Chapter 1 Introduction to Geology GEOLOGY 1-8-2011 KSGI  Dept of civil engg  10CV36
OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Distinguish between physical and historical geology </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss some geologic concepts:  ...
<ul><li>Define geology </li></ul><ul><li>Geologic Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Geologic time </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of Ear...
Definition :  what is  geology ? Geology :  the science that pursues an understanding of our planet “ The Earth ”. <ul><li...
Components of  Geology <ul><li>Geology  is divided into two broad areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical geology :   </li><...
Physical  Geology <ul><li>Physical  Geology   Deals With: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth materials : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>C atastrophism ;  states that Earth's landscapes have been developed primarily by great  catastrophes .   </li></u...
<ul><li>Geologists are now able to assign fairly  accurate dates  to events in Earth history. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relati...
The fossils  evolution  is a clock of relative time, it is called the  Principle of faunal succession . Fossils allows geo...
The Geologic Time Scale 1-8-2011 KSGI  Dept of civil engg  10CV36
How old is the Earth? <ul><li>4.5 to 4.6 billion years  (4,500,000,000 to 4,600,000,000 years) determined through  radiome...
3 . Natural Resources 2 . External Geologic Processes 2 . Internal Geologic Processes 1 . Earth’s Materials Aspects of Phy...
<ul><li>Earth’s Origin & Formation </li></ul>1-8-2011 KSGI  Dept of civil engg  10CV36
<ul><li>How was Earth formed in space? </li></ul><ul><li>Earth Formation :   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most researchers believ...
Origin of the Solar System Nebular Hypothesis Giant Cloud Rotating Disk Star-like Bodies Planets 1-8-2011 KSGI  Dept of ci...
Nebular hypothesis <ul><li>Formation of the solar system according to the nebular hypothesis.   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ...
( ) Cooling of the nebula causes condensation of dust into solid particles.  (  ) Accretion of planets.  (  ) Contraction ...
<ul><li>The face of Earth </li></ul>1-8-2011 KSGI  Dept of civil engg  10CV36
The face of Earth <ul><li>Earth’s surface :   </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oce...
EARTH'S  MOUNTAIN This map shows the general distribution of Earth's rocks:  ( 1 )  shields , ( 2 )  stable platforms , an...
<ul><li>Earth’s layered structure :   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mantle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Earth’s layered structure 1-8-2011 KSGI  Dept of civil engg  10CV36
Earth’s internal structure <ul><li>crust </li></ul><ul><li>mantle </li></ul><ul><li>core </li></ul>Oceanic  0 - 6 km  (you...
<ul><li>Layers defined by physical properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lithosphere  (Crust + upper most Mantle) </li></ul></u...
(  )  oceanic crust (  )  mantle   (  )  lithosphere (  )  inner core  (  )  mesosphere  (  )  continental crust  (  )  as...
<ul><li>Earth System </li></ul>1-8-2011 KSGI  Dept of civil engg  10CV36
<ul><li>Earth is composed of four subsystems : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmosphere </l...
Biosphere Lithosphere Hydrosphere Atmosphere Earth's Physical Environments 1-8-2011 KSGI  Dept of civil engg  10CV36
<ul><li>The Earth system is powered by : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sun  drives  external processes   at Earth’s surface : ...
Hydrosphere <ul><li>Oceans  (most prominent): 71% of surface of Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Surface water (streams, lakes,…)  ...
Atmosphere <ul><li>Protection from Sun’s heat & UV </li></ul><ul><li>Strong interactions with surface </li></ul>Blanket of...
Biosphere <ul><li>Concentrated near Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Strong relationship with atmosphere, hydrosphere and...
Solid Earth   “ Lithosphere ” 1-8-2011 KSGI  Dept of civil engg  10CV36
1-8-2011 KSGI  Dept of civil engg  10CV36
Geology and Man <ul><li>Urbanization programs  </li></ul><ul><li>Natural resources  </li></ul><ul><li>Natural hazards  </l...
GEOLOGY FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS 1-8-2011 KSGI  Dept of civil engg  10CV36
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Class 1

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Introduction to Geology GEOLOGY 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Distinguish between physical and historical geology </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss some geologic concepts: Catastrophism and Uniformitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the theory for the origin of the solar system and Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the earth's basic internal structure </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the face of the Earth </li></ul>1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  3. 3. <ul><li>Define geology </li></ul><ul><li>Geologic Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Geologic time </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of Earth & Solar System </li></ul><ul><li>Earth’s internal structure </li></ul><ul><li>The Face of Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Earth as a system </li></ul>OUTLINE 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  4. 4. Definition : what is geology ? Geology : the science that pursues an understanding of our planet “ The Earth ”. <ul><li>Define Geology </li></ul>1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  5. 5. Components of Geology <ul><li>Geology is divided into two broad areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical geology : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examines materials Earth is made of and processes occurring on and beneath the surface of the earth. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deals with the rock materials and geologic processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical geology : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examines origin of the Earth, origin of life, and changes in Earth and life through time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deals with the layered rock record and fossils </li></ul></ul></ul>1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  6. 6. Physical Geology <ul><li>Physical Geology Deals With: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth materials : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>atoms, minerals, rocks, salt, gems, sand, gravel, clay, soil, atmosphere, hydrosphere, organisms, building materials, coal, oil, gas, water, soil, salt, jewelry, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth (Geologic) processes : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, continental drift, weathering, landslides, subsidence and collapse, tides, geysers, erosion, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  7. 7. <ul><li>C atastrophism ; states that Earth's landscapes have been developed primarily by great catastrophes . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Features such as mountains and canyons were produced by sudden and often worldwide disasters . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U niformitarianism : one of the fundamental principles of modern geology advanced by James Hutton in the late 1700 s , states that : the physical, chemical, and biological operations that operate today have also operated in the geologic past . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The idea is often summarized as &quot;the present is the key to the past“. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geologic Concepts </li></ul>1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  8. 8. <ul><li>Geologists are now able to assign fairly accurate dates to events in Earth history. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative dating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute dating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geologic Time </li></ul>1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  9. 9. The fossils evolution is a clock of relative time, it is called the Principle of faunal succession . Fossils allows geologists to identify rocks of same age in different places. <ul><li>mammals </li></ul><ul><li>reptiles </li></ul><ul><li>amphibians </li></ul><ul><li>insects </li></ul><ul><li>plants </li></ul><ul><li>fishes </li></ul><ul><li>organisms with shells </li></ul><ul><li>multi-celled organisms </li></ul><ul><li>one-celled organisms </li></ul>YOUNGEST OLDEST 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  10. 10. The Geologic Time Scale 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  11. 11. How old is the Earth? <ul><li>4.5 to 4.6 billion years (4,500,000,000 to 4,600,000,000 years) determined through radiometric dating ( Uranium, Thorium ). </li></ul>1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  12. 12. 3 . Natural Resources 2 . External Geologic Processes 2 . Internal Geologic Processes 1 . Earth’s Materials Aspects of Physical Geology DEFINE GEOLOGY Mineral & energy resources, economic / environmental issues Water, minerals, oil and gas Effect of water, rivers, wind, and ice on landscapes Earthquakes, magnetism, heat flow, plate tectonics NOTICE 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  13. 13. <ul><li>Earth’s Origin & Formation </li></ul>1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  14. 14. <ul><li>How was Earth formed in space? </li></ul><ul><li>Earth Formation : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most researchers believe that Earth and the other planets formed at the same time , and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is formed from same material of the Sun . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Origin of planet Earth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nebular hypothesis : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar system formed from giant cloud mostly of hydrogen ( H ) and helium ( He ) , and a small percentage of ( heavy elements ) . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Early evolution of Earth </li></ul>1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  15. 15. Origin of the Solar System Nebular Hypothesis Giant Cloud Rotating Disk Star-like Bodies Planets 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  16. 16. Nebular hypothesis <ul><li>Formation of the solar system according to the nebular hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The birth of our solar system began as dust and gases ( nebula ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nebula contracted into a rotating disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling of the nebular cloud caused rocky and metallic material to condense into tiny solid particles . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated collisions caused the dust-size particles to gradually gather into asteroid-size (star-like) bodies . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within a few million years these bodies accreted into the planets . </li></ul></ul>1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  17. 17. ( ) Cooling of the nebula causes condensation of dust into solid particles. ( ) Accretion of planets. ( ) Contraction of the nebula into a rotating disk. ( ) The early solar system is a dust and gas cloud (nebula). Label the sequence of events describing the nebular origin of the solar system <ul><li>The early solar system is a dust and gas cloud ( nebula ). </li></ul><ul><li>Contraction of the nebula into a rotating disk. </li></ul><ul><li>(C) Cooling of the nebula causes condensation of dust into solid particles. </li></ul><ul><li>(D) Accretion of planets. </li></ul>1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  18. 18. <ul><li>The face of Earth </li></ul>1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  19. 19. The face of Earth <ul><li>Earth’s surface : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oceans </li></ul></ul></ul>1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  20. 20. EARTH'S MOUNTAIN This map shows the general distribution of Earth's rocks: ( 1 ) shields , ( 2 ) stable platforms , and ( 3 ) mountain belts. 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  21. 21. <ul><li>Earth’s layered structure : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mantle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crust </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Earth’s internal structure </li></ul>1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  22. 22. Earth’s layered structure 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  23. 23. Earth’s internal structure <ul><li>crust </li></ul><ul><li>mantle </li></ul><ul><li>core </li></ul>Oceanic 0 - 6 km (young, < 180 m.y.) Continental 0 -34 km (older, up to 3.8 b.y.) Upper 34 - 670 km Lower 670 - 2900 km Outer (liquid) 2900 - 5160 km Inner (solid) 5160 - 6370 km <ul><li>Layers defined by composition : </li></ul>1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  24. 24. <ul><li>Layers defined by physical properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lithosphere (Crust + upper most Mantle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asthenosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer Core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner Core </li></ul></ul>Earth’s internal structure 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36 Mantle
  25. 25. ( ) oceanic crust ( ) mantle ( ) lithosphere ( ) inner core ( ) mesosphere ( ) continental crust ( ) asthenosphere ( ) outer core (H) oceanic crust (G) mantle (E) lithosphere (A) inner core (C) mesosphere (F) continental crust (D) asthenosphere (B) outer core Label the diagram with the appropriate terms 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  26. 26. <ul><li>Earth System </li></ul>1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  27. 27. <ul><li>Earth is composed of four subsystems : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lithosphere (Solid Earth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul></ul>Earth Subsystems 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  28. 28. Biosphere Lithosphere Hydrosphere Atmosphere Earth's Physical Environments 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  29. 29. <ul><li>The Earth system is powered by : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sun drives external processes at Earth’s surface : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrosphere </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Earth’s interior activity drives internal processes : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic eruptions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquakes (EQs) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Earth as a System 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  30. 30. Hydrosphere <ul><li>Oceans (most prominent): 71% of surface of Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Surface water (streams, lakes,…) </li></ul><ul><li>Underground water, </li></ul><ul><li>Glaciers , </li></ul><ul><li>Clouds </li></ul>Water portion of Earth 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  31. 31. Atmosphere <ul><li>Protection from Sun’s heat & UV </li></ul><ul><li>Strong interactions with surface </li></ul>Blanket of air surrounding Earth 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  32. 32. Biosphere <ul><li>Concentrated near Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>Strong relationship with atmosphere, hydrosphere and solid earth </li></ul>All life on Earth 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  33. 33. Solid Earth “ Lithosphere ” 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  34. 34. 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  35. 35. Geology and Man <ul><li>Urbanization programs </li></ul><ul><li>Natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Natural hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Man-made hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Global problems </li></ul>Briefly outline the importance of Geology in the modern society. 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
  36. 36. GEOLOGY FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS 1-8-2011 KSGI Dept of civil engg 10CV36
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