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    PUBLIC LAW 107-110, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
    TITLE I—IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED
    PART A—IMPROVING BASIC PROGRAMS OPERATED BY LOCAL EDUCATIONAL AGENCIES
    Subpart 1—Basic Program Requirements
    SEC. 1111. STATE PLANS.
    (3) ACADEMIC ASSESSMENTS
    (A)IN GENERAL
    Page 25
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  • Transcript

    • 1. Preparing For and Administering High Stakes, State-Mandated Tests, in the Cyber Environment Russell A. Gallagher, Ed.D. Heather Gowton
    • 2. 2 Purpose • Cyber programs in US are growing • NCLB mandates state level assessments • Testing in cyber environment presents unique challenges • Will discuss how 21CCCS plans, prepares, and trains for administering the test
    • 3. 3 States with State Virtual Schools and State-led Online Initiatives Figure 1: Watson, J. (2010). Keeping pace with K-12 online learning: an annual review of state-level policy and practice.
    • 4. 4 States With Full-time, Statewide Online Schools Figure 2: Watson, J. (2010). Keeping pace with K-12 online learning: an annual review of state-level policy and practice.
    • 5. 5 Cyber School Enrollment Changes 2009-10 Figure 4: Watson, J. (2010). Keeping pace with K-12 online learning: an annual review of state-level policy and practice.
    • 6. 6 Pennsylvania Cyber Charter Schools • 2009-10: 11 cyber charter schools • 12th opened in 2010 – Bilingual • Serving 24,000+ students • Most located in or near major cities – Philadelphia, Harrisburg, Pittsburgh • Some have multiple locations • Draw students from across the state
    • 7. 7 Characteristics and Attributes of On-Line Programs Figure 5: Watson, J. (2009). Keeping pace with k-12 online learning: an annual review of state-level policy and practice.
    • 8. 8 Characteristics and Attributes of the 21st Century Cyber Charter School
    • 9. 9 21st Century Cyber Charter School • Public, Tuition-Free, Diploma Granting Charter School • Asynchronous Learning Network (ALN) • Serves Pennsylvania students in grades 6 through 12 • Made AYP for five consecutive years • Highest state test scores of all cyber PA cyber charter schools • 21CCCS teacher-developed curriculum based on state standards
    • 10. 10 Key Terms • Moodle - Learning Management System (lessons, resources, assignments) • Elluminate - Virtual Classroom, where students come to learn – Virtual Office - Subject area specific – Lectures • Intermediate Unit - Regional education service agencies in Pennsylvania • Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) - Pennsylvania high-stakes test (Reading/Math, Writing, Science) • Study Island - Provider of web-based standards mastery products
    • 11. 11 NCLB Requirement Each State plan shall demonstrate that the State educational agency, in consultation with local educational agencies, has implemented a set of high quality, yearly student academic assessments that include, at a minimum, academic assessments in mathematics, reading or language arts, and science that will be used as the primary means of determining the yearly performance of the State and of each local educational agency…
    • 12. 12 Why High Stakes Testing? • 2001 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) – State defined – Schools must show Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) – All students must pass by 2014 • Why we test? – Motivation for teachers and schools – Curriculum alignment – Information from students • Data provided to teachers • Adjust instruction – Symbolism • Public awareness
    • 13. 13 Challenges for Cyber Schools • Students test state-wide – Geographically dispersed sites • No direct or daily interface with students: – Anonymity – Preparation – Selecting and coordinating test sites • Wide range of student backgrounds
    • 14. 14 Testing Sites PALO 21st Century Cyber
    • 15. 15 Challenges for Students and Parents • 21CCCS used 34 testing locations: – 21CCCS: 8 – PA Learners Online: 6 – Local Districts: 20 • Getting students to the test – Travel Time – Parent/Student work schedules • Location – Distance from home – Environment/Distractions • Exam Fatigue – All testing in four days
    • 16. 16 • Researchers have demonstrated a positive relationship between test-taking motivation and test performance. • […] students can raise their scores on aptitude and achievement tests by taking practice forms of the tests. Test Taking Success: Preparation and Motivation
    • 17. 17 Preparation: 2009-10 School Year • Study Island • Blue Ribbon Challenge – 6th , 7th , 8th , and 11th grades – Targeted “At Risk” students • Previous state test scores • Math and reading grades – 4 benchmark exams – Extra credit winter and spring break challenges – Tutorial videos for preparation
    • 18. 18 Motivation: 2009-10 School Year • Prior to Testing – Motivational Videos • 3 words (created by students, parents, and staff) • Jib Jab – Teacher Captains • Competition • Communication • During Testing – Daily contest – Break activity – Individual activity – Group photo – Nutritional snacks – Tokens and souvenirs • Met with limited success
    • 19. 19 Preparation: 2010-11 School Year • Started as soon as students returned to school • Comprehensive preparation plan • Superpowers Class • Reading/Writing Preparation Program • Learning Coaches – Communication – Rewards system
    • 20. 20 Comprehensive Testing Preparation and Execution Plan 20 steps including: • Performance improvement team • 3-step procedure – Assess, Analyze, & Act • School-wide data calendar • Integration of intervention tool • Real-world problems • Problem solving process
    • 21. 21 Comprehensive Testing Preparation and Execution Plan (Continued) • Dedicated Math teaching assistant • Tutoring • Teacher professional development – Some asynchronous • Motivation program • Parental involvement • Restructure cohort seating
    • 22. 22 Superpowers Class • Separate High School and Middle School • Benchmarks • Weekly assignments – Study Island – Supported by Moodle – Adjusted based upon previous weeks and BM results – Grades 6th - 11th • 4 Benchmark exams • Targets all students • Weekly Blue Ribbon exam
    • 23. 23 English Superpowers • Comic Book – 5 Themes: Focus, Content, Organization, Style, Conventions – Mini Lessons • Targeted Intervention – BM scores – Current/Previous English grades and performance • In classes – Specific Feedback – Positive Reinforcement • Writing exam taken on computer – Transcribed by staff
    • 24. 24 Incentives • Positive: – Incentive Awards Program – Positive calls/emails to parents • Negative: – Restrictions to computer use – Negative calls to parents – Automatic emails – Mandated study session – Truancy/Suspension
    • 25. 25 Rewards Plan
    • 26. 26 Teacher Training • Study Island training • Weekly assignment training • Coordination team training • MS Math certification classes for all non-Math teachers and TAs • Test administration training
    • 27. 27 Test Administration • Selection of locations • Ensuring proper test environment • Coordinating staff • Travel for proctors • Impact on classes
    • 28. 28 Questions?
    • 29. 29 Contact Information • 21st Century Cyber Charter School – 484-875-5400 – info@21cccs.org • Russ Gallagher – 484-875-5459 – rgallagher@21cccs.org • Heather Gowton – 484-875-5446 – hgowton@21cccs.org
    • 30. 30 References Arvey, R. D., Strickland, W., Drauden, G., & Martin, C. (1990). Motivational components of test taking. Personnel Psychology, 43(4), 695-716. Hoover, J.P. (2010) Cyber school students have disadvantage with PSSA tests. The Morning Call. Retrieved on Oct 21, 2010 <http://articles.mcall.com/2010-09-02/opinion/mc-james-hoover-charter- schools-yv-20100902_1_cyber-schools-ayp-school-assessment-tests/2> Kulik, J.A. . (1984). Effect of practice on aptitude and achievement test scores. American Eduational Research Journal, 21(2), Retrieved from http://aer.sagepub.com/content/21/2/435.short doi: 10.3102/00028312021002435 Supovitz, J. (2010) Is high-stakes testing working? PennGSE Digital Edition. Retrieved on Oct 22, 2010 < http://www.gse.upenn.edu/review/feature/supovitz> Watson, J. (2010). Keeping pace with K-12 online learning: an annual review of state-level policy and practice. Proceedings of the iNACOL conference (pp. 6-21).

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