requieremts organizations are still having difficulties getting the requirements right. They do a poor job of specifying what it is they want to be built. As a result requirements are often ambiguous, unclear, incomplete, or contradictory. And developers often guess what is desired, only to have to come back later in the cycle and rework their software once discrepancies have been discovered. The problems are discovered too late, after much time and money has been spent building the wrong thing. Rework decreases overall productivity, and sometimes the rework is so overwhelming that the project fails. But i Believe there is more. Looking at IT and web projects one can see that the focus is usually on tools and not on the organization and processes that are involved. Zooming in on the tool we can usually see that the focus is on the technique and the features and not on the UX of the user of the tools. Now this is not always fault of the people involved in the projects. Organizations themselves are also to blame. Some people say that the most common cause of an ineffective website (one that doesn’t deliver value to both the business and its intended constituents) is poor design. I would say this is one of the causes but not the most fundamental one.
  • Gartner Research believes that very few organizations are making progress towards professionally managing their most important data. It is often overlooked as a business imperative. If a company does recognize it has a problem, it often underestimates the size of it." Why is this? Why do most organizations do such a poor job of managing their content? The reason is that most organizations have little experience in managing content. In the past, they have only administered it. http://www.uie.com/articles/mcgovern_dirty_data/ Soo what do organizations do when they step into the worls of CM. Well I would sum it up as follows. First, a CMS is almost never a piece of software that you can buy and start using right away. Rather, they are platforms -- frameworks for building custom content applications based on an organization's needs. Second a big CMS project gets developed as a software project rather than an editorial process and the technical folks point fingers when it fails, "Well, we didn't have good requirements from the content people." That's not true. They just didn't ask them the right questions. Third, the editors, writers, designers, and managers who run departments are not software engineers. They don't speak the same language as engineers. They don't know (or care) what the "content-module lifecycle parameters" are.
  • Misleading gebruiken The fact organization spend insufficient time on CM may be the result of what many people try to make them believe.
  • In a small government the Dutch Govern already uses Can you imagine what the sit. Is in Germany or France Now today on can say that it is not easy to select a content management system. There approximately 3000 CMS ranging from open source tot proprietory products. When did a project for the dutch government I find this pubication which showed a list of all CMS being used today by the dutch government http://web.archive.org/web/20051119051424/matrix.overheid.nl/index.jsp 110plus CMS’n Source: http://matrix.overheid.nl/matrix.jsp?id=536
  • CM(S)=UX(D) project De positieve kenmerken benoemen per aspect Orderly placed functions By conducting diligent analysis of business needs, stakeholders, and resources the best solution is revealed. Sometimes it involves a CMS and sometimes not. When deciding on a CMS, here are some important considerations: How often will the content actually be updated? What future considerations are there for site additions and how can the CMS be modified to include new content and new functionality? Does the client need to change the navigation structure of the site or just edit specific sections? Who will be managing the site and what is their time constraints, and skill level in copywriting, and graphic design. Yes, graphic design is not only graphics; it is text formatting and typography. What is the client’s workflow regarding publishing content? Is there proofing? Is there an approval process? How is this communicated? What types of content will need to need to be managed: news releases, images, charts, downloadable documents and user permissions? What format is the above material in before it gets published to the web? How does the conversion to web ready files, data or info handled? Are there any other technologies or systems which the CMS must interact? First we cannot fix all problems. We are not change management consultants nor do we need to write technical specs
  • Hesitant, Reluctant en Fear Alleen over mindset praten en niet over profielen Our toolbox Knowledge: Navigation schemes, search expertise, metadata models and taxonomies, good knowledge of technical authoring and high quality content, Skills: communication skills good, problem solving skills, good attention to detail and ability to abstrac, distinguish main issues from side issues Methods: user centered design, contextual inquiry, interviews, card sorting, user testing In general we can see that IAs understand the inter-relations between content, technology and design Maar Gordon heeft ook naar IA in de keuken gekeken. De constatering is dat ze wat terughoudend zijn of niet de juiste mindset hebben. They are reluctant to get involved into content management. So what can we do.. First of all as web professionals we can guide and educate clients through the process of planning and developing a web site and setup the content management organization. We do have the right ingredients for these. Our attitude is towards the user. In backstage the user is the person involved in the CMO These all usefull ingredients. Now we only need the guts to use them.
  • So what can the information architect do when facing the challenge of creating added value in a new territory, the domain of content management? Secondly i believe that we need to adopt a holistic approach to CM. We need to understand that the FS and BS are two sides of the same coin and equal attention. Now would like to address this issue presenting two profiles of the frontstage and back stage mindset. Thirdly This advise depends to a large extent on our mindset. Hesitant koppelen aan attitude. Dan heb ik een oplossing voor dat probleem: Deze drie: Delta= current state versus desired state IS role in the process of change. Welke regels zou GR aan de IA willen meegeven How to act?
  • Een IA die een bijdrage levert aan de UX voelt zich met deze mindset verbonden zoals aangeriekt door Glushko Service management and design focus primarily focused on the interactions between the organization and customers. This perspective holds that the quality of the “service experience” is determined by the customer during this final “service encounter” that takes place in the “front stage.” This emphasis discounts the contribution of the activities in the “back stage” of the service value chain where materials or information needed by the front stage are processed. However, the vast increase in web-driven consumer self-service applications and other automated services requires new thinking about service design and service quality. It is essential to consider the entire network of services that comprise the back and front stages as complementary parts of a “service system.” Ik ga nu in op mindset Ik geef jullie twee beschrijvingen van de FS en BS mindset IA under UX umbrella being the FS mindset will be something like this. Toon mindeset volgen Glushko. Ik neem aan dat iederen dat wel herkend en zich daarbij comfortabel kan voelen. Highlight bepaalde termen (3 max) Designers with a "front stage mindset" strive to create service experiences that people find enjoyable, unique, and responsive to their needs and preferences. Front stage designers use techniques and tools from the disciplines of human-computer interaction, anthropology, and sociology such as ethnographic research and the user-centered design approach to specify the desired experience for the service customer. They capture and communicate their service designs using modeling artifacts that include personas, scenarios, service blueprints, and interactive prototypes. In contrast, service designers with a "back stage mindset" typically follow different goals and techniques. They strive for efficiency, robustness, scalability, and standardization. Even though some back stage activities are carried out by people, and others carried out by automated processes or applications, the back stage mindset tends to treat people as abstract actors. So instead of modeling the preferences and interactions of people, back stage designers identify and analyze information requirements, information flows and dependencies, and feedback loops. They use concepts and techniques from information architecture, document engineering, data and process modeling, industrial engineering, and software development. Their typical artifacts include use cases, process models, class diagrams, XML schemas, queuing and simulation models, and working software. Opvallend is dat RG het IA domien als een backstage activiteit beschouwt.
  • http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/rational/library/feb06/marasco/index.html Kan dit in spiegelbeeld
  • So let us return to Gordon Ramsay: He has a lot of simple rules of thumb of which I just choose four as a guide for IA’s in the kitchen.
  • Empathy Ons emphaties vermogen moeten we ook toepassen op de actoren in de BS. (Onze skill) Gevolg is dat we de user kennen
  • WE AS IA’s afwisselen met WE Know your role : Tell content management organizations which roles and skills are required to do the job. Too often, the organizations underestimate or neglect content management. They do not distinguish the specific roles, tasks and responsibilities needed for professional content management. Know the user : Promote research into the needs, wants and desires of users. Tell organizations to get out on the street to find out what people want to know. Convince them that they have to keep up with changing customer needs and priorities. There are more good lessons to be learned from Ramsay’s kitchen shows. But there is one that applies specifically to the information architect. Use your unique selling point : Focus on the core competences being organizing, labeling, and structuring. Apply these not only to the publication domain (‘front stage’), but also to the domain of content management (‘back stage’).
  • Keep it simple : Advise organizations on the selection and implementation of content management systems. They often entail complex features, workflows and interfaces. The complexity needs to be reduced significantly so that users of these systems can do their job more easily. Elders plaatsen So what can we learn from both examples: The backstage and frontstage must be managed. The backstage is need not be visible The backstage and frontstage interact . There are more good lessons to be learned from Ramsay’s kitchen shows. But there is one that applies specifically to the information architect. Use your unique selling point : Focus on the core competences being organizing, labeling, and structuring. Apply these not only to the publication domain (‘front stage’), but also to the domain of content management (‘back stage’).
  • Keep it simple : Advise organizations on the selection and implementation of content management systems. They often entail complex features, workflows and interfaces. The complexity needs to be reduced significantly so that users of these systems can do their job more easily. Elders plaatsen So what can we learn from both examples: The backstage and frontstage must be managed. The backstage is need not be visible The backstage and frontstage interact . There are more good lessons to be learned from Ramsay’s kitchen shows. But there is one that applies specifically to the information architect. Use your unique selling point : Focus on the core competences being organizing, labeling, and structuring. Apply these not only to the publication domain (‘front stage’), but also to the domain of content management (‘back stage’).
  • Keep it simple : Advise organizations on the selection and implementation of content management systems. They often entail complex features, workflows and interfaces. The complexity needs to be reduced significantly so that users of these systems can do their job more easily. Elders plaatsen So what can we learn from both examples: The backstage and frontstage must be managed. The backstage is need not be visible The backstage and frontstage interact . There are more good lessons to be learned from Ramsay’s kitchen shows. But there is one that applies specifically to the information architect. Use your unique selling point : Focus on the core competences being organizing, labeling, and structuring. Apply these not only to the publication domain (‘front stage’), but also to the domain of content management (‘back stage’).
  • Use your unique selling point : Apply the same competences in a different context and objective. Ken en gebruik je toegevoegde waarde. Pas het ook toe in de context van CM en vervul de rol zoals je dat in een UX project zou doen. Want eigelijk zijn CM projecten UX projecten zei het dat de context anders is met andere mensen, andere doelen, andere omstandigheden. Focus on the core competences being organizing, labeling, and structuring. Apply these not only to the publication domain (‘front stage’), but also to the domain of content management (‘back stage’).
  • Having said all this I would like to add three more …..
  • Content is about volume, formats, metadata, structure, organization. Crew is about who they are what their information processing behaviors and needs are. Context is about business models, business value, politics, resources , culture and resource constraints http://www.viget.com/advance/user-centric-design-is-about-users-and-clients/ Vision and strategy The goals of the business usually differ from the user but also from its employees Listen to what people say, do and how they make their decisions. A customer can have various touchpoints with an organization. Each touchpoint will influence the user experience of the customer. It is important that the IA is aware that a website is just one of such a touchpoint. So if we represent the services of an organization as series of links in a chain than every link counts. This means that the IA needs to understand that his work has to fit within the other services and that the user experience does not depend solely on his work. Everything counts Het denken in de volgende fase van UX deign (. En dat is service design). En denken in SD houdt zich ook bezig met hoe de BS en FS te integreren. Als voorbeeld van het denken over BS en FS verwijs ik jullie naar dit artikel. Wij zijn dus niet uniek in de wens de BS en FS te verbinden ook in SD speelt dit onderwerp en belangrijk rol….. Maken moet gemaakt kunnen worden There is a playfield. To use the playfield IA needs to help the organization Your site is part of a bigger entity Balance IA objectives, user objectives and business objectives A merry chef creates merry guests The user experience of a restaurant guest is not just determined by the quality of the food alone. It is also a combination of the atmosphere in the restaurant, the collaboration between the white and black brigade and the bill at the end of the evening. If all goes well, the guests and staff are equally happy. The guests will return to the restaurant and the cook will remain motivated to show his best over and over again. It is important to realize that the user experience of every individual in the process matters. Or to put it differently, the strength of the UX chain is in its weakest link. The implication here is that throughout the customer life cycle, the UX depends on the organization's ability to deliver high-quality content for all of its products, services and channels. Every disruption of the UX chain has a negative impact. In the context of content management, the UX of people involved can be improved by giving them the proper tools. Tools which are easy to implement and customize with intuitive and easy - to - learn interfaces, and for which vendors provide adequate support. IMAGE MET CHAIN AND BROKEN LINK
  • Reality check Je kan alleen leveren wat je ook kan maken Ramsay ziet chaos in de keuken terwijl hij iets prachtigs bedacht had. You can only serve what the chef can cook There are many criteria for high-quality content such as readability, usability and relevancy. To a large extent, the production of high-quality content depends on the attitudes, skills and competences of the people in the content management organization and the quality of the tools. Too often, people in the content management organization lack appropriate attitudes, skills and competences in order to contribute significantly to the success of the project. Moreover, tools are selected and implemented by specialists who do not know what is needed in the content kitchen. As a matter of fact, many content management projects fail because there is a mismatch between the people and tools necessary for the creation, publication and maintenance of high-quality content. For instance, when an organization instigates a change of structure (e.g. from centralization to decentralization), it does not take the necessary steps in order to assign or provide the appropriate expertise. In the case of tools, even basic functionality is often unavailable. Also, the scalability and flexibility of content management system can be disappointing to a degree that new content types cannot be accommodated by the system, such as blogs, forms and rich media components.
  • Groot verschil tussen CS en DS Grote delta te overbruggen. Als je het goed wil doen dan vereisen de org, proc an sys een orchestratie of regie (dit bij plaatje Chaplin) Instant solutions Make it work, make it operational, Desorientatie versus ordeiningstructuur Embrace the change The first truth is not entirely true because je can sometimes design something which can only be realized if other things change. So I said we need guts and a change of our mindset. There are three important facts: Changing the menu implies change in the kitchen The information architect does not only architect content, he also orchestrates change. This change applies to new ways in which content is decomposed, structured and recomposed in a content management environment. This change may even require the redefinition of processes and procedures or additional competencies of the people involved. To implement his design successfully, the IA must be aware of its consequences and act accordingly. This means he provides the organization and people involved with advice and guidance, creates the conditions necessary to implement his design and ensures ownership of his design in the organization. In such a way, changes are understood, accepted and implemented by the content management organization.
  • How to get involved So where does the IA fit in? If you succeed in good coomunication than you will also achieve teamwork in the kitchen.

Why information architects are needed in the kitchen? Why information architects are needed in the kitchen? Presentation Transcript

  • Why IAs are needed in the kitchen Better content management through information architecture Ruud Ruissaard Informaat.nl Sept 2008
  • What’s happening? Content management in the IA community Presentations: Int’l IA Summit < 7% EuroIA < 2% Mailing lists: SIGIA-L < 5% IxDA < 2% Information architecture in the CM community Presentations: CM forum < 8% Mailing list: CMS list < 11%
  • MIND THE GAP
  • BRIDGE THE GAP MIND THE GAP
  • Front stage Available information Features and functions +/- User experience Structured content Search & find Navigation
  • Back stage Content management Systems Content management Organization Content management Processes
  • StatementNo front stage without a back stageNo front stage UX without a backstage UX
  • An example
  • TuschinskiAbraham Icek Tuschinski(1886-1942)
  • Front stage UX
  • Below the surface
  • Below the surface
  • Above the surface
  • Back stage (past)
  • Back stage (present)
  • Back stage (neglected)
  • An example
  • Elements of restaurant UX * Amount of choice on the menu Quality & price of food Quality and timing of service Hospitality and atmosphere Coordination between ‘black’ & ‘white’ Efficiency Profitability Quality of products * Courtesy of Ruth Ellison
  • Gordon Ramsay
  • StatementNo front stage without a back stageNo front stage UX without a back stage UX
  • Current stateof ‘our kitchen’
  • Current CM practice Systems CM Processes Organization
  • Limited focuson systems Experience (UX) & Expectations SystemTechnology Features
  • Corporate satisfactionwith CMS implementations 37%Source: Sixapart
  • CM and IT IT CMS
  • Some relevant statistics On budget 51% Meet expected ROI 59% On time delivery 38%Source: CIO
  • On time delivery: EuropeSweden 44% Israel 8%Switzerland 24% France 6%Czech Republic 20% Belgium 4%Germany 19% Italy 4%Denmark 16% Netherlands 4%UK 11% Russia 4%Finland 8% Spain 4%Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk
  • Why most IT projectsgo wrong? Requirements: ambiguous, incomplete and contradictory Budgets: insufficient, inflexible and poorly managed Stakeholders: too many, hidden agendas and changing
  • Why most CM projectsgo wrong? Often overlooked as an imperative Complexity is underestimated CM crew is neglected Lack of experience and expertise Out-of-the-box deployment of CMS
  • Are the organizations to blame?
  • Everybody can be a web designer!
  • CM systems of theDutch governmentNet Toolbox e-Grip Mercury Snelsite.Net CMS Sitecore e-Synergy MMBase Standaardsite.nlAdd-it Easy Site / Communit-E (ECMS) MyAdmin Stellent Content Management SuiteAns Ebiss Itemware Nedloket Sydox Communicty Content EngineanyMeta ECMsuite Nucontroller CMS T-siteAriadne Ektron Octopussy Transiciel CMSBasisschoolweb emagiC CMS OMA21 TridionBoardwalk CMS Eskion One-to-One Content triptic CMSBrein WebGen Exedo CMS OpenIMS - Content Troyce® Software SuiteC-Space Exolog Total Website Management Mangement Server (CMS) TYPO3C2K-WCM GridBuilder ORCA CMS VIP Content Manager GX WebManager Ovalon CMS WAXTRAPPCarerix Hippo CMS PageProcessor CMS WeB CMSCastManage I-Park Platform PASTRYcms Web-tools CMScBase IBAS CMS pH8.CMS Web3 PSHEChanger iBOLT Portal Phoundry Web4all R2Cimple Ibuildings E-business Platform PostNuke WebGUICMS iCMS Prosite WebHare Application PortalCMS WebWork Aspacts BV PSHE WebworxxCMS Enterprise platform iFocus Content Manager PublishHQ WIS CMSCMS Yentel Imbrium (Open Source) RASter Xsites CMScmsNet Infodome Roxen CMS Xtive CMSCoherence Intraxxion CMS Scrivo ZappEngineConclusion CMS IPROX SIMsite ®WebDirectorContainer ItemPublisher SiteDirectorContent Management Server 2002 IWES content management systeem SiteFeelingDatavos La Maquina SitemanagerDigiLinks Content Engine Livelink Smartsite Content Management ServerDigitaal Loket LynkxDiscovery Server MambodotGEM Gemeente-Portaal MediasurfaceDPSDutchbrite Web-OSSource: Dutch government
  • Desired CM practice Systems Processes Organization
  • Information architectin the kitchen Knowledge Skills Methods Mindset Attitude Motivation
  • To do list1. Apply IA expertise to content management2. Adopt a holistic approach3. Advise the organization dealing with change (‘delta’)
  • Holistic approachBack stage mindset Front stage mindsetAbstract actors HumanEfficiency CreativeReuse EmotionalStandardization EnjoyableProductivity Usability
  • Bridging the gap
  • Advise the organizationdealing with change
  • Rule #1: Know your clientele
  • Rule #2: Identify the actors
  • Rule #3: Keep it F… simple
  • Rule #3: Keep it F… simple
  • Rule #4: Know your USP
  • Important approaches
  • APPROACH 1:Know the business Content Context Crew
  • APPROACH 2:Design the makeable Desired practice Current practice
  • APPROACH 3:Orchestrate the change Desired practice Current practice (‘delta’)
  • APPROACH 4:Communicate & cooperate
  • And now…
  • And now…
  • Thanks!