Media	  Convergence	  
Media	  Convergence	                                             We	  are	  living	  in	  an	  age	  when	  changes	  in	 ...
Media	  Convergence	                                             Strategy	  in	  which	  communica2ons	  companies	  seek	...
How	  new	  technology	  affects	  business	  and	                                             culture?	                   ...
Transmedia	  Storytelling	                                              	                                              1.	...
Transmedia	  Storytelling	                                              	                                              The...
Transmedia	  Storytelling	                                              	                                              2.	...
Transmedia	  Storytelling	                                              	                                              Per...
Ruth	  Contreras	  	  	  	  @ruthso=ia	  
Transmedia	  Storytelling	                                              	                                              3.	...
Transmedia	  Storytelling	                                              	                                              4.	...
Aus9n	  Powers:	  The	  Spy	  Who	  Shagged	  Me	                             	  
Ruth	  Contreras	  	  	  	  @ruthso=ia	  
Ruth	  Contreras	  	  	  	  @ruthso=ia	  
Transmedia	  Storytelling	                                              	                                              5.	...
Transmedia	  Storytelling	                                              	                                              A	 ...
Ruth	  Contreras	  	  	  	  @ruthso=ia	  
Transmedia	  Storytelling	                                              	                                              6.	...
 Par9cipatory	  culture	  /	  Fan	  Culture	  The	  New	  Consumers	  
Media	  convergence	  is	  not	  a	  technological	  endpoint.	  	  
Par9cipatory	  culture	                                              1.	  The	  term	  is	  intended	  to	  contrast	  wit...
Ruth	  Contreras	  	  	  	  @ruthso=ia	  
Par9cipatory	  culture	                                              As	  technology	  con2nues	  to	  enable	  new	      ...
Ruth	  Contreras	  	  	  	  @ruthso=ia	  
Par9cipatory	  culture	  	                                              Principal	  characteris9c:	                       ...
The	  community	  itself	  provides	  strong	  incen2ves	         for	  expression	  and	  ac2ve	  par2cipa2on.	  	  
Par9cipatory	  culture	  as	  one:	  	  1.	  With	  strong	  support	  for	  crea9ng	  and	  sharing	  one’s	  crea2ons	  ...
Par9cipatory	  culture	                                              Jenkins	  argues	  that	  younger	  consumers	  are	 ...
Ruth	  Contreras	  	  	  	  @ruthso=ia	  
Par9cipatory	  culture	  	                                              If	  Internet	  create	  a	  venue	  for	  greater...
Fan	  Culture	  	                                              As	  Levy	  explains,	                                     ...
Fan	  Culture	  	                                              Baym	  argues:	                                            ...
fan	  fic2on	  /	  fanfic	  /	  fan	  culture	  	  
                                            Narra9ve	  strategies	  	                                             In	  con...
New	  users/readers/viewers/consumers	                       If	  ‘we’re	  are	  modelled	  by	  the	  media’	  (McLuhan),...
Transmedia	  stories	  at	  the	  most	  basic	  level	  ‘are	  stories	  told	  across	  mul2ple	  media.	  At	  the	  pr...
Media-­‐centrality:	  • TV-­‐centered	  transmedia	  storytelling	  (24	  or	  Lost)	  • Book-­‐centered	  transmedia	  st...
Television	  	  Comics	  	  Books	  	  Webisodes	  	  Mobile	  game	  	  Videogame	  	  Card	  game	  	  McFarlane	  Toys	...
24	  Timeline	          Media	  
Thank	  you	  ;)	        	  TwiDer	  @ruthsoZia	  
Media convergence
Media convergence
Media convergence
Media convergence
Media convergence
Media convergence
Media convergence
Media convergence
Media convergence
Media convergence
Media convergence
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Media convergence

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What is media convergence?

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Media convergence

  1. 1. Media  Convergence  
  2. 2. Media  Convergence   We  are  living  in  an  age  when  changes  in   communica2ons,  storytelling  and  informa2on   technologies  are  reshaping  almost  every   aspect  of  contemporary  life,  including  how  we   create,  consume,  learn,  and  interact  with   other.    Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  3. 3. Media  Convergence   Strategy  in  which  communica2ons  companies  seek   financial  benefit  by  making  the  various  media  proper2es   they  own  work  together.  The  strategy  is  a  product  of:     1)  Corporate  concentra9on,  whereby  fewer  large   companies  own  more  and  more  media  proper2es;     2)  Digi9za9on,  whereby  media  content  produced  in  a   universal  computer  language  can  be  easily  adapted  for   use  in  any  medium;     3)  Media  conglomerates  to  own  different  kinds  of   media  (television  and  radio  sta2ons  and  newspapers)  in   the  same  markets  and  which  has  permiHed  content   carriage  companies  to  own  content  producers     (specialty  TV  channels).    Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  4. 4. How  new  technology  affects  business  and   culture?   Why  the  web  is  so  much  beDer  than  TV?  Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  5. 5. Transmedia  Storytelling     1.  Represents  a  process  where  integral   elements  of  a  fic2on  get  dispersed   systema2cally  across  mul9ple  delivery   channels  for  the  purpose  of  crea2ng  a  unified   and  coordinated  entertainment  experience.   Ideally,  each  medium  makes  it  own  unique   contribu2on  to  the  unfolding  of  the  story.    Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  6. 6. Transmedia  Storytelling     The  Matrix  franchise,  are  conveyed  through   three  live  ac2on  films,  a  series  of  animated   shorts,  two  collec2ons  of  comic  book  stories,   and  several  video  games.       There  is  no  one  single  source  or  ur-­‐text  where   one  can  turn  to  gain  all  of  the  informa9on   needed  to  comprehend  the  Matrix  universe.  Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  7. 7. Transmedia  Storytelling     2.  A  transmedia  text  does  not  simply  disperse   informa9on:  it  provides  a  set  of  roles  and   goals  which  readers  can  assume  as  they  enact   aspects  of  the  story  through  their  everyday   life.  Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  8. 8. Transmedia  Storytelling     Performa2ve  dimension  at  play  with  ac9on   figures  which  encourage  children  to  construct   their  own  stories.    Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  9. 9. Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  10. 10. Transmedia  Storytelling     3.  Transmedia  stories  are  based  not  on   individual  characters  or  specific  plots  but   rather  complex  fic9onal  worlds  which  can   sustain  mul9ple  interrelated  characters  and   their  stories.  This  process  of  world-­‐building   encourages  an  encyclopedic  impulse  in  both   readers  and  writers.  We  are  drawn  to  master   what  can  be  known  about  a  world  which   always  expands  beyond  our  grasp.    Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  11. 11. Transmedia  Storytelling     4.  Extensions  may  serve  a  variety  of  different   func2ons.  The  extension  may  provide  new   insights  into  the  characters  and  their   mo2va2ons.  The  extension  may  provide  also   mass-­‐market  spoofs,  parodies.    Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  12. 12. Aus9n  Powers:  The  Spy  Who  Shagged  Me    
  13. 13. Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  14. 14. Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  15. 15. Transmedia  Storytelling     5.  Prac9ces  may  expand  the  poten9al  market   for  a  property  by  crea2ng  different  points  of   entry  for  different  audience  segments.    Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  16. 16. Transmedia  Storytelling     A  story  in  ways  that  will  be  par9cularly   aDrac9ve  to  female.    Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  17. 17. Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  18. 18. Transmedia  Storytelling     6.  Merchandising.    Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  19. 19.  Par9cipatory  culture  /  Fan  Culture  The  New  Consumers  
  20. 20. Media  convergence  is  not  a  technological  endpoint.    
  21. 21. Par9cipatory  culture   1.  The  term  is  intended  to  contrast  with  older   no2ons  of  media  spectatorship.  In  this   emerging  media  system,  what  might   tradi2onally  be  understood  as  media   producers  and  consumers  are  transformed   into  par9cipants  who  are  expected  to  interact   with  each  other  according  to  a  new  set  of  rules   which  none  of  us  fully  understands.   Henry  Jenkings    Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  22. 22. Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  23. 23. Par9cipatory  culture   As  technology  con2nues  to  enable  new   avenues  for  communica2on,  collabora9on,   and  circula9on  of  ideas,  it  has  also  given  rise   to  new  opportuni9es  for  consumers  to  create   their  own  content.  Barriers  like  2me  and   money  are  beginning  to  become  less   significant  to  large  groups  of  consumers.  Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  24. 24. Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  25. 25. Par9cipatory  culture     Principal  characteris9c:   Not  every  member  must  contribute,  but  all   must  believe  they  are  free  to  contribute  when   ready  and  that  what  they  contribute  will  be   appropriately  valued.   Henry  Jenkings      Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  26. 26. The  community  itself  provides  strong  incen2ves   for  expression  and  ac2ve  par2cipa2on.    
  27. 27. Par9cipatory  culture  as  one:    1.  With  strong  support  for  crea9ng  and  sharing  one’s  crea2ons  with  others.    2.  With  some  type  of  informal  mentorship  whereby  what  is  known  by  the  most  experienced  is  passed  along  to  novices.    3.  Where  members  believe  that  their  contribu9ons  maDer.    4.  Where  members  feel  some  degree  of  social  connec9on  with  one  another  (at  the  least  they  care  what  other  people  think  about  what  they  have  created).  
  28. 28. Par9cipatory  culture   Jenkins  argues  that  younger  consumers  are   adept  at  tracking  down  character  backgrounds   and  side-­‐plots,  and  then  making  connec9ons   across  many  different  texts  of  a  franchise.     The  World-­‐Wide-­‐Web  is  a  powerful   distribu9on  channel.    Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  29. 29. Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  30. 30. Par9cipatory  culture     If  Internet  create  a  venue  for  greater  audience   tele-­‐par2cipa2on  (fan  fic9ons),  they  also   enable  television  networks  to  capitalize  on   consumers’  par9cipatory  ac9vi9es,   genera9ng  higher  ra9ngs  and  brand   awareness.    Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  31. 31. Fan  Culture     As  Levy  explains,   “the  members  of  a  community  search,   inscribe,  connect,  consult,  explore……Not  only   make  available  to  the  collec2ve  intellect  all  of   the  per2nent  knowledge  available  to  it  at  a   given  moment,  but  it  also  serves  as  a  site  of   collec2ve  discussion  and  development”.  Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  32. 32. Fan  Culture     Baym  argues:   “A  large  group  of  fans  can  do  what  even  the   most  commiHed  single  fan  cannot:   accumulate,  retain,  and  con2nually  recirculate   unprecedented  amounts  of  relevant   informa9on…….  par2cipants  collabora2vely   provide  all  with  the  resources  to  get  more   story  from  the  material”.  Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  33. 33. fan  fic2on  /  fanfic  /  fan  culture    
  34. 34.   Narra9ve  strategies     In  contemporary  media  produc9on  Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  35. 35. New  users/readers/viewers/consumers   If  ‘we’re  are  modelled  by  the  media’  (McLuhan),  then  digital   interac2ve  media  have  created  a  new  user/reader  that  deals  with:     Interac9vity     Networks   Mul9-­‐screens   Fast  adapta9on  to  interfaces      Ruth  Contreras        @ruthso=ia  
  36. 36. Transmedia  stories  at  the  most  basic  level  ‘are  stories  told  across  mul2ple  media.  At  the  present  2me,  the  most  significant  stories  tend  to  flow  across  mul2ple  media  pladorms’  (Jenkins  et  al.,  2006).  Synonyms:    cross  media  (Bechmann  Petersen,  2006)     mul2ple  pladorms  (Jeffery-­‐Poulter,  2003)   hybrid  media  (Boumans,  2004)   intertextual  commodity  (Marshall,  2004)   transmedial  worlds  (Klastrup  &  Tosca,  2004)   transmedial  interac2ons  (Bardzell  et  al.,  2007)   mul2modality  (Kress  &  van  Leeuwen,  2001)     intermedia  (Higgins,  1966).    
  37. 37. Media-­‐centrality:  • TV-­‐centered  transmedia  storytelling  (24  or  Lost)  • Book-­‐centered  transmedia  storytelling  (Harry  PoHer)  • Comic-­‐centered  transmedia  storytelling  (Batman  or  Spiderman)  • Cinema-­‐centered  transmedia  storytelling  (The  Matrix)  The  ‘media-­‐centrality:    The  first  text?    The  most  successful?    The  most  important  narra2ve?  
  38. 38. Television    Comics    Books    Webisodes    Mobile  game    Videogame    Card  game    McFarlane  Toys    Complete  kit    
  39. 39. 24  Timeline   Media  
  40. 40. Thank  you  ;)    TwiDer  @ruthsoZia  

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