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Rustam

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  • 1. ESL Curriculum DevelopmentRustam Step 5: Aims, Goals and Objectives of the Course1. IntroductionOf al the components of an ESL Course development, Aims,Goals and Objectives posses centerstage.Since the terms are interpreted differently by course developers,confusion may arise as to what Imean when I use these terms in my proposed course, CALL Course for English LanguagTeachers.Aims are overarching and broader statemens regarding the purpose of a course.Goals andObjectives are narrower in scope in comparison with aims of a course.Goals are determined by the information gathered during the needs analysis phase of coursedevelopment process. Goals are general statements about what must be accomplished in order toattain and satisfy students’ needs. Objectives are precise statements about what content or skillsthe learners must master in order to attain aparticular goal. They state how the goals will beachived in a certain timeframe. Goal and Objectives are closely related.Fr eaxh goal of acourse,there are two to three (any number,depending upon the nature of the course)objectives.Ideally,objectives of a course must be SMART. That is ,objectives must be•S-specific •M-measureable •A-achieveable •R-realistic •T-time-frammedGoals decide the selection and sequencing of teaching materials of a course while bjectives laythe foundation for the organization of teaching activities.2. Aims, Goals and Objectives of CALL CourseIn the CALL Course, the goals are the general statements that provide guidelines, focus, andgeneral purposes for teaching. The objectives are statements of more specific purposes; theyaddress observable outcomes, are the basis for activities, and are the building blocks of goals.Based on the needs and situation analyses, the following aims, goals and objectives have beenidentified as essential to my CALL Course. For each general goal,three to four objectives havebeen enlisted. 1|Page
  • 2. ESL Curriculum Development3. AimsCALL Course aims at the following: To create awareness among learners (College teachers) about the utility and effectiveness of computer and web-based technology in language teaching To enlighten learners on how to use various web-based applications (CALL Tools) for their professional development (ELT) To show the learners ways and means as to how to integrate computer technology in language teaching4. Goals & ObjectivesGoals have been set in the light of the needs and situational anlyses. For each goal ,a set ofrelated objectives has been stated. 4.1 Goal 1 : To train learners on the use of various CALL Tools Objectives At the completion of cALL Course,learners shuld be able toAimThis is an advanced course in computer-assisted language learning that aims to introduce theprinciples underpinning the use of technology in language teaching and learning at college anduniversity level in Pakistan. The course helps participants design technology-based activities in theEnglish syllabus by learning about the commonly used CALL softwares, integrating CALL intocurriculum, and developing CALL related materials/activities.ObjectivesAfter completing the course, the participant will be able to: demonstrate understanding of the CALL paradigm incorporate the CALL scope and options into curriculum apply the CALL based techniques to enhance linguistic competencies of the learners design and author teaching material using CALL softwaes r embed audio and video files in learning activities present activities in the digital medium that incorporate the linguistic and technological frames develop assess 2|Page
  • 3. ESL Curriculum DevelopmentThe course we want to develop, for the first year students of the Post Graduate CollegeMansehra, is English Reading Course for Academic Purposes. After analyzing the situationalconstraints, the needs of the students and setting principles for the course, now we are in a betterposition to state the aim(s), goals and objectives of our reading course.The terms goals and objectives, are sometimes confusing for readers. Goals are, as stated byBrown, 1995a, the general statements about what must be accomplished in order to attain andsatisfy students’ needs. On the other hand, he defines objectives are the precise statements aboutwhat content skills the students must master in order to attain a particular goal. Nation (2000)says, goals decide why a course is being taught and what the learners need to get from it. Insimple words we can say that aims and goals are the general purpose of the course—what is thecourse about and what information does it want to convey. Goals are more specific than aims.Aims and goals are gathered from needs and situational analysis. Similarly objectives are theoutcomes of the goals or we can say that objectives are the result of a course or the change itbrings in students.After the needs analysis we came to know that our students lack fluency in reading, readingstrategies and techniques, reading comprehension, sufficient vocabulary, high motivation andinterest in reading. They just want to pass the exam and get good grades. Their needs includereading strategies, sufficient vocabulary and to enhance their motivational level in reading.Furthermore, the situational analysis helped us in identifying the internal and external strengths,weaknesses, opportunities and threats to our course. On the basis of the needs and situationalanalysis and principles of the course we are going to set the aim(s), goals and objectives for ourreading course.The course aims to focus on the students reading comprehension skills, their reading fluency andincreasing the motivational level and interest of the students in reading. The course will presentmany reading strategies and techniques in order to help the students to be good L2 readers andget fluency in reading. Moreover, the course will present many vocabulary items so that the wordpower of the students is strengthened.The goals and objectives of the course are presented in bulleted form below. 3|Page
  • 4. ESL Curriculum DevelopmentThe Goals of the CourseThe course will help the students to: Learn different reading strategies and techniques and develop reading skills. Be fluent readers in the target language. Increase the comprehension level in reading. Boast their motivation and interest in reading. Improve the word recognition skills. Enjoy reading in the target language. Develop vocabulary. Read extensively. Be independent learners. Enhance oral reading.Objectives of the CourseThe course will prepare students to: Know and use the different reading strategies and techniques. Be strategic readers. Develop their receptive skills (reading). Learn the target language through reading. Excel in their academics and in future studies. Comprehend passages from newspapers and read short stories or other books. Be independent and autonomous learners and readers. Be fluent readers with comprehension skills. Read for a variety of purposes (read extensively in future). Value reading as a means of learning and enjoyment. Acquire a large amount of vocabulary. Paraphrase short passages orally. REFERENCES 4|Page
  • 5. ESL Curriculum DevelopmentBrown, J. D. (1995). The Elements of Language Curriculum: A Systematic Approach to Program Development. New York: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.Chan, Victoria (2001). Determining Students’ Language Needs in a Tertiary Setting. English Teaching Forum, Vol. 39 (3), 16-27.Hutchinson, T., & Waters, A. (1987). English for Specific Purposes: A learning-centered Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Nation, Paul (2000), Designing and Improving a Language Course, English Teaching Forum, Vol. 38, 2-11.Nation, I.S.P. & Macalister, J. ((2010). Language Curriculum Design. New York: Routledge.Nunan, D. (1989). Hidden Agendas: The role of learner in program implementation. In R.K. Johnson (Ed.), The Second Language Curriculum (Pp. 176-186). NY: Cambridge University Press. Step 5: Aims, Goals and Objectives of the Course This course seeks to support college-aged international students in their acquisition ofcommunication skills in English. Students in this course have the need to improve their language skills, critical thinking skills, management of affective factors, communicative skills, and performance skills. This class is specifically designed to address those needs. In this proposal, the goals are the general statements that provide guidelines, focus, and general purposes for teaching. The objectives are statements of more specific purposes; they address observable outcomes, are the basis for activities, and are the building blocks of goals. Based on the needsand situation analyses, the following goals and objectives have been identified as essential to this course.A. Aim: 1. This course aims to help ESL students improve their communication skills in English, 5|Page
  • 6. ESL Curriculum Developmentthrough the use of role-play, script-writing, and improvisation.B. Goals: 1. Language Skills: Students will listen and read for details, and improvecomprehensibility in speaking and writing, for the purpose of communicating to an audience inEnglish. a. Objectives: i. Students will be able to: 1. read drama scripts in English 2. understand main ideas and details in different kinds of dramaticscripts 3. improve listening comprehension of different types of spoken texts –for main ideas, details and speakers’ attitudes and emotions 4. speak on a given topic for an extended period of time in animprovisation 5. speak clearly enough (pronunciation, stress, intonation) to beunderstood by classmates and audience 6. write dramatic scripts for different purposes and audiences 7. formulate, express and defend individual ideas and opinions in animprovisation 8. develop and use language learning strategies for all language skills 2. Critical Thinking Skills: Students will learn how to think critically in order tosuccessfully participate in dramatic impromptu improvisations. a. Students will be able to i. acquire thinking skills to make critical and rational judgments ii. interpret input and understand inferences in a dramatic script orimprovisation 3. Affective Factors: Students will learn how to manage affective factors that can inhibit orenhance their English language proficiency. a. Students will be able to i. cope effectively and efficiently with change, extended speaking tasks, andunplanned, impromptu speaking ii. develop positive attitudes toward constructive ideas and values that aretransmitted and dramatized in oral and/or written forms iii. develop confidence in their ability to speak English spontaneously 4. Performance: Students will learn how to perform in English a. Students will be able to perform in front of an audience in a complex culminatingtask b. Students will be able to manipulate body movements and facial expressions toconvey appropriate emotion and meaning in dramatizations 6|Page
  • 7. ESL Curriculum Development 5. Communicative: Students will develop communicative skills in English a. Students will be able to i. formulate, express and defend individual ideas and opinions when workingon dramatic productions ii. speak and perform on a given topic for an extended period of time iii. participate in pair and group dramatizations on a variety of topics iv. acquire good speaking and listening habits to understand, enjoy, andappreciate dramatic texts v. understand extended input (from reading and listening to dramatic scripts)and respond (in speaking) appropriately vi. communicate (through speech and writing) effectively, in both imaginaryand everyday situations, to meet the demands of society vii. develop the ability to express themselves imaginatively and creatively  More specific than goals. They state how the goals will be achieved in a certain timeframe.  Objectives should be SMART:  S—Specific  M—Measurable  A—Achievable  R—Realistic  T—Time-framedDefine programme goals and objectives of the instructionThe goals should provide a clear definition of the purpose of the programme; they should be aguideline for you, the students and the organization requesting your services.You can establish these goals in terms of extension or diversification of communicative languagecompetences, or in terms of the enrichment of strategies, or in terms of the fulfilment of tasks.They are determined by the information you gathered during the needs analysis.Some examples of goals are: To be able to write effective business reports To build up students confidence and provide them with language resources to participate in business meetings 7|Page
  • 8. ESL Curriculum Development To use the language flexibly and effectively for social and professional purposes.Objectives result from an analysis of the goals into their different components. They arestatements of more specific purposes. Ideally, these objectives should meet SMART criteria: Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Time bound - limited to a certain period of timeThe objectives lay the foundation for the organization of the teaching activities, so they simplifythe course planning, the selection and preparation of material. Following the examples above,goals and objectives can be described:Goal: To be able to write effective business reportsObjectives: To be able to write a report which develops an argument systematically with appropriate highlighting of significant points and relevant supporting detail. To evaluate different ideas or solutions to a problem. To have a sufficient range of language to be able to give clear descriptions, express viewpoints and develop arguments. To have a good range of vocabulary for matters connected to their field and most general topics. To be able to vary formulation to avoid frequent repetition.Goal: To build up students confidence and provide them with language resources to participate in business meetingsObjectives: To be able to interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction, and sustained relationships with English speakers quite possible without imposing strain on either party. To be able to highlight the personal significance of events and experiences, account for and sustain views clearly by providing relevant explanations and arguments. To be able to use phrases and expressions to state and ask for opinion, interrupt and handle interruptions, ask for and give clarification, delay decisions, emphasize a point, summarize what has been said, end the meeting. 8|Page
  • 9. ESL Curriculum DevelopmentIn this case you wont be able to state a measurable objective concerning "building up studentsconfidence". You can perceive it, but not measure it.The Common European Framework provides a common basis for the explicit description ofobjectives.ConclusionDesigning business English programmes is a complex task, but by following certain steps wewill be able to do so. In this part of the article we have discussed the significance ofunderstanding the language needs of our students and how we can find that out. We have alsolooked at how we can define the goals and objectives of the programme. In the second part of thearticle, we will look at syllabus design in more depth.Learning Goals and ObjectivesLearning Goals 1. Ability to read, and think critically, and to write well. 2. Ability to analyze texts. 3. Familiarity with persuasion, argumentation, and rhetoric as they appear in literary as well as non-literary texts 4. Familiarity with literary and critical theories 5. Familiarity with the work of writers, literary styles, genres, forms and periods 6. Familiarity with library and online research.Learning ObjectivesOur objectives represent the teaching aims of the faculty in English. They may be mapped ontocourses, pending an individual instructors approval. All instructors are free to determine whichof these objectives is consistent with their particular course content and pedagogical approach. I. Undergraduate literature II. Undergraduate creative writingIII. Undergraduate publishing studiesIV. Graduate literature V. Graduate creative writing I. Learning Objectives in UG literature 1. Students should demonstrate an ability to write critically and analytically. 2. Students should demonstrate familiarity with issues of literary style. 9|Page
  • 10. ESL Curriculum Development 3. Students should demonstrate familiarity with issues of critical theory. 4. Students should demonstrate familiarity with issues of literary genre and poetic form. 5. Students should demonstrate familiarity with issues of literary history. 6. Students should demonstrate a deep engagement with the work of a single significant author. 7. Students should persuasively employ primary and/or secondary sources, with proper acknowledgment and citation, as they contribute to a critical essay’s thesis. 8. Students should demonstrate familiarity with the history and structure of the English language. 9. Students should demonstrate familiarity with texts in their cultural context. II. Learning Objectives in UG Creative Writing 1. Students work should demonstrate clarity of expression. 2. Students should demonstrate an ability to understand and express ideas through or in dialogue with literary forms. 3. Students should be conversant with the structural concerns related to beginnings, middles, and ends. 4. Students work should demonstrate a sophisticated awareness of syntactical possibilities. 5. Students work should employ elaboration: taking an initial idea and building on it, through examples, metaphors, and other literary tropes. 6. Students work should demonstrate a tone of authority, a voice that invites the reader to listen and attend respectfully. 7. Students work should demonstrate originality–the ability to entertain unconventional speculations or formal innovations. 8. When critiquing their own or each others work, students should be conversant with the fundamental terminology of the craft appropriate to the genre. 9. Students work should demonstrate a grasp of character, motivation, and credible dialogue.III. Learning Objectives in Publishing Studies 1. Students should be able to trace the history of the book and of book publishing from the ancient world to modern publishing. 2. Students should demonstrate the ability to edit, copyedit, and proofread manuscripts. 3. Students should be able to prepare a comprehensive marketing plan for a book idea of their own development, specifying how each element that is appropriate is tailored to their book idea.IV. Learning Objectives in Graduate Literature 1. Students should demonstrate an ability to write cogently and persuasively about literary texts. 2. Students should demonstrate familiarity with one or more literary traditions, periods, or genres. 3. Students should demonstrate an understanding of one or more diverse critical perspectives available in the field of literary studies. 4. In research papers, students will demonstrate the ability to engage with and, ideally, to contribute to relevant current scholarship. 10 |Page
  • 11. ESL Curriculum Development 5. Students should demonstrate deep engagement with and understanding of the work of a single significant author. 6. Students should demonstrate an interpretive engagement with the ideologies in a literary text.V. Learning Objectives in Graduate Creative Writing 1. Students work should demonstrate knowledge of the strategies and forms of poetry, along with their recurrence in literary history. 2. Students work should demonstrate facility with such poetic elements as prosody, diction, persona and an understanding of lineation, stanza pattern, and rhetorical strategy. 3. Students work should reflect a developed sense of character, plot, narrative, theme, and voice. 4. Students work should employ the conventions and possibilities of the personal essay, the memoir, and the philosophical meditation, among other literary forms. 5. Students work should reveal an understanding of credible character and plot structure within the context of the stage. 6. Students work should demonstrate originality–the ability to entertain unconventional speculations or formal innovations. 11 |Page

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