Marc Pearl, President & CEO, Homeland Security & Defense Business Council

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  • 1. Can the “Imbalance” of Resources Between Aviation & Surface Transportation Security Be Changed? Marc Pearl President & CEO Homeland Security & Defense Business Council
  • 2. The Problem Rail/Public Transport Faces… “A commercial airliner has the capacity to kill 3,000 people. A bomb in a subway car may kill thirty people. When you start to think about your priorities, you’re going to think about making sure you don't have a catastrophic thing first.” – Michael Chertoff, Former Secretary U.S. Department of Homeland Security
  • 3. U.S. Funding – TSA’s 2012 Budget As an Example FY 2012 (In Millions USD) $8,000 $7,000 $6,000 $5,000 $4,000 $3,000 $2,000 $1,000 $0 $7,600 $5,254 $1,032 $966 Source: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2012 $165 $135
  • 4. ALL Transportation Sectors are Vulnerable, but… 25,000 security breaches at airports since 9/11 (USA Today) • 250 global terrorist attacks at Rail/Public Transport targets since 1995, resulting in 900 deaths/6,000 injuries. • • Buses (32%); Tourist/School buses (8%); & Bus Terminals (7%) = 47% • Subways/Train (26%); Train Stations (12%); and Rails (8%) = 46% • Bridges and Tunnels = 5% (“other” = 2%) • Rail provides easy access to larger crowds and readily available escape routes. • They are highly public & can cause large disruptions quickly. Madrid, 2004
  • 5. So, if the Rail & Public Transport Sectors are, at least, equally vulnerable, then why doesn’t Mass Transport receive more security funding?
  • 6. Transport Security Market Outside of Airports Occupies a Very Interesting Space Disruption of air travel has historically been the primary focus of terrorists (& governments), but not the only focus Greater attention (and, therefore, funding) to air travel is a combination of 2 things: People “accept” a flawed model (Secure departure point = safe journey) that allows for a discrete investment at a location, high public visibility (TSA), and a feeling of safety. 2. The public fears aviation attacks as visible threats/disruptions that spread fear. Given that most train activity is cargo – such incidents don’t create as much panic when they are targeted. 1.
  • 7. Public Transport Security Very Difficult to Achieve     Requires large, expensive, and significant infrastructure development – much more than aviation. Questions surrounding the gains that can be made to truly secure ground transportation. Perceived limitations as to how much damage terrorists can do in mass transit to the greater community in any event. Primary reason for receiving so little funding: o Policy leaders have concluded that investments in mass transit security are enormously inefficient. o Unlike airports, “securing” rail traffic requires departure point screening and continuous monitoring of the track for the entire trip, and at each stop along the way.
  • 8. What Then is Needed? Gathering of intelligence;  “True” information sharing among 1st responders and local law enforcement; and  Figuring out how to preempt attacks, rather than securing the point of attack, thereby mitigating the impact of any attack.  Sources of Funding Greater Communication Awareness & Sensitivity
  • 9. Greater Information Sharing • • Information Sharing within the industry is crucial. Need to establish/exchange best practices/lessons learned so that there will be a collection of enough data points to determine what is or isn’t working. Look at/share Best Practices from other industries and countries. Irish Republican Army Mumbai, 2006
  • 10. Communication with 1st Responders Spotting “Trends” Before the Incident • • U.S. freight rail systems have developed an Integrated Security Plan across the network Need to look at ‘observable’ activities long before an incident occurs • Focuses on identifying “TRENDS”/Indicators – Long before an incident occurs • Not just an incident report of what happened (a terrorist or criminal incident), but why and where did it start • Sharing Threat Information – in U.S. SSI (Sensitive Security Information) • And – particularly in Europe – develop even better ‘Cross Border’ Information Sharing
  • 11. Communication/Engagement Public Transport Sector, Solution Providers & Government What are the inhibitors of earlier and more substantive communication between the transportation operators and their private sector security solutions providers? • What are the major issues inhibiting greater communication, coordination, collaboration, cooperation with governmental agencies? •
  • 12. Best Practices of Other Sectors? • • • • • • • • Greater Public Awareness & Encouraging Involvement (“See Something, Say Something”) Random searches Dogs Video placement Track sweeping Develop Internal Standards that are voluntary, not mandated Systems Approach to Safety, Emergency Preparedness/Management & Security “Peer Reviews” – Security/Vulnerability Assessments
  • 13. Related Sources • Mineta Transportation Institute www.transweb.sjsu.edu • A research institute at San Jose State University focusing on surface transportation. A rich source of original research and analysis on security within the industry. • American Public Transportation Association www.apta.com/ • U.S. based but with global reach, organization focusing on passenger rail and provides original research and establishes industry standards & best practice • It’s Surface Transportation Information Sharing & Analysis Center collects, analyzes, and disseminates alerts and incident reports to their membership and helps the Government understand impacts for their sector.