Educating for Lifelong Learning Ruth Deakin Crick Graduate School of Education
Draft Australian National Curriculum Capabilities• Literacy • Teamwork• Numeracy • Intercultural• ICT understanding• Thinking skills • Ethical behaviour• Self management • Social competence• Creativiy
English National Curriculum Personal Learning and Thinking Skills• independent enquirers• creative thinkers• reflective learners• team workers• self-managers• effective participants.
European Council 2006• Communication in mother • critical thinking, tongue • creativity,• Communication in foreign • initiative, languages • problem solving,• Mathematical competence and basic competences in science • risk assessment, and technology • decision taking• Digital competence • constructive management of• Learning to learn; feelings.• Social and civic competences;• Initiative & entrepreneurship;• Cultural awareness and expression.
OECD Competences (DeSeCo)• The ability to use language, symbols and text interactively• The ability to use knowledge and information interactively• The ability to use technology interactively• The ability to relate well to others• The ability to cooperate• The ability to manage and resolve conflicts• The ability to act within the big picture• The ability to form and conduct life plans and personal projects• The ability to assert rights, interests, limits and needs
Haste Meta- Competencies (2001)• Adaptively assimilate changing technologies• Deal with ambiguity and diversity• Find and sustain community links• Manage motivation and emotion• Moral responsibility and citizenship
A perfect stormall these listssuggest that weare in the middle ofa paradigm shiftand our educationsystems need tocatch up
“It is time to hold up our hands andadmit that our education system justisn’t working well enough.Our emphasis needs not to be onproving the residual value of outdatedcurricula, tests and league tables, but oninspiring and challenging children so thatthey in turn can inspire and challengeus.” Lord David Puttnam Chancellor, Open University.Introduction to Learning Futures Programme
Learning Past ……curriculum as prescription• Delivery of outcomes – top down• Students as performers• Teachers as experts• Factory model of schooling• Impoverished language for learning• One size fits all (more or less)• National Curriculum as cage• Values as ‘add ons’
Learning Futures ......curriculum as narration• Students as authors of their own learning journey• Authentic inquiry – authentic pedagogy• Co-construction of knowledge• Teachers as facilitators of learning• Learning as an ongoing journey• Rich language for learning• Local diversity – place based• National Curriculum as common framework• Values and citizenship are integral
Learning Futures…what should we give our attention to?Self Competent agent in the worldIdentity Personal Learning Competent life qualities Outcomes long learner-Desire citizens,Motivation Dispositions Skills Mechanics,Story Attitudes Knowledge Artisans, nursesRelationships Values Understanding Engineers etcPersonal Public
Seven Dimensions of Learning Power• Changing & learning* • Being stuck & static• Meaning making* • Data accumulation• Critical curiosity* • Passivity• Creativity • Being rule bound• Learning relationships • Isolation & dependence• Strategic awareness • Being robotic• Resilience • Fragility & dependence
Changing & learning /being stuck & staticI see learning as something I can get better at,and myself as an improving learner. This oftenreflects a more general interest in ‘self-improvement’, and faith that this is possible. Ihave a sense of history and of hope. I tend totake ownership of my own learning, and like tobe responsible for what I’m learning and how Igo about it. I’m usually quite ready to ‘sign up’ tolearning tasks that are presented to me
Critical curiosity/ passivityI like to get below the surface of things and see what is really going on. I like to work things out for myself, and to ask my own questions. I tend to go looking for things to understand better, rather than just responding to problems that come my way. I am usually excited by the prospect of learning, and have a good deal of energy for learning tasks and situations. In general, I’m attracted to learning and enjoy a challenge. I value getting at the truth.
Meaning making / DataaccumulationI tend to look for patterns,connections and coherence in what I amlearning, and to seek links between newsituations and what I already know or aminterested in. I’m on the look-out for ‘horizontalmeaning’ I like to make sense of new things interms of my own experience, and I like learningabout what mattersto me.
Creativity /RuleboundI like new situations, and will sometimescreate novelty and uncertainty ‘just to see whathappens’. I’ll spice things up to stop them beingboring. I like playing with possibilities and imagininghow situations could be otherwise. I am able to lookat problems from different perspectives. I like tryingthings out even if I don’t know where they will lead. Isometimes get my best ideas when I just let mymind float freely, and I don’t mind ‘giving up mentalcontrol’ for a while to see what bubbles up. I oftenuse my imagination when I’m learning, and payattention to images and physical promptings as wellas rational thoughts.
Learning relationships/ Isolation or DependenceI like working on problems with other people, especiallymy friends. I have no difficulty sharing thoughts andideas with others, and find it useful. I am quite capable ofworking away at problems on my own, and sometimesprefer it. I don’t feel I have to stick with the crowd for fearof being lonely or isolated, when I’m learning. I haveimportant people at home and in my community whoshare with me in my learning. I am ready to draw onthese when it seems helpful. I feel that I live within asupportive social context.
Strategic Awareness/ RoboticI tend to think about my learning, andplan how I am going to go about it. I usually have a fair idea how long something is going to take me, what resources I am going to need, and my chances of being successful. I am able to talk about the process of learning – how I go about things – and about myself as a learner – what my habits, preferences, aspirations, strengths and weaknesses are.
Resilience / dependence and fragilityI tend to stick at things for a while, even when they aredifficult. I don’t give up easily. I often enjoy grapplingwith things that aren’t easy. I can handle the feelingsthat tend to crop up during learning: frustration,confusion, apprehension and so on. I have quite a highdegree of emotional tolerance when it comes tolearning. I’m not easily upset or embarrassed when Ican’t immediately figure something out. I don’timmediately look for someone to help me out when I amfinding things difficult, or when I get stuck. I’m usuallyhappy to keep trying on my own for a while. I don’t mindif there’s nobody around to ‘rescue’ me.
Seven scales in a self report, online questionnaire, designed to measure learning power and to stimulate changeFour types of feedback: • Individual • Group or class • Organisation • System wide
Changing and Type One learning ELLI ProfileCriticalCuriosity Learning relationshipsMeaningMaking Strategic Awareness Creativity Resilience
Type Two ELLI Changing and learning ProfileCriticalCuriosity Learning relationships Meaning Strategic Making Awareness Creativity Resilience
Type Three Changing and ELLI ProfileCritical learningCuriosity Learning relationshipsMeaningMaking Strategic Awareness Creativity Resilience
ELLI - an assessment eventa framework for a coaching conversationthat moves between the person andidentity of the learner and a particularnegotiated learning outcomeTrust, affirmation and challenge
Changing and learning across the age range 70.00 68.00 Mean of chnglng 66.00 64.00 62.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 KeyStage
Critical Curiosity across the age range 60.00 57.00 Mean of curiosity 54.00 51.00 48.00 45.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 KeyStage
Meaning Making across the age range 62.00 Mean of meaningmaking 61.00 60.00 59.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 KeyStage
Creativity across the age range 62.00 60.00 58.00 Mean of creativity 56.00 54.00 52.00 50.00 48.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 KeyStage
Strategic Awareness across the age range 60.00 57.00 Mean of strategic 54.00 51.00 48.00 45.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 KeyStage
Learning Relationships across the age range 64.00 62.00 Mean of lngrelation 60.00 58.00 56.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 KeyStage
Study 2: Ecology of learning N=851, 5-9, 2004• Learning power is associated with: • Attainment (except creativity!) • Students perceptions of: teachers ability to create positive interpersonal relationships, to honour student voice, to respect students and to stimulate higher order thinking • Organisational emotional literacy
Teachers whose students’ have high levels of learning power are characterised by:Self efficacy; reflective self-awareness;high autonomy support (as opposed tohighly controlling) learner-centred beliefsabout students.
Study 4 Exploring the Learning Profiles of Underachieving Students N=900 14 year oldsWe identified the underachievers and compared their learning power withtheir achieving and ‘over’ achieving counterparts
Significant differences between groups (ANOVA)• Changing and Learning • .003• Meaning Making • .002• Critical Curiosity • .001• Creativity • .345• Learning relationships • .691• Strategic awareness • .011• Fragility and dependence • .099
Tentative findings….• Underachievers are characterised by• Passivity in learning dispositions• Accepting things at face value• Lacking strategic awareness – of thinking, feeling and planning/doing• Not looking for meaning and sense making in their learning• Being ‘stuck and static’ in their sense of themselves as learners.• Being unable to ‘tell their story’
Studies 5 & 6 (N=600 & N=45)• Learning power is positively related to students’ positive social values, spiritual development and political engagement• We identified young offenders in prison for violent offences by their learning power profiles. Learning power is negatively related to violent behaviour.
So what works?• Creating a shared language for learning including metaphors, stories and image• Coaching for learning - awareness, ownership and responsible self-direction• Authentic, active inquiry – bottom up• Scaffolding the construction of knowledge• Extending places and partners for learning
Intervention studiesStudy 7Learning Outside the Box Impact of self assessment of learning power on highly achieving sixth formers in a Malaysian college
Pre post changes• N=184 17 year olds Paired T Tests• Interventions were coaching conversations with tutors responding to ELLI profiles• Significant change pre to post on six out of seven dimensions
17year old – gains in 6dimensions • I have changed so much in my learning ability and this makes me feel a bit more confident in myself. Apart from just learning whatever I need, knowing why should I learn them is an important part for me and then analysing them.
Study 9 Parkview School Learning in the Outdoor Dimension• Introducing learning power dimensions through professional actors
INTERVENTIONS• Coaching and mentoring conversations• Significant use of modelling and imitation and use of metaphor and imagery to introduce the language and concepts• Self assessment and target setting
N=171 Age 11 Mean Std. Deviation df Sig. (2-tailed)Pair 1 changing and learning - -3.07018 23.68942 170 .092 changing and learning postPair 2 critical curiosity - critical -3.33550 20.64347 170 .036 curiosity postPair 3 meaning making - meaning -5.68087 21.89085 170 .001 making postPair 4 creativity - creativity post -4.65887 20.50818 170 .003Pair 5 strategic awareness - -4.84330 21.42476 170 .004 strategic awareness postPair 6 learning relationship - -4.12606 18.24338 170 .004 learning relationship postPair 7 fragility and dependence - 2.33206 15.08077 168 .046 fragdeppost
Student voices• If we didn’t have the ELLI animals, we wouldn’t know other ways to learn and if we always learned the same way we’d get bored with it. Now we can choose a way that’s best for you (sic).• That’s the same for me because I used to sit quietly and think it out for myself but now if I’m stuck I ask questions
Study 11Foundation Years: Languagefor Learning Project Language of learning through music and movement – using animal metaphors as a vehicle for modelling and imitation and conceptual understanding
MusicWeb weaving spiderHad a silky threadConnected all the thoughtsTo make ideas in his head.
Focusing in on….Some key areas for further exploration and development
Communication through metaphor, imagery and story• All of the studies involve teachers and learners accessing complex ideas through image and metaphor. • “It’s useful; you can BE that and then try and BE that” (an 11 year old from Cumbria)
Elli Presentation Childhood is the first step of learning for each and individual student.When Elli program was introduced to Gapuwiyak school Sally invitedme to see what she and the school has planned. We went out togetherinto the community to discuss with our elders what was happening inthe school.
• After long and strong discussions with leaders and elders of community we chose six birds from our song lines to represent six of the learning dispositions. The seventh bird, the bower bird is not in our song lines but was chosen because it is a creative bird.
• I then created seven paintings of the birds. During the painting I decided to have the process photographed so that we would use them in teaching the children the learning dispositions.
• The next step was introducing Elli to the community. The principal called a meeting. Everyone attended the meeting. Elders, community members , parents, all staff and older students.
• This was the first time we had an evening meeting for a long time. It was a positive feeling and everyone felt something new was happening in the school. It was a new beginning for the community to come together within the school. Learning was not just Balanda way but we’re building a strong relationship between the two cultures.
At this meeting I drew the graphof the learning dispositions on thewhiteboard to explain about Elli.
• I was able to describe the spider graph because I had completed the online survey. The story from my spider graph showed me that I was strong in some learning dimensions but weak in resilience and strategic awareness. I am working on these by being more confident in asking questions.
Naming the animals• CHANGING & LEARNING: SNAKE • Sheds his skin • Dislocates his mouth/ jaw to fit in food • Uses venom & constriction to capture its prey • Changes shape to adapt to its environment• CRITICAL CURIOSITY: EMU • Always looks up to see what is around its • environment • Curious • Explores and is adventurous • Stares • Proud and strong
MAKING MEANING: PLATYPUS Builds its own burrow Uses many resources from its environmentCREATIVITY: WILLY WAG TAIL Proud, fun and playful Individual and challenges others, or takes on anything it encounters Not scared, fast, likes to show off.
• RESILIENCE: ECHIDNA • Digs into the ground when faced with danger • Tough, smart, tricky • Camouflages in the tall grass• STRATGEIC AWARENESS: WEDGED_TAIL EAGLE • Spirals high in the sky to look for prey • Patient, strategic, smart, stealthy, big, strong and proud • Uses aerodynamics• LEARNING RELATIONSHIPS: ANTS • Work together • Each have a different job, scout and travel • Can predict rain
Taranga Zoo Break OutThis is a story about some animals that lived in a zoo called Tarongawhich is in Guringai country. Most of these animals came fromdifferent nations that were all over the land that is now calledAustralia. All the animals would dream about the time when theycould return to their own country, hear the stories from the elders,learn the laws, know the ways of their land. At night when all thepeople were gone they would gather in their language groups andtalk about the old ways, the good ways, when there were no fencesand captivity. One group of animals were from the Wonnaruahnation and had their own names in the language. A willy wag tail ordidijiri, the emu or kungkurung, the snake or ta nipa tang, the eagleor ka-wul, the echidna or kuntji kukan, the platypus or pikan andsome ants or yunrring that were nearly always too busy to stop andtalk. Always the talk would turn to their dreams and of the countrythat they all wished to return to.
• For the first time since Willy Wagtail told him about his dreams, Snake felt a stirring of excitement wriggle all the way down his coils. He was beginning to get it. He started to feel himself grow and change. He was already learning to ask questions and be curious, like Emu. Now he was learning how important it is to be patient and stick at things, like Echidna. His skin felt tight, all of a sudden.
A shape flashed across the light of the moon and its shadow fell momentarily onthe scene. All the animals fell silent. The Eagle landed, a little higher up theleaning gum tree, spread her wings magnificently and folded them away with ashake of her feathers. No one spoke. They were all curious to hear what theEagle was going to say. ‘The moment has arrived. We have anticipated it. Now, everything is inplace. Under the full moon, I have called you together to combine yourstrengths, summon the power of all your learning and fulfil your dream. I haveplanned for this night. I see everything, from the smallest ant to the whole zoo,the city and the vast bush, stretching out West as far as the eye can see. I seeeach moment: how it arrived on the wings of the past and how it will launch intothe great sky of the future. Learn from me as you have learned from each other.I give you your purpose, your direction, your focus and, most important of all,your readiness to accept your responsibility to yourself to achieve your dream.’ All the animals breathed a deep breath of the midnight air and solemnlyvowed to accept their responsibility to themselves and the group. They knewthat, before the night was over, if they all played their part, they would be free.
One day, they got together again and agreed that they should leave the bush. One dream had been fulfilled. The city children had been sad to lose them. The bush would always be there when they needed to go back to it. They had learned how to travel. They had all survived crossing the F3 the busiest road in their world, to get back to country. It had taken skill, determination and courage to do it but together they had made it, and had learnt together how to do it. Now, they knew they would go on learning for the rest of their lives. They would never go back to the zoo. They had returned home to the Hunter Valley, home to the Wonnaruah people, their home. Today the animals are working around the schools of the Singleton area, helping children and students to grow and change by passing on their truths and being everlasting symbols of what they discovered on their adventure.Ratified by theWonnaruah elders
The iconography of learning The symbol mediates between experiential knowing (community and tradition) narrative knowing (big, medium and little stories) and propositional knowing. All ways of knowing are crucial for learning how to learn and to co-create and use knowledge in the global information age
Creativity• Or ‘springboard zone.’• Thinking around things• Coming up with new ideas, sometimes a bit crazy!• Trusting your hunches
RESILIENCE LENNYHello, I’m Lenny and mylearning strength isresilience. I love tochallenge my thinking andlearning. I don’t give upeasily – even when thingsare difficult.
CURIOSITY GERARDHello, I’m Gerard andmy learning strengthis curiosity. I loveasking my ownquestions to find outwhat’s really going on.
Focusing in on…… Learning power and the re- sequencing of the curriculum• All of the studies have involved teachers re-sequencing the ways in which students encounter the content of the curriculum• From the middle outwards and• From top down to bottom up
ELLI facilitates authentic inquiry• Connects with the PERSON• It matters in their life – significance and engagement• The challenge for teachers is to facilitate the movement from personal choice to public outcome
The dynamics of authentic inquiry1. Personal Choice : concrete place/object2. Observation - description3. Generating questions4. Uncovering narratives5. Knowledge mapping6. Connecting with existing funds of knowledge7. Interface with curriculum requirements8. Assessment - validation9. Application in the real world
Thinking and Learning capabilities developed through learning power• Choosing/deciding• Observing/describing • Creativity• Wondering/interrogating• Discovering/storying • Meaning making• Navigating/mapping • Critical curiosity• Spanning/connecting, • Resilience• Interacting/incorporating • Strategic awareness• Reconciling, validating • Changing and learning• Acting in the world • Learning relationships
Sonny’s choice – my dog• My dog and why he means a lot to me• Why do animals end up in shelters?• Why do they lock people up?• Does locking people up make a difference?• How have they got the power to lock people up?• What are their rights?
Shawanda’s choice• My tangible object of choice was a picture of Anansi the spiderman.• I chose this object based on my intrinsic drive to explore my ancestral heritage in regards to the West African connection
Why is Anansi important tome? • He inspires me. • He exemplifies survival. • He reminds me of the fact that my ancestors were not ’slaves’ but were instead a powerful ethnic group befallen through the evils of slavery. • He reminds me that my ancestors have heavily contributed to the wealth of many powerful countries • He reminds me that christianity is not the end all of spirituality • He reminds me that poverty is a state of mind • And he reminds me to stay strong in the face of adversities
Values and Learning The stories My own and values in story and what and values how I am learning The stories and values of my community and Powerful Learning tradition
Idea-Spinning! in the….Springboard zone Jigsaw zone and the (Creativity) (Meaning Making)
Jess’s choice: Cheddar Gorge• ‘I chose this person and place because it was the time in my life when things were just normal at home and it was just me, my mum and my brother and we were all happy. It makes me a bit sad because we don’t have times like that any more but also happy because we had a good day’
Questioning in the…. Pilot zoneDetective zone and the(Critical Curiosity) (Strategic Awareness)
Jess’s questions• What will be there in 15 years?• What was there before?• How many people have been there?• How was the gorge made?• Have any famous people been there?• What kind of people used to be there?• Why do relationships matter?
ReflectingJigsaw zone in the…. Gritty zone and the(Meaning Making) (Resilience)
• ‘It’s made me not so scared to learn other things,’ ‘It was a tiny little project and Jess it spiraled into all these other things that were connected.’• ‘I didn’t think I could learn any more but now I believe you can.’ It’s not just about Cheddar Gorge, it’s about life stuff.’
16 year old voices• “Learning how to tell your own story would make it easier to do all the other things you have to do – learn subjects, get grades etc”• “We’re all programmed in a way that makes our experience invisible”• “More measurable things are given far more attention than the less measurable”
Danny – a ‘NEET’ Learner with profound learning difficulties– targeted Critical Curiosity and Learning Relationships “It’s changed what I think I can do.”
Finally…..• Let’s listen to Daniel tell his own story of how he has changed as a result of ‘My World’ (an authentic inquiry, including ELLI)
The class were ‘LOST’ on an island and hadto find ways to survive…..
While I visited the school, the BNP were canvassing formembers – outside the school - Daniel lives in a socially andeconomically challenged area of Manchester.
Meaning making– connecting mystory with mylearning in school
Daniel is able todescribe his journeyfrom ‘messing about’to hope in the futurethrough the use ofmetaphor andimagery which hasbeen provided as partof the school’slanguage for learningand the authenticactive inquiry of MyWorld.
The gift of hope and thedevelopment of resilience