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Basic Fingerprint Infromation by Captain Russ Lescault August 2009
 
What are Fingerprints? <ul><li>Fingerprint Composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>friction skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epid...
Fingerprints <ul><li>Fingerprints have two important characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Permanence   and </li></ul><ul><li...
Fingerprints <ul><li>Fingerprints have two important characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Permanence   and </li></ul><ul><li...
Basics <ul><li>Fingerprints are permanent and unique to each individual.  </li></ul><ul><li>Every primate  (humans, monkey...
Basics <ul><li>Fingerprints are permanent and unique to each individual.  </li></ul><ul><li>Every primate  (humans, monkey...
Basics <ul><li>Fingerprints are permanent and unique to each individual.  </li></ul><ul><li>Every primate  (humans, monkey...
Fingerprint Types <ul><ul><li>Latent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invisible or almost invisible prints. If you pick up a gla...
Fingerprint Types <ul><ul><li>Latent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invisible or almost invisible prints. If you pick up a gla...
Fingerprint Types <ul><ul><li>latent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingerprints that are ma...
Fingerprint Types <ul><ul><li>latent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingerprints that are ma...
Fingerprint Types <ul><ul><li>latent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>patent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic </li></ul></ul><...
Fingerprint Types <ul><ul><li>latent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>patent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic </li></ul></ul><...
Fingerprint Processing: Types <ul><li>Powders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Powder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic Powde...
 
 
Fingerprint  Identification Basics Pattern types:  there are three basic fingerprint pattern types,  whorl  (to the left),...
Loop Pattern has a right or left slant (leans) Fingerprint  Identification Basics
Arch Looks like a ‘hill’ Fingerprint  Identification Basics
History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1500 BC: In ancient Babylon, fingerprints were used on clay tablets for business transacti...
History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1500 BC: In ancient Babylon, fingerprints were used on clay tablets for business transacti...
History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1500 BC: In ancient Babylon, fingerprints were used on clay tablets for business transacti...
History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1880  Henry Faulds, a Scottish doctor living in Japan began collecting fingerprints. By ch...
History of Fingerprints Henry Faulds (1843-1930)
History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1892  Sir Francis Galton’s contribution was to firmly establish that fingerprints are uniq...
History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1892  Sir Francis Galton’s contribution was to firmly establish that fingerprints are uniq...
History of Fingerprints <ul><li>The first accepted scientific method of identification was developed by Alphonse Bertillon...
History of Fingerprints Used from 1882 to 1903
History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1897  Sir Edward Henry solved the fingerprint-indexing problem with an ingenious solution ...
History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1897  Sir Edward Henry solved the fingerprint-indexing problem with an ingenious solution ...
History of Fingerprints <ul><li>The Will West case </li></ul><ul><li>Leavenworth, Kansas </li></ul><ul><li>Will Wes  arriv...
History of Fingerprints Fingerprints replaced the Bertillon system Will West and William West had different  fingerprints ...
 
History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1902   The first year for the first known systematic use of fingerprint identification beg...
History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1904   The fingerprint system accelerated when the United States Penitentiary at Leavenwor...
History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1963  (JFK Assassination)   Two fingerprints are found on the rifle taken from the sixth f...
History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1999  - The FBI phases out the use of paper fingerprint cards with their new Integrated AF...
History of Fingerprints <ul><li>2008  -   The FBI's master criminal fingerprint file contains the records of approximately...
Galton  or  identification points  are   readily definable areas where the ridge “or  lines” intersect or stop What makes ...
Galton  or  identification points  are   readily definable areas where the ridge “or  lines” intersect or stop What makes ...
A comparable fingerprint  has to have at  identification points .  What makes a Fingerprint Comparable ?   This includes f...
Suspect’s fingerprint when he was arrested Fingerprint found at the crime scene They match!
What is  AFIS  ?   A utomated F ingerprint I dentification S ystem
 
Examiner Enters  Latent into AFIS 1)  makes the decision if a latent is of AFIS Quality (a)  8 to 12 points (b)  identifia...
Examiner Enters  Latent into AFIS Examiner : 1)  makes the decision if a latent is of AFIS Quality (a)  8 to 12 points (b)...
The AFIS computer automatically identifies  the Galton points and maps them into the  computer, which is verified by the E...
The AFIS system then  makes a match... <ul><li>The Va AFIS system searches the 2.5 million fingerprints on file   </li></u...
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Fingerprints basics for scouts

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  • Example of a 25 year old white male with red hair wearing red shirt and blue jeans robs a 7-Eleven store with a Smith and Wesson model 64 .38 caliber revolver. During the robbery the robber fires off a shot into the ceiling to influence the store clerk. Twenty minutes after the robbery a w/m with red hair, wearing a red shirt and blue jeans is found five blocks away, carrying a Smith &amp; Wesson model 64 .38 caliber revolver and a 7-Eleven bag filled with US currency. All the information involving this red-headed white male is circumstanial evidence , whereas the match of the bullet in the ceiling of the 7-Eleven store to the revovler he was carrying is Direct evidence.
  • Transcript of "Fingerprints basics for scouts"

    1. 1. Basic Fingerprint Infromation by Captain Russ Lescault August 2009
    2. 3. What are Fingerprints? <ul><li>Fingerprint Composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>friction skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>98-99% water; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1-2% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fatty acids, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>amino acids, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>minerals </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 4. Fingerprints <ul><li>Fingerprints have two important characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Permanence and </li></ul><ul><li>Uniqueness (Individual) </li></ul>
    4. 5. Fingerprints <ul><li>Fingerprints have two important characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Permanence and </li></ul><ul><li>Uniqueness (Individual) </li></ul>
    5. 6. Basics <ul><li>Fingerprints are permanent and unique to each individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Every primate (humans, monkeys, chimpanzees, etc.) has friction ridges on the soles of their feet (footprints ) and hands ( finger and palm prints ). </li></ul>Monkey fingerprint
    6. 7. Basics <ul><li>Fingerprints are permanent and unique to each individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Every primate (humans, monkeys, chimpanzees, etc.) has friction ridges on the soles of their feet (footprints ) and hands ( finger and palm prints ). </li></ul><ul><li>The friction ridges are covered with oils, salts and amino acid, which can be transferred to a surface causing latent (invisible) finger, palm or footprints. </li></ul><ul><li>Friction ridges (finger, palm and foot prints) start to form at 12 weeks gestation in the womb and remain </li></ul><ul><li>They can even be more unique than DNA, in fact identical twins can have the same DNA, but completely different fingerprints </li></ul>
    7. 8. Basics <ul><li>Fingerprints are permanent and unique to each individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Every primate (humans, monkeys, chimpanzees, etc.) has friction ridges on the soles of their feet (footprints ) and hands ( finger and palm prints ). </li></ul><ul><li>The friction ridges are covered with oils, salts and amino acid, which can be transferred to a surface causing latent (invisible) finger, palm or footprints. </li></ul><ul><li>Friction ridges (finger, palm and foot prints) start to form at 12 weeks gestation in the womb and remain </li></ul><ul><li>They can even be more unique than DNA, in fact identical twins can have the same DNA, but completely different fingerprints </li></ul>Monkey fingerprint
    8. 9. Fingerprint Types <ul><ul><li>Latent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invisible or almost invisible prints. If you pick up a glass object, your fingers will leave a residue of perspiration and body oil in the pattern of your fingerprints. A chemical medium is used to develop the print (carbon, aluminum or florescent powders or other chemicals) and an image of each print is formed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>patent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plastic </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. Fingerprint Types <ul><ul><li>Latent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invisible or almost invisible prints. If you pick up a glass object, your fingers will leave a residue of perspiration and body oil in the pattern of your fingerprints. A chemical medium is used to develop the print (carbon, aluminum or florescent powders or other chemicals) and an image of each print is formed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>patent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plastic </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Fingerprint Types <ul><ul><li>latent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingerprints that are made when a hand has been dipped into paint, ink, grease, blood, or another opaque liquid, and then has touched something else. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plastic </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Fingerprint Types <ul><ul><li>latent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingerprints that are made when a hand has been dipped into paint, ink, grease, blood, or another opaque liquid, and then has touched something else. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plastic </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Fingerprint Types <ul><ul><li>latent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>patent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingerprints that are left when a person touches a semisoft, impressionable substance, such as putty, clay, plastic, dough, or wet plaster . </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. Fingerprint Types <ul><ul><li>latent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>patent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingerprints that are left when a person touches a semisoft, impressionable substance, such as putty, clay, plastic, dough, or wet plaster . </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. Fingerprint Processing: Types <ul><li>Powders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Powder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic Powder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Florescent Powder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aluminum Powder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemicals (lab) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine Fuming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ninhydrin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver Nitrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyanoacrylate Fuming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sticky-side Tape Solution </li></ul></ul>
    15. 18. Fingerprint Identification Basics Pattern types: there are three basic fingerprint pattern types, whorl (to the left), arch and loop. Whorl : swirling pattern
    16. 19. Loop Pattern has a right or left slant (leans) Fingerprint Identification Basics
    17. 20. Arch Looks like a ‘hill’ Fingerprint Identification Basics
    18. 21. History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1500 BC: In ancient Babylon, fingerprints were used on clay tablets for business transactions. </li></ul>
    19. 22. History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1500 BC: In ancient Babylon, fingerprints were used on clay tablets for business transactions. </li></ul><ul><li>1000 BC: In ancient China, thumb prints were found on clay seals. </li></ul><ul><li>In 14th century Persia, various official government papers had fingerprints (impressions), and one government official, a doctor, observed that no two fingerprints were exactly alike </li></ul><ul><li>1856 - The English first began using fingerprints in July of 1858, when Sir William Herschel, Chief Magistrate in India, first used fingerprints on native contracts. </li></ul>
    20. 23. History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1500 BC: In ancient Babylon, fingerprints were used on clay tablets for business transactions. </li></ul><ul><li>1000 BC: In ancient China, thumb prints were found on clay seals. </li></ul><ul><li>In 14th century Persia, various official government papers had fingerprints (impressions), and one government official, a doctor, observed that no two fingerprints were exactly alike </li></ul><ul><li>1856 - The English first began using fingerprints in July of 1858, when Sir William Herschel, Chief Magistrate in India, first used fingerprints on native contracts. </li></ul>
    21. 24. History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1880 Henry Faulds, a Scottish doctor living in Japan began collecting fingerprints. By chance, he was asked to help investigate a crime in which very clear fingerprints in soot were left at a crime scene. </li></ul><ul><li>He was able to convince the authorities that their number one suspect could not have left the prints, but a minor suspect must have left the prints. </li></ul><ul><li>This was the first time a crime was solved based on fingerprint evidence. Faulds wrote a letter on the subject to the journal Nature , October 1880. </li></ul>Henry Faulds (1843-1930)
    22. 25. History of Fingerprints Henry Faulds (1843-1930)
    23. 26. History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1892 Sir Francis Galton’s contribution was to firmly establish that fingerprints are unique, using a simple yet elegant mathematical argument. </li></ul><ul><li>1892 he published the book &quot;Finger Prints“. Minutia are sometimes called “Galton Details” in his honor. </li></ul>Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911)
    24. 27. History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1892 Sir Francis Galton’s contribution was to firmly establish that fingerprints are unique, using a simple yet elegant mathematical argument. 1892 he published the book &quot;Finger Prints“. Minutia are sometimes called “Galton Details” in his honor. </li></ul>Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911)
    25. 28. History of Fingerprints <ul><li>The first accepted scientific method of identification was developed by Alphonse Bertillon in the late 1800s. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bertillon system relied on a combination of physical measurements taken by carefully prescribed procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>, Bertillon could place the dimensions of any single person into one of 243 distinct categories </li></ul>Used from 1882 to 1903
    26. 29. History of Fingerprints Used from 1882 to 1903
    27. 30. History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1897 Sir Edward Henry solved the fingerprint-indexing problem with an ingenious solution in 1897. Scotland Yard adopted the Henry-System in 1901. </li></ul><ul><li>Since then, the system has been adopted by virtually every country in the world </li></ul>Sir Edward Henry (1850-1931)
    28. 31. History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1897 Sir Edward Henry solved the fingerprint-indexing problem with an ingenious solution in 1897. Scotland Yard adopted the Henry-System in 1901. Since then, the system has been adopted by virtually every country in the world </li></ul>Sir Edward Henry (1850-1931)
    29. 32. History of Fingerprints <ul><li>The Will West case </li></ul><ul><li>Leavenworth, Kansas </li></ul><ul><li>Will Wes arrived at the Federal Penitentiary in 1903. West denied any previous incarceration there; but when the record clerk took his Bertillon measurements, they matched those on file for William West . </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, the photographs of William West looked identical to the new prisoner. But when the clerk turned over the card, it showed that William West was currently imprisoned in Leavenworth . </li></ul>
    30. 33. History of Fingerprints Fingerprints replaced the Bertillon system Will West and William West had different fingerprints .
    31. 35. History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1902 The first year for the first known systematic use of fingerprint identification began in the United States. The New York Civil Service Commission established the practice of fingerprinting applicants to pre-vent them from having better qualified persons take their tests for them. </li></ul><ul><li>On 27th June 1902 the first conviction by fingerprint evidence in the US was obtained. Harry Jackson was given 7 years penal servitude for burglary </li></ul>
    32. 36. History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1904 The fingerprint system accelerated when the United States Penitentiary at Leavenworth, Kansas, and the St. Louis, Missouri, Police Department both established fingerprint bureaus. </li></ul><ul><li>1921 The growing need and demand by police officials for a national repository for fingerprint records led to an Act of Congress establishing the Identification Division of the FBI . </li></ul>
    33. 37. History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1963 (JFK Assassination) Two fingerprints are found on the rifle taken from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository. The first was located on the left side of the trigger housing of the rifle as it was held in a forward position. A second area containing a palm print was found on the underside of the disassembled rifle barrel. Both identified to Lee Harvey Oswald. </li></ul><ul><li>1990s – AFIS, or Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems, begin widespread use around the country. This computerized system of storing and cross-referencing criminal fingerprint records would eventually become capable of searching millions of fingerprint files in minutes, revolutionizing law enforcement efforts. </li></ul>
    34. 38. History of Fingerprints <ul><li>1999 - The FBI phases out the use of paper fingerprint cards with their new Integrated AFIS (IAFIS) site at Clarksburg, West Virginia. IAFIS starts with individual computerized fingerprint records for approximately 33 million criminals. </li></ul><ul><li>2002 – The FBI 50K study&quot; took a set of 50,000 pre-existing images of fingerprints and compared each one electronically against the whole of the data set, producing a grand total of 2.5 billion comparisons. It concluded that the chances of each image being mistaken by the computer for any of the other 49,999 images were vanishingly small, at 1 in 1097. </li></ul>
    35. 39. History of Fingerprints <ul><li>2008 - The FBI's master criminal fingerprint file contains the records of approximately 55 million individuals, while their civil file represents approximately 31+ million individuals. </li></ul>
    36. 40. Galton or identification points are readily definable areas where the ridge “or lines” intersect or stop What makes a Fingerprint Comparable ?
    37. 41. Galton or identification points are readily definable areas where the ridge “or lines” intersect or stop What makes a Fingerprint Comparable ? Galton or identification points are readily definable areas where the ridge “or lines” intersect or stop
    38. 42. A comparable fingerprint has to have at identification points . What makes a Fingerprint Comparable ? This includes fingerprints, palm prints and partial fingerprints Palm Partial Latent Fingerprint
    39. 43. Suspect’s fingerprint when he was arrested Fingerprint found at the crime scene They match!
    40. 44. What is AFIS ? A utomated F ingerprint I dentification S ystem
    41. 46. Examiner Enters Latent into AFIS 1) makes the decision if a latent is of AFIS Quality (a) 8 to 12 points (b) identifiable core or delta 2) If the system does not have a direct scan feature, they scan the print 5times it’s normal size 3) traces the print What happens now?
    42. 47. Examiner Enters Latent into AFIS Examiner : 1) makes the decision if a latent is of AFIS Quality (a) 8 to 12 points (b) identifiable core or delta 2) If system does not have a direct scan featurem then they scans the print 5 times it’s normal size 3) traces the print 4) enters the scan or tracing into AFIS computer Examiner Enters Latent into AFIS
    43. 48. The AFIS computer automatically identifies the Galton points and maps them into the computer, which is verified by the Examiner Then what happens?
    44. 49. The AFIS system then makes a match... <ul><li>The Va AFIS system searches the 2.5 million fingerprints on file </li></ul><ul><li>The system generates a list of candidates (suspects) </li></ul><ul><li>The Examiner then compares the listed candidates to confirm (or reject) if there is a match. </li></ul>
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