Securing Your Cloud with Xen (CloudOpen NA 2013)
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Securing Your Cloud with Xen (CloudOpen NA 2013)

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Exploring some of the important security options available in the Xen Hypervisor.

Exploring some of the important security options available in the Xen Hypervisor.

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Securing Your Cloud with Xen (CloudOpen NA 2013) Securing Your Cloud with Xen (CloudOpen NA 2013) Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features Russell Pavlicek, Xen Project Evangelist CloudOpen North America 2013
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Who is the Old, Fat Geek Up Front? Xen Project Evangelist Employed by Citrix, focused entirely on the Xen Project History with Open Source begins in 1997 Former columnist with Infoworld, Processor magazines Former panelist on The Linux Show webcast, repeat guest on The Linux Link Tech Show Over 150 pieces published, plus one book on Open Source development and several blogs CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 2 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Introduction: Xen Project and Security Xen Project is an enterprise-grade Type I hypervisor Built for the Cloud before it was called the Cloud A number of advanced security features Driver Domains, Stub Domains, FLASK, and more Most of them are not (or cannot) be turned on by default Although they are simple to use, sometimes they can appear to be complicated CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 3 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Presentation Goals Introduce you to key Xen Project Security Tools Discuss some key Xen security features Get you started in the right direction toward securing your Xen installation CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 4 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Presentation Outline A few thoughts on the problem of securing the Cloud Overview of the Xen architecture Brief introduction to principles of security analysis Consider some attack surfaces and Xen features we can use to mitigate them: Driver Domains PVgrub Stub Domains Paravirtualization (PV) mode vs Hardware Virtualization (HVM) mode FLASK example policy CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 5 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion The Cloud Security Conundrum Security: The 800 pound gorilla of the Cloud world Nothing generates more fear in specific, and FUD in general Probably the single greatest barrier to Cloud adoption Immediately behind it is the inability to get out of a 20th century IT mindset (i.e., ”Change is Bad”) The good news: we don’t need to fear it – we just need to solve it CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 6 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Cloud Security: New Visibility to Old Problem Security has always been an issue Putting a truly secure system in the open does not reduce its security, just increases the frequency of attack Unfortunately, system security behind the firewall has not always been comprehensive Having solutions in Clouds forces us to solve the security issues we should have already solved Security through obscurity is no longer sufficient CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 7 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Security by Design, not by Wishful Thinking Security by Wishful Thinking is Officially Dead Merely hoping that your firewall holds off the marauding hordes is NOT good enough Addressing security in one area while ignoring others is NOT good enough Saying, ”We’ve never had a problem before” is NOT good enough Comprehensive security starts with design It needs to planned and carefully thought through It needs to be implemented at multiple levels It needs components which are themselves securable CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 8 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Xen Project: Security by Design Xen Project was designed for Clouds before the term ”Cloud” was coined in the industry Designers foresaw the day of an ”infrastructure for wide-area distributed computing” which we now call ”the Cloud” http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/research /srg/netos/xeno/publications.html Xen is designed to thwart attacks from many attack vectors, using different defensive techniques CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 9 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Xen Architecture: A Basic Picture Xen Hypervisor Hardware device model (qemu) toolstack dom 0 Hardware Drivers I/O Devices CPU Memory Paravirtualized (PV) Domain Fully Virtualized (HVM) Domainnetback blkback netfront blkfront CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 10 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Security Overview Threat Models: Attacker can access network Attacker controls one Guest VM Security considerations to evaluate: How much code is accessible? What is the interface like? (e.g., pointers vs scalars) Defense-in-depth Then combine security tactics to secure the installation There is no single ”magic bullet” Individual tactics reduce danger; combined tactics go even farther CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 11 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Example System, for our Discussion Hardware setup Two networks: one Control network, one Guest network IOMMU with interrupt remapping (AMD or Intel VT-d v2) to allow for full Hardware Virtualization (HVM) Default configuration Network drivers in the Control Domain (aka ”Domain 0” or just ”Dom0”) Paravirtualized (PV) guests using PyGrub (grub-like boot utility within context of Guest Domain) Hardware Virtualized (HVM) guests using Qemu (as the device model) running in the Control Domain CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 12 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Attack surface: Network path Xen Hypervisor Hardware toolstackdom 0 NIC Driver Control NIC Rogue Domain netback netfront Guest NIC bridgeiptables Domain netfront Where might an exploit focus? Bugs in hardware driver Bugs in bridging / filtering Bugs in netback (via the ring protocol) CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 13 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Attack surface: Network path Xen Hypervisor Hardware toolstackdom 0 NIC Driver Control NIC Rogue Domain netback netfront Guest NIC bridgeiptables Domain netfront What could a successful exploit yield? Control of Domain 0 kernel Pretty much control of the whole system CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 14 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Security feature: Driver Domains Xen Hypervisor Hardware toolstack dom 0 NIC Driver Control NIC Rogue Domain netback netfront Guest NIC bridgeiptables Domain netfront NIC Driver Driver Domain What is a Driver Domain? Unprivileged VM which drives hardware, provides access to guests CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 15 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Security feature: Driver Domains Xen Hypervisor Hardware toolstack dom 0 NIC Driver Control NIC Rogue Domain netback netfront Guest NIC bridgeiptables Domain netfront NIC Driver Driver Domain Now a successful exploit could yield: Control of the Driver Domain (PV hypercall interface) Control of that guest’s network traffic Control of NIC An opportunity to attack netfront of other guests CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 16 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion HowTo: Driver Domains Create a VM with appropriate drivers Use any distribution suitable as a Control Domain Install the Xen-related hotplug scripts Just installing the Xen tools in the VM is usually good enough Give the VM access to the physical NIC with PCI pass-through Configure the network topology in the Driver domain Just like you would for the Control Domain Configure the guest Virtual Network Interface (vif) to use the new domain ID Add backend=domnet to vif declaration vif = [ ’type=pv, bridge=xenbr0, backend=domnet’ ] http://wiki.xenproject.org/wiki/Driver Domain CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 17 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Attack surface: PyGrub Xen Hypervisor toolstackdom 0 Paravirtualized (PV) Domain domain builder pygrub guest disk What is PyGrub? grub implementation for PV guests Python program running in Control Domain Reads guest filesystem, parses grub.conf, shows menu Passes resulting kernel image to domain builder CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 18 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Attack surface: PyGrub Xen Hypervisor toolstackdom 0 Paravirtualized (PV) Domain domain builder pygrub guest disk Where might an exploit focus? Bugs in file system parser Bugs in menu parser Bugs in domain builder CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 19 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Attack surface: PyGrub Xen Hypervisor toolstackdom 0 Paravirtualized (PV) Domain domain builder pygrub guest disk kernel What could a successful exploit yield? Control of Domain 0 user space Pretty much control of the whole system CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 20 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Security practice: Fixed kernels Xen Hypervisor toolstackdom 0 Paravirtualized (PV) Domain domain builder kernel image guest disk What is a fixed kernel? Passing a known-good kernel from Control Domain Removes attacker avenue to domain builder CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 21 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Security practice: Fixed kernels Xen Hypervisor toolstackdom 0 Paravirtualized (PV) Domain domain builder kernel image guest disk Disadvantages Host admin must keep up with kernel updates Guest admin can’t pass kernel parameters, custom kernels, CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 22 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Security feature: PVgrub Xen Hypervisor toolstackdom 0 domain builder guest disk MiniOS pvgrub What is PVgrub? MiniOS + PV port of grub running in a guest context PV equivalent of HVM “BIOS + grub” Now a successful exploit could yield: Control of the attacked guest domain alone CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 23 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion HowTo: PVgrub Make sure that you have the PVgrub image pvgrub-$ARCH.gz Normally lives in /usr/lib/xen/boot Included in Fedora Xen packages Debian-based: need to build yourself Use appropriate PVgrub as bootloader in guest configuration kernel="/usr/lib/xen/boot/pvgrub-x86_32.gz" http://wiki.xenproject.org/wiki/Pvgrub CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 24 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Attack surface: Device model (Qemu) Where might an exploit focus? Bugs in NIC emulator parsing packets Bugs in emulation of virtual devices What could a successful exploit yield? Control Domain privileged userspace Pretty much control of the whole system CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 25 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Security feature: Qemu stub domains What is a stub domain? Stub domain: a small “service” domain running just one application Qemu stub domain: run each Qemu in its own domain What could a successful exploit yield? Control only of the stub domain VM (which, if FLASK is employed, is a relatively small universe) You need to devise another attack entirely to do anything more significant CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 26 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion HowTo: Qemu stub domains Make sure that you have the PVgrub image: ioemu-$ARCH.gz Normally lives in /usr/lib/xen/boot Included in Fedora Xen packages On Debian (and offshoots), you will need to build it yourself Specify stub domains in your guest config device_model_stubdomain_override = 1 http://wiki.xenproject.org/wiki/Device Model Stub Domains CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 27 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Attack Surface: Xen Hypervisor itself Where might an exploit focus? On Paravirtualized (PV) Guests: PV Hypercalls On full Hardware Virtualized (HVM) Guests: HVM hypercalls (Subset of PV hypercalls) Instruction emulation (MMIO, shadow pagetables) Emulated platform devices: APIC, HPET, PIT Nested virtualization Security practice: Use PV VMs whenever possible CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 28 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion Security feature: FLASK example policy What is FLASK? Xen Security Module (XSM): Xen equivalent of LSM FLASK: Framework for XSM developed by NSA Xen equivalent of SELinux Uses same concepts and tools as SELinux Allows a policy to restrict hypercalls What can FLASK do? Basic: Restricts hypercalls to those needed by a particular guest Advanced: Allows more fine-grained granting of privileges FLASK example policy This contains example roles for the Control Domain (dom0), User/Guest Domain(domU), stub domains, driver domains, etc. CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 29 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion HowTo: Use the example FLASK policy Build Xen with XSM enabled Build the example policy Add the appropriate label to guest config files seclabel=[foo] stubdom label=[foo] Make sure you TEST the example policy in your environment BEFORE putting it into production! NOTE: As an example policy, it is not as rigorously tested as other parts of Xen during release, and it may not be suitable as-is if you are doing unusual things http://wiki.xenproject.org/wiki /Xen Security Modules : XSM-FLASK CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 30 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion ARM: Right solution for security Stays in ARM Hypervisor Mode The ARM architecture has separate Hypervisor and Kernel modes Because Xen’s architecture maps so well to the ARM architecture, Xen never has to use Kernel mode Other hypervisors have to flip back and forth between modes If a hypervisor has to enter Kernel mode, it loses the security of running in a privileged mode, isolated from the rest of the system This is a non-issue with the Xen Hypervisor on ARM Does not need to use device emulation No emulation means a smaller attack surface for bad guys CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 31 / 32
  • Introduction Network path Bootloader Device model Xen Conclusion For More Information... Details at http://wiki.xenproject.org/wiki/Securing Xen Thanks to George Dunlap for supplying much of the information presented here, and Stefano Stabellini for ARM information Check out our blog: http://blog.xenproject.org/ Contact me at russell.pavlicek@xenproject.org ——————————– Thank You! CloudOpen North America 2013 Securing Your Cloud with Xen Project’s Advanced Security Features 32 / 32