Colonization of Africa• colonialism- the forced control of one nation by another nation
Reasons for Colonization• Africa has many raw materials and natural resources not found in Europe including: – cotton – rubber – ivory – minerals including gold and diamonds
Reasons for Colonization• New industries in Europe needed metals like copper and tin.• Europeans also used Africa as a source of cheap labor.• African countries were new markets for European goods.
European Influence• Europeans looked down upon African ways of life.• Europeans wanted to change African culture to be more like European culture.• missionary- a person who goes to a foreign country to spread his or her religion• Missionaries brought Christianity to Africa.
Beginnings of New Imperialism• the Age of New Imperialism- countries competing for land and power at the end of the 19th century• The growth of European colonies in Africa was called “The Scramble for Africa.”• European countries were “scrambling” to get their piece of Africa.
Great Britain• Great Britain and France often fought for control of parts of Africa.• The British controlled the gold and ivory trade in West Africa.
France• The French wanted to spread their culture.• Established themselves in northern Algeria and West Africa.• Trade outposts were built in West Africa for the slave trade.• Most of the French-controlled land was desert.• They traded palm oil and timber.
Belgium• Belgium also competed for African land.• King Leopold II purchased the Congo River basin.• The amount of land purchased was bigger than Belgium itself.
Berlin Conference• a series of meetings held in Berlin, Germany in 1884• European nations attended the conference.• African rulers DID NOT.• The European nations divided Africa amongst themselves.• Europeans owned almost all of Africa by the end of the conference.
Partitioning Of AfricaColonized Africa Modern Africa