Female Entrepreneurs that Dream Big
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In this paper, we address the need to further conceptualize high impact (HI) female entrepreneurship exploring the existing literature and adapting the 2012 World Development Report framework and ...

In this paper, we address the need to further conceptualize high impact (HI) female entrepreneurship exploring the existing literature and adapting the 2012 World Development Report framework and index model to create a basis for internationally comparative quantitative analysis. We incorporate a review of the existing literature on female entrepreneurship identifying the issues that seem to affect HI female entrepreneurship and identify the National Systems of Entrepreneurship approach as important for HI female entrepreneurship development . In addition, we compare and contrast the existing indices that measure entrepreneurship development in general and female entrepreneurship in particular. Finally, we propose the most suitable approach for developing a comprehensive quantitative model for studying HI female entrepreneurship.

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Female Entrepreneurs that Dream Big Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Female Entrepreneurs that Dream Big: Conceptualizing High Impact FemaleEntrepreneurship for Internationally Comparative Quantitative Analysis Ruta Aidis, Center for Entrepreneurship and Public Policy (CEPP) George Mason University Center for Entrepreneurship and Public Policy (CEPP) R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC - 2012 1
  • 2. Objectives1. Characteristics of High Impact (HI) Female Entrepreneurship – Should we pick winners?2. Present the 2012 WDR Framework – is it useful for studying HI female entrepreneurship?3. Discuss HI female entrepreneurship - what has been done, what needs to be done so far4. Propose a strategy to move forward R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC - 2012 2
  • 3. Are female entrepreneurs really different from male entrepreneurs?It Depends….• Concentrated in service sector• Necessity based• Use less capital• Traditional female roles may undermine self- efficacy• Marriage and children increase female rate of self-employment R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC - 2012 3
  • 4. High Impact Entrepreneurship• 4% of small firms generated 60% of all new jobs in the US economy from 1988 – 1992• From 1994 – 2006, firms with <20 employees represented 93.8% of the high-impact firms and 33.5% of job growthIn sum, HI entrepreneurs are important for economic growth!!Source: (Acs & Mueller 2008) R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC - 2012 4
  • 5. Less HI female entrepreneurship = global economic lossMisallocating women’s skills and talents comes at a large (and rising) economic cost (WB WDR 2012)However Economic Growth does not necessarily increase Gender Equality• Economic growth can – Perpetuate gender stereotypes – Reinforce occupational segregation – Maintain unequal access to endowments R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC - 2012 5
  • 6. Comparative studies on HI female entrepreneurshipEstrin & Mickiewicz (2011) – GEM Data – 55 countries (2001-2006)• High aspiration female entrepreneurs impediments: large state sector size• Where female freedom of movement is restricted• Childcare seems less of an issueKelley et al (2010) – GEM Data, 18 countries (2008 – 2010)• Highest level of high aspiration female entrepreneurs in efficiency- driven countries• Female growth aspirations (20+) highest in Saudi Arabia• In Israel, female entrepreneurs growth aspirations 1/3 less than male entrepreneurs R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC - 2012 6
  • 7. Defining HI entrepreneurshipAccording to Growth Aspirations (GEM)• 5+ employees in the next 5 years• 20+ employees in the next 5 yearsAccording to Employment & Sales (Acs 2008)• Employment Growth Qualifier (EGQ): absolute & percentage change• Sales doubled in 4 yearsA broader definition used by the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (Acs & Szerb 2012):• Growth-oriented, market expanding, export-inclined and innovative businesses R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC - 2012 7
  • 8. 2012 World Development Report Framework Informal Institutions Economic Opportuni ties Household Endow Agency mentsMarkets Formal Institutions R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC - 2012 8
  • 9. 2012 World Development Report Framework Informal Institutions Economic Opportuni ties Household Endow Agency mentsMarkets Formal Institutions GENDER EQUALITY R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC - 2012 9
  • 10. The Household Unit:dreams and decision making DREAM DREAM Household R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC - 2012 10
  • 11. But what about single childless women?In 2003, a U.S. Census study found that a record 19% of U.S.women age 40–44 did not have children R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC - 2012 11
  • 12. National Systems of Entrepreneurship• The importance of cultivating female entrepreneurial eco-systems as a strategy for fostering HI female entrepreneurship R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC - 2012 12
  • 13. What are potentially important issues affecting HI female entrepreneurs globally• Access to resources: land, credit, inheritance, financing• The importance of role models/media image• Access to education• Access to networks• Time Use & Care responsibilities: Childcare – necessary but not sufficient• Labor force segregation R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC - 2012 13
  • 14. Some data sets that include high- impact female entrepreneurshipComparative Data Limited coverage• Global • GenderClir (USAID) Entrepreneurship • GOWE (ILO) Monitor (GEM) R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC - 2012 14
  • 15. 4) Proposed framework :Adapting the Global Entrepreneurship andDevelopment Index (GEDI) Approach which: – Combines both individual-level and institutional- level data; – Includes the novel Penalty for Bottleneck methodology; – Indentifies a country’s strengths and weaknesses; – Ranks countries according to their relative scores; – Indicates which improvements would have the biggest effect on increasing a country’s entrepreneurial performance. R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC - 2012 15
  • 16. GEDI’s structure 3 sub-indices/ 14 pillars/ 28 variablesSub-index 1: Sub-index 2: Sub-index 3:Entrepreneurial Attitudes Entrepreneurial Activity Entrepreneurial AspirationPillar 1: Cultural Support Pillar 6: Competition Pillar 10: Risk Capital•CARSTAT •COMPET •INFINV•CORRUPTION •MARKDOM •VENTCAPP2: Networking P7: Quality of Human Resources P 11: Internationalization•KNOWENT •HIGHEDUC •EXPORT•INTERNETUSAGE •STAFFTRAIN •GLOB P12: High GrowthP3: Non Fear of Failure P8: Technology Sector •GAZELLE•NONFEAR •TECHSET •BUSS STRATEGY•BUSINESS RISK •TECHABSORP P13: Process InnovationP4: Start up Skills P9: Opportunity Start up •NEWT•SKILL •TEAOPPORT •GERD•EDUCPOSTSEC •FREEDOM P14: Product InnovationP5: Opportunity Perception •NEWP•OPPORTUNITY •TECHTRANSFER•MARKETAGGLOM R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC - 2012 16
  • 17. Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) coverage• 2011: 71 countries• 2012: 79 countries• 2013 (forthcoming): 118 countries R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC - 2012 17
  • 18. GEDI: Identifies a country’s relative strengths and weaknesses for productive entrepreneurship development OPORTUNITY_PERCEPTIO OPORTUNITY_PERCEPTIO N N RISK_CAPITAL .5000 STARTUP_SKILLS 1.0000 RISK_CAPITAL STARTUP_SKILLS .9000 .4000 .8000 INTERNATIONALIZATION .3000 NONFEAR_OF_FAILURE INTERNATIONALIZATION .7000 NONFEAR_OF_FAILURE .6000 .2000 .5000 .4000 HIGH_GROWTH .1000 NETWORKING HIGH_GROWTH .3000 NETWORKING .2000 .0000 .1000 .0000 NEW_TECHNOLOGY CULTURAL_SUPPORT NEW_TECHNOLOGY CULTURAL_SUPPORT NEW_PRODUCT OPPORTUNITY_STARTUP NEW_PRODUCT OPPORTUNITY_STARTUP COMPETITION TECH_SECTOR QUALITY_OF_HUMAN_R COMPETITION TECH_SECTOR ESOURCE QUALITY_OF_HUMAN_RE SOURCE OPORTUNITY_PERCEPTION OPORTUNITY_PERCEPTIO 1.0000 N RISK_CAPITAL STARTUP_SKILLS .7000 RISK_CAPITAL STARTUP_SKILLS .8000 .6000 INTERNATIONALIZATION .6000 NONFEAR_OF_FAILURE INTERNATIONALIZATION .5000 NONFEAR_OF_FAILURE .4000 .4000 .3000 HIGH_GROWTH .2000 NETWORKING HIGH_GROWTH .2000 NETWORKING .1000 .0000 .0000 NEW_TECHNOLOGY CULTURAL_SUPPORT NEW_TECHNOLOGY CULTURAL_SUPPORT NEW_PRODUCT OPPORTUNITY_STARTUP NEW_PRODUCT OPPORTUNITY_STARTUP COMPETITION TECH_SECTOR COMPETITION TECH_SECTOR QUALITY_OF_HUMAN_RES R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC - 2012 QUALITY_OF_HUMAN_RE 18 OURCE SOURCE
  • 19. GEDI provides clear country and regional rankings Top Top Third Top Half GEDI 2013 Index Bottom Half Bottom Third country Bottom rankingsRank Country GDPPC Score Rank Country GDPPC Score Rank Country GDPPC Score Rank Country GDPPC Score Rank Country GDPPC Score 1 United States $47,184 0.67 25 Estonia $20,033 0.41 49 Bulgaria $13,780 0.31 73 Moldova $3,087 0.22 97 Honduras $3,890 0.15 2 Sweden $38,947 0.63 26 Cyprus $25,299 0.40 50 Romania $14,287 0.30 74 Morocco $4,668 0.22 98 Kenya $1,635 0.15 3 Denmark $39,558 0.63 27 Spain $32,070 0.39 51 Barbados $19,252 0.30 75 Jamaica $7,839 0.21 99 Cameroon $2,264 0.14 4 Australia $39,407 0.62 28 Bahrain $25,799 0.38 52 Peru $9,470 0.29 76 Indonesia $4,293 0.21 100 Angola $6,035 0.14 5 Canada $38,915 0.59 29 Saudi Arabia $22,545 0.38 53 South Africa $10,486 0.29 77 Kazakhstan $12,050 0.21 101 Guatemala $4,740 0.14 6 Netherlands $42,475 0.58 30 Oman $26,554 0.37 54 Lebanon $13,948 0.28 78 Nigeria $2,363 0.21 102 Benin $1,576 0.14 7 Iceland $34,949 0.57 31 Lithuania $18,184 0.37 55 Tunisia $8,524 0.27 79 Ukraine $6,658 0.21 103 Rwanda $1,155 0.14 8 Switzerland $46,215 0.56 32 Poland $19,747 0.37 56 Malaysia $14,591 0.27 80 Serbia $11,488 0.20 104 Pakistan $2,674 0.14 9 Taiwan $37,931 0.55 33 Slovakia $23,897 0.36 57 Macedonia $11,072 0.27 81 Syria $5,248 0.20 105 Gambia $1,400 0.13 10 Norway $56,894 0.55 34 Hungary $20,307 0.35 58 Argentina $15,893 0.26 82 Paraguay $5,152 0.19 106 Tanzania $1,423 0.13 11 France $33,820 0.53 35 Japan $33,994 0.35 59 China $7,536 0.26 83 Egypt $6,281 0.19 107 Uganda $1,263 0.12 12 Belgium $37,448 0.53 36 Latvia $16,312 0.35 60 Panama $13,877 0.26 84 Bolivia $4,816 0.19 108 Madagascar $961 0.12 13 Singapore $57,505 0.53 37 Italy $31,555 0.34 61 Botswana $13,786 0.26 85 Ecuador $8,105 0.18 109 Mali $1,057 0.12 14 United Kingdom $35,860 0.52 38 Hong Kong $46,157 0.34 62 Mexico $14,566 0.26 86 Iran $11,467 0.18 110 Côte d’Ivoire $1,885 0.12 15 Germany $37,591 0.51 39 Uruguay $14,277 0.34 63 Brunei $49,494 0.26 87 Venezuela $11,956 0.18 111 Malawi $876 0.11 16 Finland $36,660 0.50 40 Portugal $25,573 0.34 64 Thailand $8,490 0.24 88 Bosnia and Herzegovina $8,750 0.18 112 Belize $6,566 0.11 17 Ireland $39,727 0.50 41 Croatia $19,516 0.34 65 Jordan $5,706 0.24 89 India $3,586 0.18 113 Burkina Faso $1,247 0.11 18 Puerto Rico $16,300 0.49 42 Czech $30,728 0.34 66 Costa Rica $11,351 0.23 90 Algeria $8,322 0.18 114 Ethiopia $1,033 0.10 19 Austria $39,698 0.49 43 Korea $29,004 0.34 67 Namibia $6,426 0.23 91 Philippines $3,940 0.17 115 Mauritania $1,930 0.10 20 Israel $28,546 0.47 44 Kuwait $52,657 0.33 68 Dominican Republic $9,280 0.23 92 El Salvador $6,692 0.17 116 Bangladesh $1,643 0.09 21 Chile $15,044 0.45 45 Turkey $15,340 0.32 69 Russia $19,840 0.23 93 Ghana $1,625 0.16 117 Burundi $405 0.08 22 Qatar $80,229 0.45 46 Montenegro $12,676 0.32 23 Slovenia $27,556 0.43 47 Greece $28,154 0.31 R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC0.22 94 70 Trinidad and Tobago $25,539 0.22 71 Albania $8,817 - 201295 Swaziland Senegal $5,033 0.16 $1,917 0.16 118 Chad $1,360 0.07 19 24 UAE $38,089 0.42 48 Colombia $9,392 0.31 72 Brazil $11,127 0.22 96 Zambia $1,550 0.15
  • 20. Concluding remarks• In order to cultivate female HI firms, a healthy, female entrepreneurship eco-system is a necessary condition.• Economic growth is not enough to increase gender equality which allows for a healthy female entrepreneurship eco- system to develop• A household focus incorporates the complexities of the decision making process for HI female entrepreneurs• There is a need for an understanding of HI female entrepreneurship levels that incorporates individual and institutional level data• More and better data are needed; Cross country comparative data is critical !!• The Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) provides an excellent framework for the development of an index measuring HI female entrepreneurship on a worldwide scale R. Aidis - ICSB - Wash DC - 2012 20