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Geology introduction

Geology introduction

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  • 1. Chapter 1 Introduction to Geology GEOLOGY 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 2. OBJECTIVES
    • Distinguish between physical and historical geology
    • Discuss some geologic concepts: Catastrophism and Uniformitarianism
    • Understanding the theory for the origin of the solar system and Earth
    • Describe the earth's basic internal structure
    • Describe the face of the Earth
    1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 3.
    • Define geology
    • Geologic Concepts
    • Geologic time
    • Origin of Earth & Solar System
    • Earth’s internal structure
    • The Face of Earth
    • Earth as a system
    OUTLINE 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 4. Definition : what is geology ? Geology : the science that pursues an understanding of our planet “ The Earth ”.
    • Define Geology
    1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 5. Components of Geology
    • Geology is divided into two broad areas:
      • Physical geology :
        • Examines materials Earth is made of and processes occurring on and beneath the surface of the earth.
        • Deals with the rock materials and geologic processes
      • Historical geology :
        • Examines origin of the Earth, origin of life, and changes in Earth and life through time.
        • Deals with the layered rock record and fossils
    1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 6. Physical Geology
    • Physical Geology Deals With:
      • Earth materials :
        • atoms, minerals, rocks, salt, gems, sand, gravel, clay, soil, atmosphere, hydrosphere, organisms, building materials, coal, oil, gas, water, soil, salt, jewelry, etc.
      • Earth (Geologic) processes :
        • earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, continental drift, weathering, landslides, subsidence and collapse, tides, geysers, erosion, etc.
    1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 7.
    • C atastrophism ; states that Earth's landscapes have been developed primarily by great catastrophes .
      • Features such as mountains and canyons were produced by sudden and often worldwide disasters .
    • U niformitarianism : one of the fundamental principles of modern geology advanced by James Hutton in the late 1700 s , states that : the physical, chemical, and biological operations that operate today have also operated in the geologic past .
      • The idea is often summarized as "the present is the key to the past“.
    • Geologic Concepts
    1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 8.
    • Geologists are now able to assign fairly accurate dates to events in Earth history.
      • Relative dating
      • Absolute dating
    • Geologic Time
    1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 9. The fossils evolution is a clock of relative time, it is called the Principle of faunal succession . Fossils allows geologists to identify rocks of same age in different places.
    • mammals
    • reptiles
    • amphibians
    • insects
    • plants
    • fishes
    • organisms with shells
    • multi-celled organisms
    • one-celled organisms
    YOUNGEST OLDEST 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 10. The Geologic Time Scale 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 11. How old is the Earth?
    • 4.5 to 4.6 billion years (4,500,000,000 to 4,600,000,000 years) determined through radiometric dating ( Uranium, Thorium ).
    1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 12. 3 . Natural Resources 2 . External Geologic Processes 2 . Internal Geologic Processes 1 . Earth’s Materials Aspects of Physical Geology DEFINE GEOLOGY Mineral & energy resources, economic / environmental issues Water, minerals, oil and gas Effect of water, rivers, wind, and ice on landscapes Earthquakes, magnetism, heat flow, plate tectonics NOTICE 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 13.
    • Earth’s Origin & Formation
    1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 14.
    • How was Earth formed in space?
    • Earth Formation :
      • Most researchers believe that Earth and the other planets formed at the same time , and
      • It is formed from same material of the Sun .
    • Origin of planet Earth:
      • Nebular hypothesis :
        • Solar system formed from giant cloud mostly of hydrogen ( H ) and helium ( He ) , and a small percentage of ( heavy elements ) .
    • Early evolution of Earth
    1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 15. Origin of the Solar System Nebular Hypothesis Giant Cloud Rotating Disk Star-like Bodies Planets 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 16. Nebular hypothesis
    • Formation of the solar system according to the nebular hypothesis.
      • The birth of our solar system began as dust and gases ( nebula )
      • The nebula contracted into a rotating disk
      • Cooling of the nebular cloud caused rocky and metallic material to condense into tiny solid particles .
      • Repeated collisions caused the dust-size particles to gradually gather into asteroid-size (star-like) bodies .
      • Within a few million years these bodies accreted into the planets .
    1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 17. ( ) Cooling of the nebula causes condensation of dust into solid particles. ( ) Accretion of planets. ( ) Contraction of the nebula into a rotating disk. ( ) The early solar system is a dust and gas cloud (nebula). Label the sequence of events describing the nebular origin of the solar system
    • The early solar system is a dust and gas cloud ( nebula ).
    • Contraction of the nebula into a rotating disk.
    • (C) Cooling of the nebula causes condensation of dust into solid particles.
    • (D) Accretion of planets.
    1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 18.
    • The face of Earth
    1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 19. The face of Earth
    • Earth’s surface :
        • Continents
        • Oceans
    1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 20. EARTH'S MOUNTAIN This map shows the general distribution of Earth's rocks: ( 1 ) shields , ( 2 ) stable platforms , and ( 3 ) mountain belts. 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 21.
    • Earth’s layered structure :
      • Core
      • Mantle
      • Crust
    • Earth’s internal structure
    1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 22. Earth’s layered structure 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 23. Earth’s internal structure
    • crust
    • mantle
    • core
    Oceanic 0 - 6 km (young, < 180 m.y.) Continental 0 -34 km (older, up to 3.8 b.y.) Upper 34 - 670 km Lower 670 - 2900 km Outer (liquid) 2900 - 5160 km Inner (solid) 5160 - 6370 km
    • Layers defined by composition :
    1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 24.
    • Layers defined by physical properties
      • Lithosphere (Crust + upper most Mantle)
      • Asthenosphere
      • Mesosphere
      • Outer Core
      • Inner Core
    Earth’s internal structure 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36 Mantle
  • 25. ( ) oceanic crust ( ) mantle ( ) lithosphere ( ) inner core ( ) mesosphere ( ) continental crust ( ) asthenosphere ( ) outer core (H) oceanic crust (G) mantle (E) lithosphere (A) inner core (C) mesosphere (F) continental crust (D) asthenosphere (B) outer core Label the diagram with the appropriate terms 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 26.
    • Earth System
    1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 27.
    • Earth is composed of four subsystems :
      • Hydrosphere
      • Atmosphere
      • Lithosphere (Solid Earth)
      • Biosphere
    Earth Subsystems 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 28. Biosphere Lithosphere Hydrosphere Atmosphere Earth's Physical Environments 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 29.
    • The Earth system is powered by :
      • The Sun drives external processes at Earth’s surface :
          • Atmosphere
          • Hydrosphere
      • The Earth’s interior activity drives internal processes :
          • Volcanic eruptions
          • Earthquakes (EQs)
    Earth as a System 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 30. Hydrosphere
    • Oceans (most prominent): 71% of surface of Earth
    • Surface water (streams, lakes,…)
    • Underground water,
    • Glaciers ,
    • Clouds
    Water portion of Earth 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 31. Atmosphere
    • Protection from Sun’s heat & UV
    • Strong interactions with surface
    Blanket of air surrounding Earth 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 32. Biosphere
    • Concentrated near Earth’s surface
    • Strong relationship with atmosphere, hydrosphere and solid earth
    All life on Earth 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 33. Solid Earth “ Lithosphere ” 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 34. 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 35. Geology and Man
    • Urbanization programs
    • Natural resources
    • Natural hazards
    • Man-made hazards
    • Global problems
    Briefly outline the importance of Geology in the modern society. 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  • 36. GEOLOGY FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36

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