Academic writing course


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Academic writing course

  1. 1. � , I STUDY SKILLS IN ENGLISH R.R. Jordan
  2. 2. Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies throughout the World © R. R. Jordan 1980, 1990, 1999 This edition published by Pearson Education Limited 1999 Sixth impression 2003 ISBN 0582 40019 8 Produced for the publishers by Bluestone Press, Charlbury, Oxfordshire, UK Design: Gregor Arthur; Keith Rigley at W hite Horse Graphics (this edition) Printed in Spain by Graficas Estella All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any format (including photocopy ing or storing it in any medium by electronic means) without prior written permission of the publishers or a licence permitting restricted copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1P 9HE. Warning: the doing of an unauthorised act in relation to a copy right work may result in both civil claims for damages and criminal prosecution. Acknowledgments For the third edition of this book, I am very grateful to a number of people for ideas and suggestions. In particular, members of the British Association of Lecturers in English for Academic Purposes (BALEAP) were most helpful: June O'Brien, John Morley, Ian PopIe, Pauline Robinson, Penny Adams, Jo McDonough, Lou Lessios, Mark O'Reilly, Alan Barr, Moira Calderwood, Esther Daborn, Esther J. Dunbar, Tony Dudley-Evans. From Australia: Mary Cole, Cathy Pegolo, Christine Bundesen. In addition: Chris Keeble, David Preen, Jane Jordan. I am grateful to my editors for their advice and co-operation at all stages: Kate Goldrick at Longman and, especially, Andy Hopkins and Joe Potter of Bluestone Press for their detailed editing. By the same author: English for Academic Purposes: A guide and resource book for teachers­ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997 For BALEAP members
  3. 3. Contents Page Introduction Guide to Using the Book Un its Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 Unit 1 0 Unit 1 1 Unit 1 2 Unit 1 3 Unit 1 4 Unit 1 5 Unit 1 6 Unit 1 7 Unit 1 8 Unit 1 9 Append ices Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4 Appendix 5 Key Structure and Cohesion Description: Process and Procedure Description: Physical Narrative Definitions Exemplification Classification Comparison and Contrast Cause and Effect Generalisation, Qualification and Caution Interpretation of Data Discussion Introductions and Conclusions Academic Style Paraphrasing and Summarising Quotations and Referencing Surveys, Questionnaires and Projects Proofreading Examinations Language Difficulties and Types of Error Connectives Research Reports Correcting Code Optional Questionnaire: Your Writing and this Book Key to Exercises and Notes 4 9 14 21 27 34 39 43 51 58 64 70 76 82 88 93 98 105 1 12 120 126 133 138 140 141 1 42 3
  4. 4. Guide to U s i ng the Book The Aim of the Course 1 To enable non-native speakers of English who wish to follow a course in the medium of English at tertiary level to express themselves coherently in writing. 2 To provide samples of academic writing and appropriate practice material for such students and also for those students who need to write essays or reports in English at an intermediate to advanced level. 3 To act as a revision course for students who have previously learned English as a foreign language at school and who probably learned English with the sentence as the grammatical unit. These students may now need to write in English for academic purposes. 4 To provide some practice in answering examination-type questions for public or internal exams. The Organisation of Units the Course The book is divided into units that are self-contained but are linked in their progression through the overall needs of students who have to write in English for an academic purpose. Many of the units focus on language functions that are used to express a particular notion or idea, e.g. description and definitions. The procedures of academic writing are also practised, e.g. paraphrasing and summarising. The most common genre (type of writing) that is practised is the essay. However, some practice is also provided in writing for exams, and information is given about writing research reports. Written practice is given at different levels within each unit, mostly in three stages. All the units except the first conclude with a Structure and Vocabulary Aid to provide assistance with the words and grammatical constructions needed in that unit. Key The Key at the end of the book provides additional comments on some of the exercises and gives answers to many of the exercises. Appendices The Appendices act as a bank of reference material for both the student and the teacher. Appendix 1 provides an overview of some of the common types of language error and their causes. It also lists some useful books that give further practice in these areas. 4
  5. 5. Product and Process Overall, the course provides practice in writing for a particular purpose: often models or examples are given from academic writing. In addition, the process of achieving the final product is considered. Students are encouraged to discuss and compare some of their writing, and to draft and check their writing carefully through proofreading. The teacher's use of a correcting code ( Appendix 4) will help in this respect. Using the Book It is best if the units are worked through in order. However, this depends on the requirements of the students, who may need to practise the content of certain units before others ( for example, Unit 1 4: Academic Style) . The Structure and Vocabulary Aids should be referred to when necessary. Normally, the answers to each exercise should be checked in the Key before proceeding to the next exercise. Suggestions for General the Teacher 1 In a number of units there are blank-filling exercises to be done after reading a text. These can be used with some flexibility: students who have difficulty can look at the text again or at the same time as they are writing. Other students can do the exercises without referring back to the text. Advanced students can try to do the exercises before looking at the text. In other words, they will be trying to anticipate or predict the language needed from the context of the sentence. 2 Students may need to practise different kinds of academic writing (genres) in preparation for their studies of a particular subject. Units 14 and 1 6 will be particularly useful for this. In addition, it would be helpful if they could see examples of essays, reports, etc. of the type they will need to write in the future. Information about the requirements and expectations of subject departments would be particularly useful. 3 Some groups of students may be studying the same academic subject, e.g. one of the sciences or social sciences. If this is the case, then it would be helpful if you could devise some questions related to their specific subject at the end of Stage 3 for each unit. Similarly, some students may be at undergraduate level while others may be postgraduates. Consequently, practice at the appropriate level would be beneficial. 4 The questionnaires in Unit 17 and Appendix S may be photocopied for students to complete. S As a learning resource for students, any word processing package can help them to edit their own texts. There are also a range of websites which give access to learning and practice material (guidance, models, examples) . 5
  6. 6. Examination Practice Some students may need to practise writing answers for examination questions, either for internal or public exams. For such practice they need to be able to analyse the questions and decide what is needed. In addition, they need to write concisely, fluently and accurately. Unit 19 will be especially useful for this: its Glossary of Examination and Essay Questions will be generally useful for writing essays. Other units that are useful for exam practice are numbers 11-15 . One feature of writing for exams is the need to be able to write quickly - 'against the clock': for example, one essay-type question in one hour. Practice for this can be devised by giving a certain time limit in which to write some of the Stage 3 exercises, particularly those that apply to the students' own subject. If a class is formed of students from the same subject area, it would be useful to obtain copies of past exam papers in their subject. The questions can be analysed with the students, noting the question­ types that appear frequently. A question can be selected, discussed, the structure agreed upon and notes put on the board to help the students. They could then be given a time limit to write the answer. Later in the course, the notes on the board can be removed after discussion so that gradually help is reduced. If the students are of mixed disciplines, they can be asked to provide questions about their own subj ects. After suitable preparatory work they can attempt to write the answers under simulated exam conditions. It is also possible to obtain information about public exams with examples of question papers. For example, The fELTS handbook is available from UCLES, Cambridge. Information about these exams, as well as other aspects of academic writing, is given in English for Academic Purposes (A guide and resource book for teachers ) by R. R. Jordan, Cambridge University Press, 1997. Correcting Code Sometimes when checking students' writing, it is necessary to write in the correct answers. However, some research has shown that if students are actively involved in trying to correct their own mistakes, with guidance, they are more likely to learn from them and not repeat them. One way to help in this respect is to use a code for correcting (see Appendix 4). With this approach, mistakes are not corrected but are indicated - both the type of mistake and its location. Where a student's writing is 'good' or 'very good', it is very helpful to the student if you can indicate which parts are good and briefly explain why they are good. Without such comments, students may not repeat the good features in their next writing. In addition to the Correcting Code, an appropriate Checklist for the type of writing (e.g. essay) can be constructed. If this is also circulated to students it will raise their awareness of what is needed and also remind them of what to check for. It can be used in conj unction with Unit 18. Examples of its content might be: - Relevance of the answer to the question or topic - Structure and organisation of the essay, and completeness of the writing 6 J
  7. 7. Clear expression Coherence of argument Critical evaluation of points of view References to literaturelresearch and use of quotations and bibliography Other details: grammar, spelling, punctuation Discussion and Writing Several discussion activities have been included, and students are encouraged to compare and discuss their answers with other students. The purpose is to raise the level of awareness of students of certain aspects of written English. In addition, the discussion is a useful prelude to writing discussion-type essays in which points of view need to be argued. It helps in the evaluation of differences between arguments. Such discussion also helps to develop critical thinking and self-confidence in expressing one's own views. Pyramid Discussions A Pyramid Discussion is an activity in which students are encouraged to take part in discussion by gradually increasing the size of the discussion group, starting with the individual, then building up to two students, then four, and then the whole group. The procedure is as follows: 1 First, students should individually select three items, as instructed, from the list given in the activity. The order of their choices is not important. 2 Then each student, in turn, should call out the numbers of his/her choices. Write these on the board for all to see. e.g. student: choices: A 12 14 15 B 3 7 10 C 4 7 12 D etc. 1 7 10 3 After this, put the students i n pairs s o that they have, a s far as possible, at least one choice in common (e.g. A and C, B and D above). 4 In pairs the students should then try to persuade each other to make changes in their choices so that at the end of a certain time limit (perhaps five minutes) they both agree on three choices. If necessary, they can compromise on new choices or 'trade-off' choices. The pairs' three choices are then noted on the board agam. 5 Pairs should then be placed together who have at least one choice the same . . . and so the procedure continues until all of the class are involved. 6 If a pair or group finish their discussion before other groups, they can prepare arguments to defend their choices so that they are ready to meet another group. 7 While they are discussing, students will be practising the language of persuasion: agreement, disagreement, suggestion, qualification and compromise. 7
  8. 8. 8 At the end of the activity is a suggestion that students can add some items of their own to the list. This may be done in pairs instead of, or in addition to, individually. Pyramid Discussions are included in the following units: 2, 6, 7, 8, 1 1 , 12, 1 5 , 17 and 1 9. In addition, you could compose your own lists for extra topics, perhaps with the students suggesting items for the list (consisting of about 1 0- 1 5 items) . If more information is needed about Pyramid Discussions, see ELT Journal, Vol. 44 No. 1 , January 1 990, Oxford University Press ('Pyramid Discussions' - R. R. Jordan, pages 46-54). Advice for the Student 8 With academic writing it is particularly important that you should check to ensure that it has the appropriate formal style. Help is given with this in Unit 14. General difficulties are covered in Unit 1 8 and Appendix 1 . Appendix 1 also refers to some books that can help you with further practice in areas of general difficulty. The Pyramid Discussion in Unit 2 Stage 3 contains a list of advice that should help to improve your a<:ademic writing. To that list could be added the need to write at least two drafts before you write the final version. Each draft should be revised after leaving it for a day or more so that you can think about and check any difficulties that you have. If it is possible, you will find it very helpful to see examples of the type of writing that you are aiming to prepare for, for example, essays and reports. If the examples are good ones, they will show you the structure of the writing, the formal style, and the referencing system.
  9. 9. U nit 1 Un it 1 Structure and Cohesion This unit is concerned with the general organisation of a piece of academic writing (e.g. a report, an essay, an assignment, a project), its structure and particularly the Stage 1 Struct u re way in which the different parts are linked together. The plan below of a piece of writing, in this case an essay, will help to explain the overall structure. STRUCTURE 1 CONTENT INTRODUCTION sentences t The subject or topic. A statement of the problem, etc. Comments on the way it is to be treated. paragraphs 2 DEVELOPMENT Presentation, analysis and discussion (involving comments on 'advantages' and 'disadvantages'). 1 main idea (+ examples, details) 2 main idea (+ examples, details) 3 etc. 1..- LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS 3 CONCLUSION Perhaps a summary of the maIn POInts In 2. Own views/opinions and decisions. Most pieces of formal writing are organised in a similar way introduction; development of main ideas or arguments; conclusions. Each part of the writing will consist of language functions: particular uses and structures of the language organised according to the specific purpose that the writer has in mind in wishing to communicate ideas etc. to other people - describing, defining, exemplifying, classifying etc. Each language function consists of sentences and/or paragraphs that are j oined together or linked by connectives (words or phrases that indicate a logical relationship) . These language functions will be examined in detail in the following units. In the rest of this unit we shall look at the linking of sentences by means of connectives. 9
  10. 10. Unit 1 Stage 2 Con n ectives A piece of writing or text will often have the following structure: .--------------------------------------� . . . . i i BASIC CONNECTIVES: type i.����:. .. _ ..... ... . i i Introduction ! A supporting information A opposite arguments t C I mam development tA I B � alternative proposals t Conclusion A The discussion, argument, or comment in the development of the topic may be very straightforward, in which case ideas will be added together one after the other. The basic connective and is used here. (A number of connectives have a similar or related meaning to and.) B Sometimes the comments may be expressed in another way, or an alternative proposal may be made. This is represented by the basic connective or. (A number of other connectives have a similar meaning. ) After the alternative has been considered, the main argument will continue. C There are also occasions in arguments etc. when the opposite is considered or referred to. This is represented by the basic connective but. (There are also a number of other connectives with a similar meaning. ) After the opposite or opposing view has been considered, the main argument is continued. A list of the connectives divided into the main groups of and, is contained in Appendix 2: Connectives. 10 or, but
  11. 11. Unit 1 1 'And' type: Connectives of Result (Typ e A) Look at the fol lowi ng example: He passed his examinations; so, therefore, as a result, accordingly, consequently, thus, hence, he had some good news to tell his parents. Because he passed his examinations, Note: The connectives (in italics) join a cause ('he passed h i s examinations') with a result, effect or consequence ( ' h e h a d some good news t o tel l h i s parents'). Add a second sentence. Use a suitable con n ective from the l ist a bove, and a resu lt, effect or consequence from the l ist below. a Many students find it difficult to read newspapers in English . . . b Most students living abroad are interested in news of their own country . . . c When a student goes abroad to study he/she may have to complete about twelve different forms . . . Result, Effect or Consequence: British news is found to be of most interest. they usually read the international news first in the newspapers. an average of five books per month are read. not many read one regularly. it is useful to be able to answer questions briefly. Complete the fol lowi ng by adding a su itable ending of you r own . d The lecture was very difficult to understand. Consequently, e Carlos was only able to read very slowly in English. Therefore, 2 'Or' type: Connectives of Reformulation (Type B) Look at the fol lowi ng example: He said that he had kept the library book for several years. Note: In other words To put it more simply, It would be better to say he had stolen it. The connectives (in italics) introduce a reformulation of what has come before. The reformulation a ppears in different words and is used to make the idea clearer or to explain or modify it. 11
  12. 12. Unit 1 Add a second sentence. Use a suita ble con nective from the l ist a bove, and an a ppropriate reform ul ation from the l ist below. a Maria is rather slow at learning . . . ___________ b Helen finds languages quite easy . . . c Anna speaks English like a native-speaker . . . Reformulation: she speaks it excellently. she speaks slowly. she is taking a long time to improve her English . she has little difficulty in learning English. she speaks it with great difficulty. Complete the fol l owing by adding a suita ble ending of you r own . d Margaret is bilingual. In other words, e __________ Some people say that if you are good at music you will also be good at learning languages. In other words, _______ 3 'But' type: Connectives of Concession (Type C) Look at the fol l owing exa mple: The time available for discussion was very limited. Note: However, Nevertheless, Nonetheless, Yet, In spite of that, A ll the same, it was still possible to produce some interesting arguments. the connectives (in italics) indicate the surprising nature of what follows in v i ew of what was said before; a kind of contrast is indicated. Add a second sentence. Use a su ita ble connective from the l ist a bove, a n d a concession (or contrast) from the l i st below. a Some of the examination questions were very difficult . . . b There was only limited money available for research . . . c 12 The project was very complicated . . . __________
  13. 13. Unit 1 Concession: Dimitrios was not able to do it. Juan succeeded in completing it in time. Abdul was able to obtain a grant. Oscar did not manage to complete them. Ali managed to answer them satisfactorily. Complete the fol l owing by adding a su itable end i n g of you r own . d It seemed likely that he would fail the test. However, e There were a number of good reasons why he should not finish the experiment. Nevertheless, __________� Stage 3 Paragraphs It is essential to divide your writing into paragraphs. A paragraph normally contains several sentences but they are all concerned with the theme contained in the topic or key sentence (i.e. the main sentence). The key sentence is usually the first one, which contains the main idea or topic. The other sentences support it by adding further information or examples. A paragraph is self­ contained but should link logically with the previous and following paragraphs so that the flow and cohesion of the writing is maintained. 1 Look at the paragraph at the end of Stage 1. Which is the key sentence? 2 The fol l owing sentences a re i n m ixed order. To form a paragra ph they need to be reorgan ised. Underline the key sentence and put the sentences i n the correct order by n u m beri n g them 1-5. a It is mainly formal, impersonal and objective. b In most of these the writer is expected to include references to other writing or research. c Academic writing is a particular kind of writing that can be recognised by its style. d These include essays, research reports and articles, case studies, surveys, dissertations, theses, and examination papers. e Other distinctive features will depend upon the specific types of academic writing. Note: Paragraphs a re either indented from the l eft marg i n (Le. they start further in from the left) or a line of space is left at the end of a paragraph and the next paragraph is started on the left margin. This makes it easier for the reader to read a text. 13
  14. 14. Unit 2 U n it 2 Description: Process and Procedure When we describe a process or procedure, we often use present passive verb forms (is/are + verb stem + ed e.g. it is manufactured) to give a general description. When we report a particular procedure, we are concerned with only one particular occasion in the past; then we often use the past passive tense (was/were + verb stem + ed e.g. it was heated). Stage 1 G e n e ra l Descri pt i o n A description that does not involve a process or procedure is often written in the present simple active tense (verb stem + s e.g. it comprises). Sequence, or order, is important in both describing a process or reporting a procedure. 1 Read t h e fol l owing ca refu l ly. Note particu l a rly t h e verb forms that are used : some of the present passive verb forms a re in italics. How paper is made Paper is made from wood, and many of the worl d's paper m i l l s are found in those cou ntries wh i ch have great forests - Canada, Sweden and F i n l and. The trees are felled or cut down. The branches and leaves are removed. The trees are transported to the sawm i l l . The bark i s stripped from the trun ks. The tru n ks are sawn i nto logs. They are conveyed to the paper m i l l. They are p laced i n the sh redder. They are cut i nto sma l l ch i ps. They are m i xed with water and ac i d . They are heated and crushed t o a heavy pu l p. Th i s wood pu l p is c l eaned. It i s a l so chem i cal ly bleached to w h i ten it. It is passed t h rough ro l lers to fl atten it. Sheets of wet paper are prod uced. The water is removed from the sheets. These sheets are pressed, dried and refi ned u nti l the fi n i shed paper is produced. I I, i, 2 Read ca refu l ly through the text again and underl ine other present passive verb forms. N,Qte: 1 Wtien describing a process, sequence markers, e,9. first, then, next, firrally ... are often used (see ApPlindix 2: Connectives, Section 1 ). .They Help to lihkthe sentences. 2 Sometimes, in order to avoid repllatill9 a subject, a relative pronoun and relative diluse are used. e.g. The bark is stripped from the truhks. The trunks are sawn into logs becomes The bark is stripped from the trunks, whiCh are sawn into logs. 14
  15. 15. U nit 2 3 Some of the sentences from the text have been joi ned together below to form a paragraph. Spaces have been l eft i n the sentences. In the spaces write a n appropriate verb (and sometimes preposition), and, if su itable, a relative pronoun. i n the shredder. Then they i nto sma l l c h i ps water and acid. N ext they to a heavy p u l p It a l so chem i ca l ly to wh iten it. t h rough ro l lers to fl atten it. Then, After th i s, it . F i na l l y, the water sheets of wet paper from the sheets u nti l the fi n i shed paper F i rst, the l ogs ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ 4 Look at the seq uence of pictu res below. U nderneath there a re a n u m ber of sentences describing how a brea kfast cereal is made. The sentences a re i n the wrong order. Write them out i n the correct order using the sequence of pictu res to help you. How a breakfast cereal is made a It is stored i n the s i l os. b These are woven i nto b i sc u i ts. c The wheat i s harvested from the fie l d . d Each biscuit i s ba ked u nti l brow n . e It i s cut and formed i nto th i n strips. f The gra i n is cooked to soften it. g It i s packed ready to be eaten. h The wheat gra i n is transported to the s i los. 5 Look ca refu l ly at the diagra m on page 1 6 of the stages of man ufacture of glass bottles. Six boxes have been n u m bered and left empty. Now read ca refu lly the sentences next to the diagra m . They a re in t h e wrong order and a re not complete. - Complete the sentences by putting the verb (given at the end of each sentence) in the appropriate passive form. - Write the sentences i n the correct order. - Join them together by means of seq uence ma rkers (e.g. then, next). - F i n a l ly, from the i nformation in the sentences, write the correct names in the six boxes in the diagram. 15
  16. 16. rr Unit 2 How glass bottles are made a b c d e f g h Stage 2 S pecific Proced u re It i nto bottles in the mou l d . (sh ape) Someti mes broken gl ass . (add) to strengthen the gl ass. (reheat The bottl es and coo l ) from sand, l i mestone, and soda ash. G l ass (make) They are ready . (use) . (produce) G l ass strongly in a furnace. (heat) Th i s m i xt u re These th ree mater i a l s together i n the right proportions. (mix) ______ ______ 1 Look at the fol lowi ng ta ble ca reful ly. Writing in English: Manchester University (50 students) % students 52 34 14 12 type of writing ( average ) frequency ( average) length essay report disserta tion thesis 5 per term 2 per term 1 per year 1 after 2-3 years 2000 words 4000 words 8000 words 300-1000 pages The information in the table can be described (as an alternative to using the table) . Notice the construction of the following sentence: 52 % of the students wrote essays, of an average frequency of 5 per term, of an average length of 2000 words. Now read the fol l owing paragraph, which descri bes some of the i nformation conta ined in the table. Complete the spaces with i nformation from the ta ble. A survey was conducted among overseas . The p urpose of the postgradu ate students at and su rvey was to d i scover the type, of academ i c writi ng that was expected of the of the students by their su pervisors or tutors. students reports, of an 2 per average length term, ______ ______ 16
  17. 17. Unit 2 2 Below the steps or stages in conducti ng a su rvey a re given . In the spaces in each sentence write an a ppropriate verb from the fol lowi ng l ist. Use past passive forms of the verbs, e.g. was/were asked. Verbs: request, collect, carry out, publish, analyse, distribute a A survey among 50 students. to the students. b First, questionnaires to write answers to the c Then the students questions. d After this, the completed questionnaires e Next, the answers f Finally, the results ______ _ _____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Note: Stage 3 Advice See Unit 17 for conducting an actual survey. 1 Read ca refu l ly the fol l owing descri ption of the procedure for writi ng an essay. It g ives advice in the form of what you should do. (Most of the verbs are mod a l passive forms, e.g. should + passive infin itive.) When you have fin ished rea d i ng do the exercise in 2. The Stages of Writing an Essay 5 10 15 20 25 First, the top i c, subj ect or question shou l d be thought about carefu l l y: what i s req u i red in the essay shou l d be understood. Th�n a note shou l d be made of i deas, perhaps from knowledge or experience. After th i s, any books, jou rnals, etc . shou l d be noted that h ave been recom mended, perhaps from a read i ng l ist or a b i b l i ograp hy. Then to the l i st shou l d be added any other books, articles, etc. that are d i scovered wh i l e the recom mended books are bei n g fou n d . N ow i s t h e time for t h e books, chapters, art i c l es, etc. t o be read, with a pu rpose, by appropriate q u estions bei ng asked that are rel ated to the essay top i c or title. C l ear notes shou l d b e written from t h e readi ng. I n add ition, a record o f the sources shou ld be kept so that a b i b l i ography or l i st of references can be com p i l ed at the end of the essay. Any quotations shou l d be accu ratel y acknow l edged : author's surname and i n itials, yea r of p u b l i cation, edition, publ isher, p l ace of publ i cation, and page n u m bers of quotations. When the notes have been fi n ished �hey should be l ooked through in order for an overview of the subject to be obta i ned. Then the content of the essay sho u l d be deci ded on and how it i s to be orga n i sed or p l a n ned. The mater i a l shou l d be carefu l ly selected: there m ay be too m uch and some may not be very relevant to the q uestion. The mater i a l , or i deas, shou ld be d ivi ded i nto three m a i n sections for the essay: the i ntrod uction, the main body, and the conc l u si o n . An outl i n e of the essay shou l d be written, with use bei ng made of head i ngs or sub­ head i ngs, if they are appropriate. The first draft shou l d be written in a su itably formal or acade m i c sty le. Wh i le doing t h i s, the u se of co l l oq u i a l 17
  18. 18. U nit 2 3 0 express ions and person a l references shou l d b e avo i ded . When 35 it has been completed, the draft shou l d be read critica l ly, and i n particu l a r, the organ i sation, cohesi on, and l a nguage shou ld be checked . Severa l q uestions shou l d be asked about it, for example: Is it clear? Is it concise? Is it comprehens ive? Then the d raft shou l d be revi sed and the fi n a l draft written - legi bly! It shou l d be remembered that fi rst i m press ions are i m porta nt. F i na l l y, the b i b l i ography shou ld be compi led, u s i n g the conventional format: the references shou l d be in stri ct a l p h abetical order. Then the b i b l i ograp hy shou l d be added to the end of the essay. 2 A l l the sentences conta i n ing advice (should) a re l isted below. Spaces have been left for the verbs. In each space write the a ppropriate verb, but write it as a d i rect instruction (putti ng the verb in its i m perative form) e.g. should be finished � finish. The Stages of Writing an Essay a ______ b c ______ d e g h k m 18 _________ carefu l l y about the top i c, subj ect or question. what i s req u i red i n the essay. a note of you r i deas, perhaps from you r know l edge or experience. any books, journals, etc. that have been recommended, perhaps from a rea d i n g l i st or a b i b l i ography. to yo u r l ist any other books, arti c les, etc . that you d i scover wh i l e fi n d i ng the recommended books. the books, chapters, art i c l es, etc . with a purpose, by asking yo u rself appropri ate q uestions that are rel ated to the essay topi c or title. c lear notes from you r read i ng. a record of your sou rces so that you can compi le your own b i b l i ography or l i st of references at the end of you r essay. accu rately any quotati ons: author's su rname and i n it i a l s, year of p u b l i cation, edition, p u b l i s her, p l ace of p u b l i cation, and page n u m bers of quotations. through you r notes when yo u have fi n i shed in order to obta i n an overvi ew of the subject. on the content of yo u r essay and how you want to orga n i se it, i n oth er words, p l a n i t. you r material ca refully: you m ay have too m u c h and some may not be very rel evant to the q uestion. you r material, or i deas, i nto th ree m a i n sections for t h e essay: t h e i ntrod uction, the main body, and the concl u s i o n .
  19. 19. U n it 2 Summary of the Stages of Writi ng an Essay Topic think Reading list - n o p q s u v w _______________ x y an outl i ne of the essay, making use of headi ngs or sub-headi ngs, if they are appropri ate. the fi rst d raft, in a su itably formal or academ i c style. the use of col l oq u i a l express ions or personal references. the draft critica l ly, in parti c u l a r checki ng the orga n i sation, cohesion and language. you rself severa l q uestions about it, for example: Is it c l ear? Is it concise? Is it comprehensive? the draft. the fi nal d raft. sure it is legi b l e! fi rst i mpressions are i mportant. you r b i b l i ography, using the conventional format. that you r references are in stri ct alphabetical order. the b i b l i ography to the end of you r essay. 3 Read through 'The Stages of Writing an Essay' a g a i n . Decide what you consider to be the most i mportant stages or advice. In very brief note form su mma rise the stages by f i l l i n g in the boxes in the diagram. The fi rst one has been done for you (you may change it if you do not agree with it). Either: Or: Pyramid Discussion Wri t i n g an Essay o r Report Before beg i n n i ng, d iscuss with the student next to you what you both consider to be the most important stages. Do you agree with each other? After you have fin ished, compare you r summary diagram with the student next to you and discuss any differences. Ind ividu a l ly select the three most im porta nt pieces of advice, from the l ist below, that you th i n k will help to improve a student's academic writi ng. The order of the three choices is not important. 1 Write precisely: clearly, accurately and explicitly. 2 Use correct language: grammar, vocabulary, spelling etc. 3 Organise the writing carefully: introduction, main body, and conclusion. 4 Write legibly: handwriting should be easy to read. S Write in an academic style: impersonally, without using colloquial language. 6 Write concisely, and avoid very long sentences. 7 Adopt appropriate attitudes: be rational, critical, honest and objective. 8 Carefully paragraph the writing. 9 Include variety in the writing: avoid too much repetition. 10 Check details carefully, both of content and of language. 1 1 Ensure that the opening paragraph is not too long and that it creates a good impression. 19
  20. 20. Unit 2 1 2 Pay as much attention to the conclusion as to the introduction. 13 Avoid the use of cliches, j argon, propaganda, exaggeration, and emotive language. 14 Ensure that ideas and items are arranged in a logical sequence and are logically connected. 15 Always acknowledge the source of quotations and paraphrases. Fina l ly add some advice of your own that is not covered in the l ist above. Note: Structure and Vocabulary Aid A Information about organisihg a Pyramid Diswssion in the Classroom is given ill the Guide to Using the Book. Commonly used verb tenses, with examples Present Simple (Active) Present Simple (Passive) it carries/they carry it is carried/they are carried Past Simple (Active) Past Simple ( Passive) it carried/they carried it was carried/they were carried Modal Passive B Imperative/instruction it should be given/they should be given give Relative pronouns and relative clauses 1 2 3 4 Who/that refers to persons. Which/that refer to things. Whose refers to the possessive of persons. Whom refers to persons and is often used with a preposition. Examples: 1 My supervisor, who seems very young, has j ust been promoted to head of department. 2 The article which ( or that) I have just finished reading is very clearly written. 3 The research that ( or which) I finished last year has j ust been published. 4 The lecturer whose name I always forget was as boring as usual this morning. " S The student with whom I share a room is very noisy [formal]. The student I share a room with is very noisy [informal]. 20
  21. 21. Unit 3 U n it 3 Description: Physical In academic writing, physical description may occur in a number of disciplines or subjects. A description of people, family relationships, occupations and institutions might occur in social or physical anthropology or sociology. A description of apparatus and equipment might occur in the various sciences. For nearly all these descriptions present simple active verb forms (e.g. she wears/they wear) and present simple passive verb forms (e.g. it is described/ they are described) are commonly used. The following stages concentrate on describing countries. Stage 1 N I The U nited Kin g d o m ..... ": . ... : . . 1 Read the fol l owing paragraph ca refu l ly. Write the names of the places next to the n u m bers i n the map. The United Kingdom 5 10 B rita i n (or G reat B ri ta i n) i s an i s l a n d that l ies off the north­ west coast of E u rope. The nearest cou ntry i s France, w h i c h is 20 m i l es away and from which B rita i n is separated by the Engl ish Channe l . The i s l and i s su rrou nded by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the N o rth Sea to the east. It compri ses the m a i n lands of England, Wa l es and Scotland, that is, th ree countries. Scotl and is i n the north, wh i l e Wa l es is in the west. I reland, which i s a l so an i s l a nd, l ies off the west coast of B rita i n. It consi sts of Northern I reland and the I r i s h Rep u b l i c. Brita i n together w i t h N o rthern I reland constitute the U n ited Ki ngdom ( U K) . Th u s, the U n ited Ki ngdom i s 21
  22. 22. Unit 3 composed of four countries, the l argest of which is England. The capital c ity i s London, which i s situated i n south-east England. 2 Now read the second part of the text. When you have fin ished, complete the summary below of the whole text by using appropriate verb forms. Someti mes a preposition is needed as wel l . 15 The U K h a s a tota l area o f about 2 44, 1 00 sq u a re k i l ometres 20 25 30 35 (94,248 sq uare m i les). About 70% of the land area is devoted to agricu lture, about 7% is wasteland, moorland and mou nta i ns, about 1 3 % i s devoted to u rban development, and 1 0% i s forest and wood land. The northern and western regions of B rita i n, that is Scotland and Wa l es, are m a i n l y mounta i nous and h i l ly. Parts o f t h e north-west a n d centre of England also consist of mounta i ns and h i l l s. B rita i n has a genera l ly m i l d and temperate c l i mate. It is, however, subject to frequent cha nges. It has an average a n n u a l ra i nfa l l of about 1 2 0 centimetres (47 i nches) . I n 1 998 the pop u l ation of the U n ited Ki ngdom was nearly 5 9 m i l l ion. The density of popu lation was approxi mately 240 peopl e per square k i l ometre. However, in England, where 83% of the pop u l ation l ive, the density was much h i gher, about 3 63 per square k i lometre. In the U K, E n g l i s h i s the fi rst l anguage of the vast majority of people. However, i n western Wa l es, Wel s h is the fi rst l anguage for many of the people. In Scotland o n l y a sma l l n u m ber o f peopl e speak Gael i c . I n Brita i n about 66% o f the popu lation say that they are Ch ristian, wh i l e fewer than 5 % say that they belong to other rel igions. Summary the Atlantic Brita i n is an i s l and that ( 1 ) Ocean and the N o rth Sea. It (2) the ma i n l a nds of Engl and, Wa les and Scotland. I reland (3) the west coast of B r i ta i n . It (4) Northern I reland and the I rish Repu b l i c . T h e U n i ted Ki ngdom ( 5 ) B rita i n together with Northern I re l a n d . The capital city i s London w h i c h (6) south-east England. I n 1 998 the popu lation of the U K (7) _ nearly 59 m i l l i o n . The density of popu l ation (8) 240 people per square ki lometre. In the fi rst language of the UK Engl ish (9) most people. I n western Wa les, Wel s h ( 1 0) many of the people, but few people i n Scotland (1 1 ) Gael ic. ______ ______ ________ 22
  23. 23. U n it 3 1 Look ca refu l ly at the map of Austra l i a and at the table of Stage 2 i nformation. Then write a description of Austra l i a organ ised i n a similar way to the description of the U K . Check the Structure and Voca bulary Aid if necessa ry. Write four short paragraphs on: location size and physica l backg round c l i mate population, language, and rel igion Oth e r Countries Australia To Indonesia Coral Sea Indian Ocean ..... .. ........ . . . .. . •••••••••• . South Pacific Ocean a 500 miles a 800 Tasman Sea Southern Ocean km. I ro of !..Pic...Capri - . ... . �?�� I Capital: � L-______________________ Total area: � To New Zealand Canberra, in the Australian Capital Territory 7,682,300 sq. km. Land: consists largely of plains and plateaux 7% arable 14% forest 54% grassland 25% other land: desert, mountains, wasteland Climate: ranges from alpine to tropical Annual rainfall: two-thirds of the continent is arid or semi-arid (having little or no rain) - over 80 cm. rain in the north and eastern and southern highlands Population ( 1996 ): 18,423,000 Density: 2 per sq. km. States and Territories: % of population: New South Wales 34% South Australia Victoria Tasmania 25 % Queensland 18% Australian Capital Territory Western Australia 10% Northern Territory Language: English Religion: 8% 2.5% 1.5% 1% (+ some others) mainly Christian 2 Now write a brief account of you r cou ntry, divided i nto fou r paragraphs as a bove. If you do not know t h e exact figu res, guess o r write in genera l terms. 3 Descri be you r home town so that the reader, who does not know it, can get a clear pictu re of it. 23
  24. 24. U nit 3 Structure and A Vocabulary: Countries Vocabulary Aid prefectures boroughs districts plateaux moorland territories forests hills provinces ADMINISTRATIVE AREAS j ungles valleys zones Nouns plains states counties deserts regions mountains grasslands TERRAIN ram sleet flat ICe monsoon grassy snow drought hilly flood Nouns Adjectives rocky mist/fog typhoon hurricane cyclone mountainous clouds sandy dusty wind WEATHER CONDITIONS hot oceanic icy humid freezing warm Adjectives CLIMATE rainy wet cloudy Note: 24 Mediterranean desert mistylfoggy 2 temperate tropical stormy sunny windy continental equatorial cold mild dry maritime polar Compare: arid X has a m i ld climate. X has mild weather. Can you thi n k of a ny more words to add to the a bove l ists? Th i n k pa rticu la rly o f you r own cou ntry. Are there any more categories or grou ps of words that you wou l d find usefu l ? If so, try to make lists s i m i l a r to the a bove.
  25. 25. U nit 3 B Compass points (and adjectives) North (northern) North-West (north-western) North-East (north-eastern) West (western) East (eastern) South-East (south-eastern) South-West (south-western) South (southern) C Location . D ·n .. . X is situated/located y N r to ... on .. X is in the south of the country. Y is to the north of the country. The north of the country is cold. on/near the equator. on/near the coast/sea. inland. Z is a neighbouring (or adjacent) country. e.g. Notel lies (to lie) Is used fdr islands, For mainlafld qained to a eonlinentl we wO!Jld use is situated in refertif!} to location. . ) . D Verbs to describe the composition of a country X comprise(s) . . consist(s) of . . . constitute(s) . . is composed of . . . (notice the use and differences) E Approximation 8 � == ---': = = = = =apprOX imateI Y � ) (+ figure, measurement, etc.) 25
  26. 26. Unit 3 F Qualification G The with names of countries, rivers and seas 1 The is not used with names of continents (e.g. Europe, not the Europe), though it is used with some other geographical areas (e.g. the Middle East, the Far East). 2 The + Republic of . . . (e.g. the Republic of France) . 3 The + country names in the plural (e.g. the United States o f America, the UK, the West Indies, the United Nations). 4 Other country names are not used with the (e.g. Denmark) . 5 The + names o f oceans, seas, rivers (e.g. the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean, the Tigris) but not with names of lakes (e.g. Lake Baikal). 6 The + names of mountain ranges (e.g. the Alps, the Himalayas) . Some individual mountains are named with the e.g. the Eiger, the Matterhorn. In other cases, the is not used e.g. Mont Blanc, Everest. 26
  27. 27. U n it 4 U n it 4 Narrative The introduction to many pieces of academic writing contains some kind of historical background or development. This is usually in the form of narrative: an account or description of events in the past which entails following a time sequence or Stage 1 D i ct i o n a r i es chronological order (i.e. earliest first) . Verb forms commonly used are the simple past active (e.g. it organised), simple past passive (e.g. it was created), and past perfect active (e.g. it had developed). 1 Read the fol lowing ca refu l ly. Notice the structu re, time sequence, dates, verb forms and prepositions used . A History of English Dictionaries 10 15 20 25 30 Samuel Johnson The beginnings of English dictionaries date from 1 604 when the first 'hard-word dictionary' was pub lished . It contained fewer than 3 000 difficu l t words, which were exp l ained by easier ones. An important principle was introduced: that of listing words in a l p habetica l order ( A-Z). The first major dictionary was the Universal Etymological English Dictionary by N athaniel Bailey, which was p u blished in 1 72 1 . ( Etymology is the study of the origi n and history of words and their meanings . ) This one vol u me conta i ned about 40,000 words. One of the great landmarks in the history of dictionaries was the publication in 1 75 5 of A Dictionary of the English Language by Sam uel Joh nson. He built on the work of Bailey and i l l ustrated the use of words by inc l u ding about 1 00,000 quotations from wel l -known a uthors from the 1 6th centu ry onwa rds. Perhaps his most famous definition is that of 'oats': 'A grain, which in England is genera l ly given to horses, but in Scotland su pports the people.' I n America, in 1 828, Noah Webster pub lished An American Dictionary of the English Language. Its two vol u mes consisted of about 70, 000 words and inc l u ded scientific terms. Webster incl u ded American pronunciation and spel ling, for example 'co lor' for 'co l o u r' and 'center' for 'centre'. Probably t h e most importa nt devel opment in t h e history of dictionaries was the production of The Oxford English Dictionary. Dr James Mu rray started to edit the enormous work in 1 879, and the first part was p u blished in 1 884: A - ANT, in 3 5 2 pages! It took another 44 years to com p l ete the dictionary, i n 1 25 parts. The final work was p u blished in 1 928 in 12 vo l u mes covering 1 5 ,487 pages which inc l u ded nearly 5 00,000 words. 2 Now make very brief notes of the most i mporta nt items of i nformation in the passage. 27
  28. 28. :r: Unit 4 Stage 2 The U n ited Nations 1 Read through the passage below, then write an a ppropriate word i n each o f t h e spaces. The United Nations (UN) The traced back of the U N can the League of N ations. This which an international the Treaty of created Versail les 1 920 with the pu rpose achieving world peace. Before 1 93 0, the League, from its Geneva headq uarters, international conferences and did u sefu l h u ma nita rian work. , it fai led deal effectivel y internation a l aggression forma l l y c l osed the 1 93 0s. The League superseded 1 946 and the U nited N ations. on 24th October 1 945, when The UN was ratified the UN Charter the 5 1 fou nder member cou ntries. A l most are now members: 1 85 the cou ntries of the in a l l . to maintain international The U N was peace, and to encou rage international co-operation to overcome economic, socia l , c u l tu ral and h u m a nitarian problems. Apart organs of the U N the (The General Assem bly, The Secu rity Cou ncil etc . ) , o f t h e U N 's work i s done agencies. its specia lised bodies are, perhaps, of the best the FAO, I LO, I M F, WHO, U N ESCO and U N I C E F. D iscuss possible a lternative answers. When the text is complete, conti nue with the fol l owing exercise. 2 Now make very brief notes of the most i m portant items of i nformation in the passage. Stage 3 U n ivers ities 1 Below is a passage traci ng the development of un iversities. Read it through. When you have finished reading it do exercise 2 which fol l ows the passage. The Development of Universities 5 I l, 28 The word ' u niversity' comes from the Latin word ' u niversitas' meaning 'the whole' . Later, in Latin legal l anguage ' u niversitas' meant 'a society, guild or corporation' . Th u s, in mediaeva l academic use the word meant an association of teachers and scho l a rs. The modern definition of a u niversity is 'an i nstitution that teaches and examines students in many branches of adva nced learning, awarding degrees and providing faci lities for academic research' .
  29. 29. Unit 4 The origins of u niversities can be traced back to the Midd l e Ages, especial ly t h e twelfth t o fou rteenth centu ries. I n the early twelfth century. long before u niversities were organised in the modern sense, students gathered together for higher studies at certain centres of l earn ing. The earliest centres in Eu rope were at Bologna in Ita l y, for l aw, fou nded in 1 088; 1 5 Salerno in Italy, for medic i n e; and Paris, France, for philosophy and theo l ogy, fou nded in 1 1 5 0. Other early ones in E u rope were at P rague, Czechosl ovakia, fou nded in 1 3 48; Vien na, Austria, fou nded in 1 3 6 5 ; and Heidel berg, Germany, founded in 1 3 86. 20 The first u niversities in England were established at Oxford in 1 1 85 and at Cambridge in 1 209. The first Scottish u niversity was fou nded at St Andrews in 1 4 1 2. By com parison, the ol dest u niversities i n the U SA are at Harvard, fou n ded in 1 63 6 , and Ya le, established in 1 70 1 . 25 I n the fifteenth and sixteenth centu ries, th ree more universities were fou nded in Scotla nd: at G l asgow in 1 4 1 5 , Aberdeen in 1 494, and Edinbu rgh in 1 5 82. The next English university to be fou n ded was not u ntil the nineteenth centu ry - Londo n , in 1 83 6 . This was fo l l owed, l ater in the nineteenth 3 0 and early twentieth centuries, by the fou ndation of severa l civic u niversities. These had developed from provincia l col leges which were mai n l y situated in industrial areas. Manchester, for examp l e, received its charter i n 1 880, and Birmingham in 1 900. In addition, the federa l U niversity of 3 5 Wa les was established in 1 893 comprising th ree co l leges. Severa l other civic universities were fou nded in the 1 940s and 1 9 5 0s, such as Nottingham in 1 948, Southampton in 1 9 54 and Exeter in 1 95 7 . However, it was in the 1 9 60s that the largest single expansion of higher education took p l ace in 40 B ritain . This expansion took th ree basic forms: existing universities were enlarged; new u niversities were developed from existing col l eges; and seven comp l etel y new u niversities were fou n ded, most ly away from town centres and in the cou ntryside, e.g. Warwick, 1 9 65. The Open U niversity was 45 fou n ded in 1 9 69: it is non-residential and uses correspondence cou rses combined with TV and radio broadcasts. A big devel opment in recent years was an Ed ucation Act in 1 992 that a l l owed former polytech nics to become u n iversities. 5 0 Before the Act there were 47 u niversities in the U K; after the Act there were 86 u niversities. A l l B ritish u n iversities receive some government fu nding, except B uckingham, which is B ritain's o n l y i ndependent u niversity, fou nded i n 1 983 . This ru ns two-year cou rses 5 5 i nstead of the usual th ree years. 10 .. t ., To p : Bologna Un iversity Centre: Vienna U niversity Bottom: Christ Church College. Oxford 29
  30. 30. U n it 4 2 Below is a summary of the passage in sentences which are given i n the wrong order. P u t t h e sentences i n t h e correct order. a The quarter of a century from 1 940 to 1 965 was the period when there was a big increase in the number of universities in Britain. b The Open University was founded in 1 969. c The oldest American university was founded in the seventeenth century. d One of the original meanings of 'university' was an association of teachers and students. e There is one private university in Britain: it was established in 1 98 3 . f After three more Scottish universities were established in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the next maj or developments were not until the foundation of a number of civic universities in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. g Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest English universities. h Former polytechnics became universities in and after 1 992. The first Scottish university was established in the early fifteenth century. There were gatherings of students at centres of learning in Europe between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries. 3 Now make brief notes of the information relating to the development of Engl ish u n iversities only. Put the heading 'Un iversities i n England' a bove you r notes. 4 Write a brief description in na rrative form of the development of u n iversities in you r country. It does not matter if you do not know precise dates or detai ls: a rough idea or an a pproxi mation wi l l be sufficient. Refer to the Structure a n d Voca bulary Aid. S If you a pply for a job or to study at a u n iversity etc., you norm a l ly f i l l in an appl ication form or send a cu rricu l u m vitae (CV). This is a brief account of you r backg round and career. Norma lly it incl udes you r full name, date of birth, and then, u nder the hea d i ng of 'education', a summary of the secondary schools, co l leges or u n iversities that you have attended, together with deta i l s of exa m i nations passed and certificates and/or degrees awa rded. It is usua lly fol l owed by a n accou nt of you r employment or career. The i nformation is norma lly g iven in chronolog ica l order. Write part of you r own CV. Only include i nformation under the heading of 'education' (places of study and awa rds). 6 Write a l etter to a un iversity or a col lege applying to study there in the next academic yea r. 30
  31. 31. Unit 4 Structure and A Commonly used verb tenses, with examples Vocabulary Aid Present Simple (Active) Past Simple (Passive) it created it was established Past Perfect (Active) it had developed B Useful verbs/nouns nouns verbs establishment creation foundation to establ ish to create to found C Useful vocabulary for describing post-school education institutes of higher education (polytechnics until 1 992 in UK) universities -----I INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER AND FURTHER EDUCATION Scottish central insti tutions further education adult education tertiary other s pecialist colleges COLLEGES technology art and design agricultural horticultural 31
  32. 32. U n it 4 D Useful vocabulary for describing universities Council Senate Chancellor UNIVERSITY GOVERNMENT AND ORGANISATION Court Boards Committees and Sub-Committees Convocation Departments Vice-Chancellor Others Deans of Faculties and Schools Schools Faculties --- Bursar/Director of Finance ,.,/-" . . . . . .. . . . ... . . . • .. . . . . . .. . . ,,/" -"" " " / Centres and Units / .... / Registrar Librarian vacations/holidays loan ACADEMIC YEAR Autumn! Michaelmas terms award grant Summer/ Trinity sponsorship Spring/Lent! Hilary scholarship fee bursary visiting principal professor director dean reader technician senior lecturer lecturer demonstrator supervisor research assistant counsellor 32 i I ' 1- STUDENTS tutor full-time part-time
  33. 33. Unit 4 lectures tutorials TEACHING first-degree (B.A., B.Sc. ) higher degree (M.A., M.Sc., Ph. D . ) practicals certificate QUALIFICATIONS seminars/discussion groups diploma experiments projects essays tests case study library continuous viva voce (oral) examinations laboratory interviews ASSESSMENT thesis computers questionnaires interview disserta tion observation surveys Common room essay Students' Union report exam answers Refectory Postgraduate Society project Library Health and Welfare societies and clubs paper sports flats thesis digs article hostels dissertation colleges lodgings halls of residence bed-sitter b & b Can you th i n k of any more words to add to the a bove l i sts? 2 Look at the Academic Writing diagra m . Make a l ist of words for Academic Rea d i ng in the same way. 33
  34. 34. Unit 5 U n it 5 Definitions The previous units were concerned with describing things. When we describe things we sometimes need to define them as well, especially in academic writing, so that it is Stage 1 perfectly clear what we mean. We may also need to give examples of what we define, and to classify. These will be covered in the following units. 1 If w e look i n a dictionary for the word 'school' w e may find: S i m p l e Defi n it i o n s school an institution where chi l d ren a re ed ucated More formally in writing we would put: A school is an institution where chi l d ren are educated . Look at these other exa mples: A doctor is a person who gives medica l treatment to people. A l u miniu m is a metal which is produ ced from bauxite. Note: Who is used for persons, which is used for inani mate objects and anima ls, where is used for places. Complete the fol lowi ng sentences in the sa m e way as the exa mples a bove. a A college students receive higher or professional education. treats people's teeth. b A dentist c Steel is produced from iron and carbon. (We can also say that steel is an alloy. ) lives in Africa and Asia. d An elephant e A professor works in a university. f A library books are kept for borrowing or referring to. 2 Join the sentences on the left below with the correct ones from those on the right. Use a n appropriate relative pronoun to create a relative cla use. e.g. Bronze is an alloy. It is produced from copper and tin. Bronze is an alloy which is produced from copper and tin. 34
  35. 35. Unit 5 1 An engineer is a person 2 A microscope is an instrument 3 A generator is a machine 4 A botanist is a person 5 A square is a geometric figure 6 A cucumber is a vegeta ble 7 An economist is a person 8 An encyclopaedia is a book a It produces electricity. b He studies the way in which industry and trade produce and use wealth. c He treats the diseases of animals. d It makes distant obj ects a ppear nearer and larger. e He designs machines, buildings or public works. It gives information on subj ects in alphabetical order. g He studies plants. h It makes very small near objects appear targer. i It is long and round with a dark green skin and light green watery flesh. It has four equal sides and four right angles. 3 So far, i n the definitions we have looked at, the l a ng uage construction has bee n : Thing t o be defined + verb + general class word + wh -word + particular characteristics, e.g. A botanist is a person who studies plants. Three types of mistakes may occur when a short definition is being written: 1 An example may be given rather than a definition. An example may, of course, follow a definition but it should not take its place. 2 The general class, or the particular characteristics, may be omitted from the definition. It will then be incomplete. 3 The word to be defined, or another form of it, may be used in the definition itself. Clearly, if the reader does not already understand the word, he/she will not understand the repeated use of it. Study the fol l owing defi n itions. Each one conta ins one of the mistakes l i sted a bove. Ana lyse the type of m ista ke ( 1 , 2 , 3 a bove) that has been made. Write the n u mber of the type of m istake in the col umn provided. The fi rst one has been done as an exa mple. 35
  36. 36. Unit 5 DEFINITION An ammeter is used to measure electric current. Type of mistake 2 lecturer is a person who lectures. a A b A dictionary is a book like the Longman D ictionary of Contemporary English. c degree is given by a university to a student who has passed the appropriate examinations. A 4 Now re-write the defi n itions a bove i n a more satisfactory way. An exa mple has been done for you . An ammeter is an instrument which is used to measure electric current. Stage 2 Aca d e mic Defi n itions 1 Look at the fol lowi ng defin ition. Plastics are compou nds made with long chains of carbon atoms. You will notice that the wh-word has been omitted. A definition written in this way uses a reduced relative clause. In full the definition would be: Plastics are compounds which are made with long chains of carbon atoms. Write out the fol l owing defi n itions in fu l l, putting the wh-word i n t h e correct place. a Plastics are substances moulded into shape when they are heated. b A mineral is a structurally homogeneous solid of definite chemical composition formed by the inorganic processes of nature. Write out the fol l owing defin itions om itting the wh-word so that a reduced relative cla use is used. c Rayons are man-made fibres which are produced from wood. d A fossil is an inorganic trace which is buried by natural processes and subsequently permanently preserved. 2 Often subj ects, particularly academic subjects, omit the wh-word in the following way: Plastics Criminol ogy is the s tudy of crime (or i l l ega l acts). Psychiatry is the study and treatment of menta l il l ness. Po litics is the science of government. Botany is the s cience of the structu re of p l a nts. Write out definitions of the su bjects given below. Use the notes g iven next to each su bject; write in the same styl e as a bove. 36
  37. 37. U n it 5 a Demography - study - population growth and its structure. b Zoology - science - structure, forms and distribution of animals. c Biology - science - physical life of animals and plants. 3 Academic subjects may be more cautiously defined, thus: Geography may be defined as the science of the earth's su rface. L i ngu istics may be defined as the science of language. Write out defi n itions of the fol lowing su bjects i n the same way as a bove. Sociology - science - nature and growth of s ociety and social behaviour. b Theology - study - religious beliefs and theories. c Astronomy - science - sun, moon, stars and planets. a Write a defi n ition of you r subject in a s i m i l a r way to the a bove. Stage 3 Exte n d e d Defi n it i o n s 1 It is possible for academic subjects to be defined more specifically. Normally, this can only be done if more information is given. Look at the fo l l owing exa mple (branch has the mea n i n g o f division). Psychology may be defined as the branch of b i o logica l science which s tudies the phenomena of conscious l ife and behav i o u r. Write out defi n itions of the fol l owing su bjects in the same way as a bove. a Criminal psychology - psychology - investigates the psychology of crime and the criminal. b Chemistry - science - deals with the composition and behaviour of substances. c Social economics - economics - is concerned with the measurement, causes and consequences of social problems. 2 A definition may be extended in order to be more precise and/or to give more information about the subj ect. Look carefully at the following examples. Sociology m ay be defi ned as the branch of sci ence wh ich stud i es the devel opment and pri n c i p les of soc i a l orga n i sati o n . It is concerned with group behav i o u r as d i sti nct from the behaviour of i nd i v i d u a l s i n the group. Econometrics may be defi ned as the branch of econom ics which app l i es mathematica l and statistica l techn iq ues to econom ic problems. I t i s concerned with test i n g the va l i d ity of economic theories and provi d i ng the means of making quantitative pred i ctions. Now write a defi n ition of you r subject in a similar way to the a bove. 37
  38. 38. r Unit 5 3 Use you r dictionary to check defin itions. Sometimes it is usefu l to compa re defi n itions and expla nations in two or three dictiona ries: they a re not a lways exactly the same, and they often g ive d ifferent exa mples. Check the defi n itions of the fol l owing: a b c d e standard of living household durable goods consumer perishables These words a re usefu l for Unit 1 1 , Stage 3 Note: Structure and Vocabulary Aid A Frequently used verb forms for definitions Present Simple (Active and Passive) IS X • • • means . . . describes . . . is defined as . . . is used . . . e.g. A dialect is a variety of language. It is spoken in one part of a country. B Relative clauses Relative clauses are often used to qualify or give extra information, e.g. An X is someone who sells Y. Y is something which is produced by Z. C Useful verbs: x 38 is concerned with deals with relates to involves y
  39. 39. Unit 6 Unit 6 Exempl ification The last unit was concerned with definitions. It is often useful in definitions to give examples: this action is known as exemplification (or exemplifying) . Exemplifications are often introduced by for example or e.g. Linguistics may be defined as the science of l anguage, for example, its structu re, sou n d systems and meaning systems. Stage 1 Words There are different ways of exemplifying, e.g. Geol ogy may be defined as the science of the earth's history a s shown b y i ts crust, rocks, etc. Geography may be defined as the science of the earth's su rface. It is com:erned with a n u mber of featu res, particularly physic a l , c l imate and prod ucts. (Here particularly has the meaning 'more than some others' . ) Exemplification is commonly used throughout academic writing. 1 Read the fol lowi ng ca refu l ly. What is Language? 10 15 20 25 A l anguage is a signal ling system w h i c h operates with symbol ic vocal sou nds, and which is u sed by a group of people for the pu rposes of com m u nication. Let us look at this defi n i tion in more detai l because it is l angu age, more than anyth i ng el se, that distinguishes m a n from the rest o f the a n i m a l world. Other anim a l s, it is true, com m u nicate with one a nother by means of cries: for exa m p l e, many birds u tter warning ca l l s at the approach of danger; apes utter d i fferent cries, such as expressions of anger, fear and p l easure. B ut these various means of com m u nication differ i n i m portant ways from h u man language. For insta nce, anima l s' cries are not articu l ate. This means, basica l l y, that they lack structu re. They l ack, for example, the k i n d of structu re given by the contrast between vowels and consonants . They a l so l ack the kind of structu re that enables us to divide a h u man utterance into words. We can change an utterance by repl acing one word in it by another: a good i l l ustration of this is a sol dier who can say, e.g. 'tanks approaching from the north ', or he can change one word and say 'ai rcraft approaching from the north' or 'tanks approaching from the west'; but a bird has a single a larm cry, which means 'danger ! ' This is w h y t h e n u m ber o f signa l s that a n a nim a l c a n make is very limited: the great tit is a case in po i nt; it has about twenty different ca l l s, whereas in h u man l anguage the n u m ber of possible utterances is infinite. It a l so exp l ains why animal cries are very genera l in meaning. 39
  40. 40. Unit 6 Read the passage again and draw a I box I a round a l l the expressions which have the same mea n i n g as for example. Notice how they are used and the punctuation that is used with them. Now d raw a line u nder all the examples, e.g. I such as I expressions of anger, fear and pleasure. 2 The fol l owi ng sentences a re based u pon the information conta i n ed in the passage above. Complete the sentences making use of each of the fol lowi ng words (use each one only once). illustration a b c d e f for example a case in point such as for instance an example At the approach of danger many birds utter warning calls: this of animals communicating with each IS other. Cries, those of anger, fear and pleasure, are uttered by apes. There are important differences between human language and , animals' cries animal communication: are not articulate. Animals' cries lack, , the kind of structure that enables us to divide a human utterance into words. of changing an utterance by A good substituting one word for another is a soldier who can say 'tanks approaching from the north' or 'tanks approaching from the west'. The number of signals that an animal can make is very limited: the great tit is _________ Stage 2 1 Look at the fol lowi ng: Sente n ces Language Families Latin I Portuguese I Spanish I I Romanian French Italian etc. This information can be expressed in two ways: - There are a n u m ber of languages wh i ch a re descended from Lati n: for example, Portuguese and Ita l i a n . - There are a n u m ber o f l anguages, s u c h as Portuguese and Ita l ian, which are descended from Lati n . Write two sentences, as a bove, a bout the fol l owing information. a Latin I Romansch 40 I Proven<;:al I I Catalan I Sardinian etc.
  41. 41. Unit 6 b Sanskrit I Bengali I Hindi t I Singalese etc. 2 Read the fol l owing ca refu lly, espec i a l ly the pa rt in ita l ics. There are now over two thousand different languages in the world; an examination of them shows that m a ny of them belong to a gro u p of rel ated l anguages, and some of t h ese groups are very large, constituting what we can ca l l l anguage families. An example of such a family is the Semitic group of languages. Examples of members of the family are Arabic and Hebrew. Now write out the last two sentences substituting the fol l owing (not all the examples need to be l isted): Germanic - e.g. English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian. b Sino-Tibetan - e.g. Thai, Burmese, Chinese, Tibetan. a Stage 3 Pa ra g ra p hs 1 Here a re some notes on writi ng systems. Read them ca refu l ly. Writing Systems Writing method of h u man interco m m u nication by means of conventional visible marks. = Two main kinds of writing system : 1 ideographic (an ideogram or sign one idea/word e.g. Chinese) 2 phonetiC: a sy l l abiC (one sign one sy l l able e.g. Amharic, Japanese ka na) b a l p habetic (one sign one sou nd e.g. G reek, Arabic) = = = Now write a paragraph on writing systems based on the i nformation i n the notes. Do not use notes i n you r writing, only complete sentences. Beg i n the paragraph with a defi n ition of writing. Then conti nue with a description of the writing systems, beg i n n i n g the sentence 'The re a re . . .' Remember to use seq uence ma rkers (connectives); practise using different expressions for e.g. To p : Chinese Centre: Japanese Bottom: Greek 2 Write a defi n ition of you r own subject of study or resea rch . Describe part of it, with exa mples. 41
  42. 42. Unit 6 Pyramid Discussion Know i n g a Fore i g n La n g u a g e 1 What a re the three main advantages of knowing a foreign language? Select from the l ist be low. The order of the choices is not i mporta nt. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 enables direct communication with a foreigner gives access to a foreign literature helps understanding of another culture makes it easier to live/work in another country helps if you want to study in another country puts your own language and culture into perspective helps you to understand the difficulties of people learning your language personal satisfaction in mastering the skill adds another dimension to education enables you to make closer contact with other nationalities helps understanding of other attitudes makes it easier and cheaper to conduct business with another country makes interpreters and translators unnecessary enables you to understand information in another language makes it easier to express your ideas to others Final ly, add some adva ntages of your own . 2 Write a brief explanation of the advantages of knowing a foreign language, with some exam ples. Structure a n d A Alternatives to the word Vocabula ry Aid B Other commonly used verb forms and methods of expression are: shown exemplified illustrated examples are: cases, instances. 8D B shows exemplifies illustrates the following examples, the following are examples of X: a and b are examples of X. 8 42 Dickens and Hardy D
  43. 43. U n it 7 Unit 7 Cl assification When we divide something into groups, classes, categories, etc. we are classifying those items. The classification is normally Stage 1 Criteria made according to a criterion or several criteria (standards or principles on which j udgements are based) . 1 Read the fol lowing ca refu l ly. Then complete the sentences below. State Schools in England and Wales 5 10 15 20 a The vast majority of chi l d ren in B ritain (87%) attend state ( l ocal authority) schools which provide comp u l sory education from the age of 5 to 1 6 years . These schoo l s can be c l assified according to the age range of the pupi l s and the type of education provided . Basica l l y, there are two types of schoo l, primary and secondary, a l though in some a reas there are a l so midd le sch ools. Primary schoo l s cater for chi l d ren aged 5-1 1 , and secondary schoo l s for ages 1 1 - 1 6 (and in some areas u p t o 1 8 years). Primary schoo l s can b e su b-divided into infant schoo l s (for ages 5-7) and j u nior schoo l s (for ages 7-1 1 ) . Secondary schoo ls are norm a l l y of one type for a l l abi lities, viz. comprehensive schoo l s. More than 90% of children in state schoo l s attend this kind of schoo l . In some areas middle schoo l s exist as an extra l evel after primary school for chi l d ren aged 8 or 9 to 1 2 or 1 3 . Pupi l s then transfer to comprehensive schoo l s . I n a very sma l l n u m ber of areas, p u pi l s may be gro u ped according to their ability and selected by means of an exa m i nation at the age of 1 1 . In these areas, grammar schoo l s cater for those who pass the exa m . Those who fail go to another secondary schoo l . When p u pils reach the age o f 1 6 there may b e th ree choices open to them . Firstly, they may leave schoo l . Secondly, they may stay on a t school for two more years i f it has a Sixth Form. Third l y, they may transfer to a Sixth Form Co l l ege, a Tertiary Co l l ege or a F u rther Education Co l l ege. Schools the pupils' ages and type of education. school: primary b There are and secondary. into infant c Primary schools and junior schools. d Secondary school pupils their ability. e The criterion for classifying secondary schools is whether or not there is ______ ______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Top: Primary school Centre: Comprehensive school Bottom: Grammar school _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 43
  44. 44. Unit 7 2 The sentences below summa rise the information in the passage. However, they are i n the wrong order. Put them in the correct order by writi ng n u m bers 1 -7. a Most children go to comprehensive schools. b There may be three types of school: primary, middle and secondary. c At the age of sixteen, pupils may stay on at school, or leave and go to a college, or leave school altogether. d Exceptionally, children may take a selection exam at 1 1 years and go to a grammar school if they pass. e Most children go to state schools. f If children attend middle schools, they go on to comprehensive schools afterwards. g Primary schools comprise both infant and j unior schools. 3 Look at Diagra m 1 . It shows a diagra mmatic classification of state schools in England and Wa les. If necessa ry read the text again and then com plete Diagram 1 , writing on the l i nes provided. D iagram 1: State Schools in England and Wales primary ----- { (5-7 years) j unior ( ----- ) ( 8/9-12/1 3 years) 4 Without looki n g at the text again, write a brief description of the information conta ined i n Diagra m 1 . Begin you r description: There are two types of school: primary and secondary. Primary schools can be sub-divided, according to age, into . . . Note: J.f any help i$ needed with tile language c1assificatio!1 in this exercise, or the fdl lowing ones, turn tCi the Structure and Vocabulary Aid at the end Of this unit. 5 Draw a classification diagram of the education system in you r country. When you have completed it, write a brief descri ption of it. 44
  45. 45. U n it 7 Stage 2 Cl assify i n g 1 Read the fol l owi ng ca refu l ly. Then complete Diagram 2 ('The Classification of B i rds') below. The Classification of B i rds 10 15 20 25 30 35 Birds are instantly recognisable creatu res. Perhaps it is their ability to fly that causes this. Some people might consider that their shape was the most distinguishing feature. Everyone, however, agrees on the characteristics that a bird possesses: two wi ngs, feathers, two legs, a toot h l ess bil l or beak, warm blood, and it lays eggs . The modern system of c l assifyi ng birds is like a pyramid, with the base formed by 85 1 4 different species. A convenient definition of species is: an interbreeding group of birds which do not norma l l y mate with other such grou ps. The next division above the species is the genus, a gro u p of species show i n g strong simi larities. The scientific name of a bird gives the gen us first, then the species. Th us, the scientific ( Latin) name of the golden eagle is 'Aq uila ch rysaetos' (eagle, golden). When there are strong points of similarity between one gen us and another, these rel ated genera are grou ped together and are said to belong to the same family. The names of the 2 1 5 families of birds always end in 'idae' . The go lden eagle, for i n stance, is one of the ' Fa l conidae' (fa l con fam i ly). Fami lies with broadly simi l a r characteristics are grou ped together into 27 orders, whose names end in 'iformes' . The golden eagl e fa l l s into the order of ' Fa l coniformes' (fa l con- like birds) . The la rgest order is ' Passeriformes' or perching birds. This contains 63 families, and more species than all the rest put together. The feet are designed so that they can grip a perch, with th ree toes in front and one behin d. I n addition, a l l are known a s song-birds . Two large fa mi lies within this order are spa rrows, with 1 5 5 species, and crows, with 1 00 species . Fin a l l y, al l of the orders make up the class 'Aves' (birds). This system of c l assification has enabled scientists to differentiate 85 1 4 species of birds. Pl acing a bird in the right fami ly depends upon a n u mber of featu res. Among them are externa l characteristics, such as the shape of the beak and feet, and the colour pattern of the feathers. However, at the level of order, the next higher category, distinctions are based on such featu res as the structu re of the sku I I , the a rrangement of the m u sc l es in the l egs, and the condition of the you ng at the time of hatching. Top: Golden eagle Centre: Sparrow Bottom: Crow Right: Skull of owl 45
  46. 46. r- Unit 7 Diagram 2 : The Classification o f Birds Classification divisions or categories Example of classification of Golden Eagle (in English) for each division Fa.lcordke £a. le .9 Number of the divisions 35111 2 From the i nformation in the text: a give a definition of a bird. b give a definition of a species. c give two criteria that are used in assigning birds to the order of Passeriformes. d give two examples of families of birds from the order of Passeriformes. e list some of the general characteristics of families of birds, and then of orders of birds. 3 Write a brief general description of the classification of birds. Base you r descri ption u pon the i nformation conta i n ed in Diagra m 2. Write in a s i m i l a r way to the fol l owing classification of vegeta bles. There are six m a i n gro u ps of vegetabl es, for exa m p l e, l egu mes. Each group may be divided into members, such as beans, and each member may be sub-divided into types: Scarlet R u n ners are an example. Final ly, each type may be fu rther su b-divided into a n u mber of varieties, e.g. Pri zewin ner. Stage 3 D i a g ra m s 1 Look ca refu l ly at Diagram 3. It is a tree diagram classification of drinks. What a re the th ree crite ria that a re used in the classification? 2 Write a description of the cl assification of drinks based on the i nformation i n Diagram 3. Beg i n your descri ption: Drinks may be classified into two main groups: . . . 46
  47. 47. U n it 7 Diagram 3 : A Classification o f Drinks � DRINKS alcoholic � non-alcoholic e.g. s� Jn�er / hot / , cold " tt::J,�/ � aerated An aerated/carbonated/sparkling drink /I non-aerated e.g. le�o�a �-cola �ers water water e.g. milk squashes or fruit Juices cordials (i.e. (i.e. normally diluted with undiluted) water) 3 Now draw a d iagram for the su bject, or pa rt of it, that you a re studying. Write a brief description of the classification d i agram, making sure that it is clear what the criteria a re. If a classification diagra m is not a ppropriate for you r su bject, perhaps a n organ isationa l diagra m (showi ng hierarchy etc.) wou l d b e possible. Pyra m id Discussion Th e Pu rposes of Com p u lsory E d ucat i o n 1 Which three pu rposes of compulsory ed ucation a re the most i m porta nt? Select from the l ist below. The order of the choices is n ot i m porta nt. Final ly, add a pu rpose of you r own . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 t o teach reading, writing and arithmetic ( 'the 3 Rs' ) t o train for employment to create discipline to educate generally to develop character to teach sharing and co-operation with others to teach self-control to increase knowledge to help become a useful member of society to help to become self-aware to build a foundation for later studies or work to develop the mind to encourage independence in thinking to teach about the world around us to enable one to be an individual 2 Write a brief description of the criteria that ca n be or sho uld be used for determ i n i n g if education has been successfu l . 47
  48. 48. r- Unit 7 A Structure and Classification Vocabulary Aid Useful Nouns criterion/criteria basis/bases features characteristics categories classes groups types kinds sorts speCies breeds orders divisions families members sub-categories sub-classes sub-groups sub-orders sub-divisions Useful Verbs to . . . classify categorise group divide into arrange (in) put into fall into E> place in distinguish ( between) differentiate ( between/from) sub-classify sub-categorise sub-group sub-divide consists of . . . comprises . . . X may be classified according to . . on the basis of . . . depending (up)on . . The classification is based ( up jon . . . Note the possible sequence: · . . may be divided . . . · . . may be sub-divided . . . · 48 whether or not . . . there is X whether there is X or not . . . according to '"-----' . . may be further sub-divided . . . . . . . .
  49. 49. Unit 7 B Schools in England and Wales State: non-fee-paying secondary modern or other school �/ grammar school pupils: age 4/5-1 1 nursery school or class pupils: ages 1 1- 1 6 or 1 8 examination co-educational (mixed) playgroup infant (4/5-7 ) "" J Ullior ( 7-1 1 ) / co-educational no selection single sex / � comprehensive school middle school ( ages 8-9 to 1 2-1 3 ) ______________ .- (plus 6th form) / (if no Sixth form) Sixth Form CollegelTertiary Collegel Further Education College mathematics English science core subjects MANAGEMENT NATIONAL CURRICULUM LEAs (local education authorities) governing bodies technology streamingl setting teaching art muslC mixed ability physical education modern foreign language General Certificate of Secondary Education ( GCSE) age 1 6 General National Vocational Qualification ( GNVQ) NVQ GNVQ EXAMINATIONS (secondary school) General Certificate of Education: Advanced Level ( GCE: A level) age 18 Advanced Supplementary Levels (A-S level) 49
  50. 50. U n it 7 Independent: private, fee-paying nursery school pupils: ages 1 11 1 2/1 3-1 8 / 1 9 pre-preparatory Common Entrance Examination ___ SECONDARY PREPARATORY day school 'public schools' boarding school pupils: ages 7-1 1/12/1 3 Are there any other words that you wou l d find it usefu l to add to the a bove l ists? 2 50 Make a s i m i l a r l ist for the school system in you r cou ntry.
  51. 51. U n it 8 Un it 8 Compari son and Contrast In most academic subjects, and in life generally, we often need to compare and contrast things. Similarities and differences are often noted when classifying (see the previous unit). The language of Stage 1 comparison and contrast is frequently needed when studying tables and other statistical information. The language forms used in this unit are to be found in Appendix 1, Section 3 . 1 Look at Ta bles 1 and 2 and complete these sentences. If necessa ry, Compa rison look at Appendix 1 , Section 3, Comparisons. Put one or more words i n each space. Table 1 a The Nile is b The Amazon is c The Nile is d The Mississippi-Missouri is e The Yangtse is the Mississippi-Missouri. long the Nile. river in the world. the Amazon. river in China. ______ Table 2 month f In Beijing, January is a December. g July is a month June. h There is ...,-rain in May in March. rain; in other words, July is July has the month. August is warm July. months. k December and January are I The rainfall in February is in March. m April is wet October. in May. n The rainfall in November is o July is the month, and also month. ______ ______ _______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____ ______ ______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ______ ______ ______ Satellite view o f the River Nile Table 1 : The Longest Rivers in the World 1 2 3 4 The Nile (Afriea )-4, 1 60 miles ( 6,695 kilometres) The Amazon (South Ameriea )-4,080 miles ( 6,570 kilometres) The Mississippi-Missouri (North Ameriea )-3,740 miles ( 6,020 kilometres) The Yangtse (Asia: China )-3 ,430 miles ( 5 ,520 kilometres) Table 2 : Temperatures and Rainfall in Beijing, China Month Temperature ( 0 C ) Rainfall (em) J F M A M J J A S 0 N D -4.7 0.2 -1.5 0.5 5.0 0.5 13.7 1.5 1 9. 9 3.6 24.5 7.6 26.0 23.9 24.7 1 6 .0 19.8 6.6 12.5 1 .5 3.6 0.8 -2 .6 0.2 Note: The first month is January (J), the last is December (D). 51
  52. 52. U n it 8 2 Look at Ta ble 3. Write at least three sentences comparing the mou nta i ns, which a re a l l i n the H i m a l ayas, T able 3: The Highest Mountains in the World 1 Everest ( Nepal/Tibet) - 2 K2 (Pakistan/India) 2 8 ,250 feet ( 8 ,6 1 1 metres) - 29,028 feet ( 8 , 8 4 8 metres) 3 Kangchenjunga (Nepal/Sikkim) 4 Lhotse (NepallTibet) - 5 Makalu (Nepal/Tibet) 6 Dhaulagiri (Nepal) - - 2 8 , 1 6 8 feet ( 8 ,5 8 6 metres) 27,923 feet ( 8 ,5 1 1 metres) - 2 7 , 8 0 5 feet ( 8 ,475 metres ) 26,795 feet ( 8 , 1 6 7 metres ) Everest 3 Tu rn back to U n it 2 Stage 2. Look at the information in the table about Ma nchester U n iversity students. Write severa l sentences compa ring the i nformation: e.g. M ore students write essays than a ny other type of writi ng. Stage 2 1 Read the fol l owing ca refu l ly. Exte nded Co m pa rison 10 Severa l years ago, some research was conducted at Manchester U niversity into the amount of time that overseas postgraduate stu dents spent listening to spoken English and speaking Englis h . Sixty students co-operated by com p l eting q uestionnaires. It was fou nd that an average of 22% hours per week were spent l i steni ng to English and only 6% hours speaking English to Engl ish people. An analysis of the time spent listening to English showed that lectu res accou nted for 5 hou rs and seminars 2 hours. An esti mated 2 1/2 h o u rs were spent in serious discussion while 2 hours were devoted to everyday smal l-ta l k. Watching tel evision acco u nted for 5 1/4 hours and listening to the radio 41/2 h o u rs. Going to the c i nema or theatre o n l y accou nted for an average o f % hour p e r week. The fol lowi ng sentences a re based u pon the i nformation conta ined i n the text a bove. Complete the sentences by choosing from the l i st of words and ph rases below: use each word once on ly. Make sure that you keep the same mea n ing in the sentences as in the text. Choose from these words: biggest; as much . . . as; more . . . than (twice); least; most; not so many . . . as; as many . . . as; the same . . . as; greater . . . than. a The students spent considerably time speaking it. listening to English b A amount of time was spent in lectures in seminars. c Nearly hours were spent listening to the radio watching television. ______ ______ ______ ______ 52 l i
  53. 53. Unit 8 popular way of listening to English d The was by watching TV. e number of hours was spent in everyday small-talk in taking part in seminars. The popular way of listening to English was by going to the cinema. hours were spent in serious discussion g in watching television. time was spent in watching h Nearly television in speaking English. time was spent in serious discussion in everyday small-talk . The surprise in the survey was the small number of hours spent speaking English to English people. ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ 2 You have j ust received a l etter from a friend, or acqua i ntance, asking for some information a bout Engl ish dictionaries and asking you to recommend a su ita ble one to help h i m/her learn English. Look at Table 4: Engl ish Lea rners' Dictionaries, then on the basis of that information write a l etter recommending one of the dictiona ries. G ive reasons for you r choice. Look at the Structure and Voca bu l a ry Aid at the end of this u n it and at the Notes i n the Key if you need some help with the l etter. Table Feature Words and phrases Examples Pages Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English 80,000 62,700 1,690 Longman Active Study Dictionary 45,000 25,000 807 Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary 63,000 90,000 1 ,428 Oxford Student's Dictionary 42,000 23,500 1 00,000 1 1 0,000 1 ,792 75,000 100,000 1,95 1 Words ill ustra ted 748 Dictionary Cambridge International Dictionary of English Collins COBUILD English Dictionary 4: English Learners' Dictionaries Appendices Level 2,300 8 upper intermediate - advanced 16 pages 5 intermediate 10 upper intermediate - advanced 4 intermediate 2 intermediate plus 1 ,700 2,000 intermediate - advanced 53
  54. 54. I I � U n it 8 __-,,--,--,-'C Pyramid Discussion Reasons for U s i n g 1 What a re the th ree main reasons for using a diction a ry? Select from the l ist below. The order of the choices is not i m porta nt. a D i cti o n a ry 1 to find meanings 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 to find synonyms to check spellings for word pronunciation and stress to see the differences between confused words for information about grammar for information about style (e.g. formal, slang) for usage and examples for information about abbreviations, names etc. (in the appendices) 10 to check idioms, phrases, proverbs 1 1 to extend knowledge of vocabulary 12 for accurate information about words F i n a l ly, add any other reasons not g iven here. 2 Write a brief comparison of the main reasons for using a dictiona ry. Stage 3 S i m i l a rities a n d D i ffe ren ces 1 Similarities There are a number of language constructions that express similarity apart from those listed in Appendix 1 , Section 3 . Look a t the fol lowi ng exa mples based on Ta ble 5. a Both Belgium and Canada have a small agricultural population. b Belgium and Canada are similar (or alike) in that they both have a small agricultural population. c Belgium, like Canada, has a small agricultural population. d Canada is similar to Nepal in its percentage of forest area. e Canada is similar to Nepal in that it has a large forest area. Note: Sti l l more sentences may be com pose d by using the connectives l isted i n Appen d i x 2: Connectives (section l A: Addition), e.g. Belgium has a small agricultural population; so, too, does Canada. Now write sentences s i m i l a r to those above, basi ng you r i nformation on Ta ble 5. 54
  55. 55. Unit 8 Table 5: Various Countries � Information Belgium Canada Egypt Ireland Nepal Population 10,140,000 29,972,000 64, 1 00,000 3,589,000 2 1 ,953,000 Area: sq. km. 32,800 9,22 1 ,000 995,000 6 8 ,900 1 3 7,000 Density: per sq. km. 323 3 52 53 136 Forest area 21% 39% 0 4.5% 39% Arable land (for crops) 23.5% 5% 2% 13.5% 17% Agricultural population 2% 3% 39% 12% 91% Main languages Dutch! Flemish, French English, French Arabic, French English, Irish Nepali, Maithili Main religions Christianity Christianity Islam Christianity Hinduism, Buddhism 2 Differences For a number of ways of expressing difference, see Appendix 1 , Section 3 and Appendix 2, Section 3 . Look a t the fol lowing examples based o n Table 5 . a Ireland and Belgium are dissimilar i n that Ireland has a much smaller population than Belgium. b With regard to population, Egypt is (much) bigger than Canada. c The main religion in Belgium is Christianity, whereas in Egypt it is Islam. d Belgium has the largest percentage arable land area; however, it has the smallest percentage agricultural population. e Although Belgium has the largest percentage arable land area, it has the smallest percentage agricultural population. f On the one hand, Canada has the largest population; on the other hand, it has the lowest density of population. Now write some sentences s i m i l a r to those a bove, basi ng you r i nformation on Ta ble 5. 3 Tu rn to U n it 3, Stage 2. Look at the table of i nformation a bout Austra l i a beneath the map. Write a paragraph to compare and contrast Austra l ia with Canada i n terms of a rea, population, density, a rable land a rea a n d forest a rea. 4 Compa re a n d contrast your country with one of the cou ntries i n Table 5. It is not necessa ry t o refer t o a l l t h e items. If y o u do not know some of the deta il s for you r country, g ive a rough esti mation; but try to find out by looking in a ppropriate reference books. If necessa ry, look at the Structure and Voca bul a ry Aid i n this u n it a n d i n U n it 3 t o help you . 55
  56. 56. U nit 8 Structure and A Vocabulary Aid Qualification o f comparison (X is) considerably a great deal (very) much (quite) a lot rather somewhat a little slightly scarcely hardly only j ust X is exactly precisely just virtually practically more or less almost nearly approximately about exactly entirely quite totally completely entirely quite the same as . . . the same as . . . different from Y. X and Y are different. I I quite I 56 X is not quite as/so big expensive dear etc.
  57. 57. U nit 8 B Cardinal numbers When writing figures involving thousands, a space is used to separate the thousands if there are 5 or more digits: e.g. 10 000 100 000 1 000 000 but 1 000 Alternatively a comma may be used to separate the thousands: e.g. 1 ,000 1 0,000 1 00,000 1 ,000,000 A point is used in writing decimal fractions: e.g. 1 2 9 3 . 75 C Ordinal numbers Ordinal numbers are often written in abbreviated form: 1 st - first 2nd - second 3rd - third 4th - fourth 5th - fifth 'th' is used after all numbers except those ending in 1 , 2, or 3 . D Percentages (%) Figures Language 10% 1 .5 % 0.5 % ten per cent one point five per cent or one and a half per cent (nought) point five per cent or half a per cent Note: percentage = proportion absol ute number = total number 57
  58. 58. Unit 9 U n it 9 Cause and Effect In academic writing, events and actions are frequently linked with their cause and effect. Look at the following diagram, which summarises this relationship. back in time or sequence cause reason event situation action idea problem Now look at these examples of the cause and effect relationship. connective I Prices rose. I Heat forward in time or sequence effect consequence result solution Any marks on the leaves are probably There are a large number of ways to express the relationship shown in the diagram above. You will need to look at Appendix 2, Connectives (Section I E : Result) and especially the Structure and Vocabulary Aid at the end of this unit before doing the exercises. causes iron to expand. As a result fewer goods were sold. I The cause Note: Sometimes the cause will be named before the effect; sometimes the effect will be named first. e.g. 1) X causes + 2) Y i s caused by + effect Y (active verb) + effect X (passive verb) + cause 1 The parts of the sentences below have been mixed up. Join the six Con n ect ives a n d M a rkers pa rts on the l eft with the correct pa rts from the n i ne on the right. There is acid in that bottle: therefore . . . 2 is in a box; the effect is underlined. cause Stage 1 I the same virus due to a the road was icy. The effect of the fluctuation in temperature . . . b he was unsuccessful. prolonged illness. 3 Bad labour relations caused . . . c 4 The accident occurred because of . . . d it must be handled very carefully. 5 He passed his examination because . . . e careful storage . 6 Delayed treatment often results in . . g the strike. the icy road conditions. . h he worked hard. was to kill the laboratory specimens. 58