inside August 2011 features Editor’s Notep02 Initial Thoughtsp04 Leaders Insights Envisioning Asia 2060 22 Experts Insightsp06 Foresight and Challenges in Communicating its Result to Decision Makers Industry Insightsp09 New Business Potential Via Resource Recovery in the Wastewater Sectorp15 Growing Together - Future Forum 2020: A Foresight Project for Natural Fiberp20 The Challenges of Research in Malaysia: Prioritisation of Research and Bringing Research to the Market 32 Foresight Interconnect™p14 myForesight™ Bookclub cover storyp22 Greening the Future Through Malaysian Biomass Initiatives (MBI) Trends & Issuesp32 Cloud Computing for SMEs in Malaysia: A Public Private Partnership- Unlocking the Potential of Cloud Computing for a New World of Businessp34 The National Science and Research Council 34p38 Can We Ignore Nuclear? Viewpointsp40 Foresight on Construction Technology Manufactured Housing/Industrialised Building System (IBS)p48 A Letter From The FutureEDITORIAL BOARDEDITOR-IN-CHIEF PUBLISHED BYRushdi Abdul Rahim Malaysian Industry-Government Group for High TechnologyWRITERS Prime Ministers Department 3517, Jalan Teknokrat 5Datuk Ir. Abdul Kadir Mohd Din 63000 Cyberjaya Selangor Darul Ehsan 40Claudio Chauke Nehme www.might.org.myMarcio De Miranda SantosLelio Fellows Filho FOR INQUIRIESGilda Massari Coelho myForesight™Dilip TambyrajahNik Ahmad Faizul Abdul Mallek Phone : +603 8315 7888Puvaneswary Ramasamy Fax : +603 8312 0300John Galligan E-mail : email@example.comDr. Dzaharudin Mansor Website : www.myforesight.myDr. Vilasini PillaiMuhammad Hasif Hasan DISCLAIMERAbdul Rahman Hamdan Any article included in this publication and/Patrick Ethe Raj or opinions expressed therein do not necessarilyK. Thambiratnam reflect the views of the myForesight™M.S. Shahir but remain solely those of the author(s).CONTRIBUTORS The Publisher is not to be held responsible forMohd Nurul Azammi Mohd Nudri any copyright violation of articles, which have been provided by contributing writers.Natrah Mohd EmranMohd Afzanizam Mohd BahrinAni Suzila AnasAhmad Nazri AbudinMohd Kamaruzaman Abdullah
August 2011 editor’s note Initial Thoughts BY RUSHDI ABDUL RAHIM Director myForesight™ firstname.lastname@example.org Talk of the future has never failed to illicit comments from individuals with diverse and marginalizing opinions. This is especially true in the form of things we need to focus on to reach our desired future. I t has been an interesting quarter for us at u Utilization of a well-known framework/model; account; social & environmental impacts, safety & myForesight. The past few months saw us security etc. It is worth to note that PEMANDU2 presenting our body of work to the global u The process must be transparent; themselves acknowledges the NKEA are not audience during the FTA conference in intended to be definitive but serves as a starting Seville, Spain; experts and colleagues in u Will be problems or issues based either point. Manchester Institute of Innovation Research realized or anticipated; (MIoIR) as well as participants of a seminar Tan Sri Dato Zulkifli’s article on envisioning organized by ISTIC-UNESCO. Whereas at u Trans-disciplinary and diverse engagement of Asia 2060 describes on the need of taking various the home front, recommendations were being stakeholders; factors into account in developing visions of the considered, uptakes on the focus areas are future. made and to be implemented into realizable u Considerations into long term impact and programmes. strategies; Through our participation of FTA conference in May, we have managed to widen our network, This is particularly true in the case of conversion u Considerations of resources and leverage on the experience of other countries that of palm oil into bio mass energy which is our competencies. has also conducted foresight initiatives. Therefore, cover story. The Malaysian Biomass initiative in this issue, we are providing the Brazilian (MBI) is a programme under the Global Science Foresight anyone? Keep watching this space for case study of the challenges in communicating Innovation Advisory Council (GSIAC) which more updates on this matter. You will find details foresight results to decision makers. was announced with much fanfare in New York on the NSRC on page 34. by our Prime Minister on the 17th of May 2011. For this issue, insights from the industry includes Leveraging on global network and expertise, Talk of the future has never failed to illicit Datuk Abdul Kadir’s piece on the business potential GSIAC will be the platform for Malaysia to tap comments from individuals with diverse and of waste water sector as well as contributions from into the knowledge of world renowned experts in marginalizing opinions. This is especially true in International Natural Fibre Organization on the their respective field in the realm on S&T. Suffice the form of things we need to focus on to reach future of natural fibre. to say that the selection of the initiative took stock our desired future. Now, it seems that everybody of the focus areas identified by myForesight. is currently jumping into the PEMANDU ETP As usual, we hope you find the magazine NKEA bandwagon. Unfortunately, there are beneficial and thought provoking. We have also presented findings that were made widespread misconceptions that anything that during the last National Technology Foresight to is not part of the NKEA is not worth taking We expect you to have your opinion on certain the newly formed National Science & Research a look. People tend to forget the NKEA are matters. We want to hear them. We welcome your Council (NSRC). One of the main tasks of the short to medium term focus areas which is feedback and contributions. NSRC was to identify and prioritize the focus intended on trying to achieve our aspirations areas for Malaysia’s R&D activities. Note that the of being developed nation by 2020. However council members pointed out that to prioritize in envisioning the future, there are other the areas, it must satisfy the following:- considerations that needs to be taken into
August 2011 leaders insights Envisioning Asia 2060 BY Professor Tan Sri Dato Dzulkifli Abd Razak Vice-Chancellor Universiti Sains Malaysia Experience has shown that countries that grow rich are not necessarily those well-endowed with natural resources but those that invest wisely in building their human capital and4 allocating a reasonable percentage of their gross domestic product to research and development. A group of experts met last week The competing interests of economics and Union may be too Eurocentric to be modelled by at Tamkang University Graduate geopolitics are still measured and characterised Asians in creating a common platform. Institute of Future Studies in Taipei by rules and procedures dictated by several to discuss "Global Transitions and international agencies marked by their vested, if Interestingly, Jeremy Rifkin made a similar Asia 2060". The broad focus of the subtle, pro-West agenda. Hence, virtually nothing observation vis-a-vis the US when he recognised meeting, co-hosted by the US-based Foundation new emerges based on the "tangibles". Asia is as early as 2005 that the American Dream was for the Future was on three areas — climate, trailing very much behind, struggling with the dying. "The American model is not working political economy and identity. The writer gave the catch-up game laid out by the West. and globalisation under American stewardship keynote address. has failed totally," he was quoted as saying In contrast, the contending view based on the (International Herald Tribune, March 26-27, The meeting came out with four possible scenarios "intangibles" is a more challenging one, drawing 2005). for the future, ranging from a borderless Asia in a from the strengths and norms that are closely changing world to one that is fragmented over and associated with, if not uniquely, Asia. He envisioned an European Dream "while trying above the current geopolitical boundaries. The to make European policies the default for the rest possibility of some of the bigger countries splitting The key argument is about bringing into focus of the world..." up into North and South, or even East and West the unifying elements that could make an Asian portions was not ruled out. "entity" based on commonalities as a source of In the same way, Asia needs to be doubly cautious cohesiveness. These are by and large the enduring about blindly emulating the existing models in Overall, perhaps the two most contentious ideas shared Asian values, without which it is difficult the West, especially in a new millennium with its in the discussions related to the issue of the to imagine even a cluster as successful as ASEAN multitude of new challenges, given the perception "tangibles" against the "intangibles". The former lasting. This is critical to realise because Asia is that a shift of gravity is taking place from the West reflected the thinking of the previous century and too diverse in terms of not only its population and to Asia as the worlds economic dynamo. was dominated by the existing Western-centric geographical size, but its level of development, matrixes despite the increasingly precarious governance and democracy, distribution of wealth, However, some are still in denial this is happening. position of the so-called "Washington consensus". as well as existing disparities. Thus, the European One view expressed in the Foreign Policy
August 2011 leaders insights 5magazine ( July-August 2009) noted that Asia is Second, unlike the Western hemisphere, its Eastern climate, for example, Asias large population basenowhere near closing the economic and military counterpart has somehow been fragmented and the worsening overall pollution trends cangap with the West. It added that Asia does not into at least "Near", "Middle" and "Far" East that cripple its future ambitions.seem to play an equally inspiring role as the West ultimately make up much of Asia. To what extentas a thought leader. It seems that we are back to the can Asia iron out the apparent differences and Similarly, on the political economic front, someimportance of the "intangibles" beyond the idea become a truly unified global force of the future? participants were mindful of Asias history that isof nation-states and the capitalist ideology being Can Asia and its rich historical, cultural and littered with conflicts for power and resources,alien to this part of the world. After all, Asian roots civilisational experiences celebrate diversity as a now that China and India are being dubbed theare more community-oriented vis-a-vis that of major unifying platform towards a more globalised new colonisers.Americans and Europeans. world? Ultimately, this will have drastic ramifications forWith respect to this, I posed three questions that Lastly, given that the Confucian, Vedic and Islamic the issue of identity for Asias existence as a uniqueAsia needs to seriously ponder if it is to make a ethics are generally pervasive throughout Asia, non-Western entity and value system amidst thedifference beginning five decades from now. First, how far can they collectively redefine the current faltering Western Dream (not just American) thatas Asia pushes forward into the future, how much global ethics that evolved during the days of the Rifkin referred to.of the current global construct can it reshape Renaissance of Western Europe? This is takingto make it more just and fair? In the previous cognizance of the fact that todays global ethics That is not to say that Asians cannot learn from thecenturies, many global agendas were pursued by are failing, as indicated by the various global experiences of others, since it is naive to assumethe industrialised countries of the global north crises extending into ecology, economics and also that Asia has all the answers — especially inthat invariably put their interests ahead of the geopolitics, which therefore need to be urgently creating a more inclusive Global Dream, one thatrest, including Asia, perpetuating an uneven revisited. has the characteristics of an Asian Dream as well.playing field. Can Asia provide a more equitableleadership? In essence, to what extent are the three dimensions of climate, political economy and identity factored This article was published in The Edge Malaysia - into the Asia 2060 equation? On the issue of 22th November 2010
August 2011 experts insights Foresight and Challenges In Communicating Its Result To Decision Makers BY Claudio Chauke Nehme1,2, Marcio de Miranda Santos1, Lelio Fellows Filho1, Gilda Massari Coelho1 1-Centre for Strategic Studies and Management (CGEE) 2-Catholic University of Brasilia email@example.com This article is an excerpt from the original paper entitled “The Challenges of Communicating the Foresight Study Outcomes to Better Advise Decision Makers in Policy and Strategy Matters”. The paper was presented during the Fourth International Seville Conference on Future-Oriented Technology Analysis (FTA) and Grand Societal Challenges in Seville, Spain on the 12-13th May 2011.6 sharing perceptions, free of prejudices, cultural Introduction Out-of-the-box thinking in foresight influences, and reasoning processes. This concept exercises requires that experts and other stakeholders think The Center for Strategic Studies and Management about new possibilities and collectively foresee - CGEE is a non-profit Brazilian think tank, created The concept of out-of-the-box thinking adopted related approaches, imagine influences and impacts in 2001 and qualified as a Social Organization by the by CGEE is related to the Learning Organization regarding a specific issue. The mindset revision with Brazilian President, and supervised by Ministry of Theory (Tosey, 2005). The idea is to establish an experts and stakeholders uses mainly qualitative Science and Technology, in order to promote Science, oriented process aiming at making decisions or approaches. Technology and Innovation (ST&I) development to advance economic growth, competitiveness and well-being in Brazil. The scope of CGEEs activities Figure 1 CGEEs Methodological Approach covers three integrated themes: foresight studies; Definition of main objectives Planning main components strategic evaluation of large programs and projects; • Public policies and information and knowledge diffusion related to 1 • Strategic directives Strategic goals • • Strategic focus Time horizon the Brazilian ST&I System. CGEE is considered an • Special coverage • Institutional and expert mobilization interface organization in the ST&I environment. It • Duration and cost has the responsibility of articulating Government, Theme selection • Methodology (Method and techniques) 2 • Governmental plans and • Consultation (Target audience, extent, frequency and reach) Private Sector, Academia, and other relevant ST&I programs • Partners representatives in the sense of gathering collective • Priority issues • Relationships with ongoing initiatives • Critical questions • Available infrastructure understanding to develop its activities. From 2001 • Dissemination strategic Themes to date, CGEE has conducted nearly 400 foresight studies and program/project evaluations, mobilizing Initial phase Main phase Commitment phase Decision Making more than 2000 experts per year coming from 300 Look and see what What seems to be happening? What can be made? What will be done? institutions. 3 is happening What is really happening? What might happen? 4 How it will be done? • Collection and organization • Information interpretation • Dissemination of results • Selection of strategic What? This article addresses the challenges of of information • Knowledge production among stakeholders. options communicating the results of foresight processes to • Diagnostics studies and • Forecast and Foresight • Workshops. • Interaction of key How? methods and techniques • Publication and Brazilian decision makers in a way that truly supports analysis (Delphi, Roadmaps, communication tools decision makers • Intelligence systems • Options for strategic their decisions. It stresses the role of intangibles Scenarios, etc) (Report, Newsletters, Implementation of the • Better understanding of Press articles, Website) as a central outcome of foresight exercises and the Results SWOT and STEEPV • Network structuring main decision (Plans, • Collective learning • Extended perception of programs, etc) importance to promote out-of-the-box thinking. dimensions • Trends • List of key technologies strategic options. • Identification of other • Shared understanding of the • Consensus and Lessons learned are presented as well as a case study. main topic future implications commitment issues for future analysis. Information Knowlegde Commitment Strategy
What? • Selection of strategic of information • Knowledge production among stakeholders. options • Diagnostics studies and • Forecast and Foresight • Workshops. • Interaction of key How? analysis methods and techniques • Publication and August 2011 decision makers • Intelligence systems (Delphi, Roadmaps, communication tools Scenarios, etc) (Report, Newsletters, • Options for strategic • Better understanding of Press articles, Website) Implementation of the • Network structuring main decision (Plans, Results SWOT and STEEPV • Collective learning • Extended perception of programs, etc) dimensions • List of key technologies strategic options. • Identification of other • Trends • Shared understanding of the • Consensus and issues for future main topic future implications commitment analysis. experts insights Information Knowlegde Commitment Strategy Figure 2 Strategies to promote out-off-the-box thought FINEP: Defined Validation process Timeline Activities Understanding Premises FINEP: Government possible Company futures Short Term (5 years) Scenarios??? ST&I System FINEP’s Policy & PACTI Future Vision Action Plans Strategy PPA FINEP: Structuring National and international actions environments Possible answers How does to FINEP’s challenges FINEP perceive Studies and External Seminars: external scenarios possible reflexions about studies vs internal context futures influence relations Trends to short, middle, and long terms Group dynamics Game of change Planning Initial Consolidation Commitment phase Second, introducing collective intelligence phase phase over phase 7Intangibles all phases of the process in a systematic manner Case study: Negotiation of the proposal is the key for achieving success (Glenn, 2010). Data Collection Final studies Brazilian Innovation Agency. Future visionHigh importance and attention isand governance model In other words, collaboration, interaction and given to thegeneration of intangibles along the development communication are all important, as well as Preliminary diagnosis This topic describes briefly how CGEE recently Future trends and potential Core competenciesof strategic foresight exercises. The process of Initiating the process attempts to design and plan the foresight exercise on FINEP future impacts conducted an organizational foresight exercise for thesharing experiences, the collective learning and with a sense of anticipation, pointing out the most Survey main federal ST&I funding agency in Brazil – FINEP, (Includes final results of the Strategic objectivesunderstanding, the creation of shared commitment difficult points and where revisions of mindsets areinterviews known as the Brazilian Innovation Agency GTs, timeline, also with stakeholders andon the main decisions to be taken and the and discussionexpected. Preliminary studies Presentation shared workshops) (Coelho, et al., 2011). FINEPs mission is to promote Strategic roadmap of the work planvision on future possibilities are all intangibles to the economic and social development in Brazil throughbe pursued. Their value many times surpasses and The foresight Timeline exercises conducted by CGEE public funding of science, technology and innovation Implementation ofcomplements tangible outcomes, such as reports the governance model Figure comprise three distinct phases, as seen inUpdated diagnosis businesses, universities, technological institutions inand publications, as they are usually absorbed as 1. The InitialBenchmarking Phase establishes the baseline of the (Includes final results of theother public and private organizations. andknowledge by those participating. GTs, benchmarking, SWOT, exercise, usually mapping what is going surveyand workshops) on related Interviews to the main issue. The Main Phase is where most The challenge of promoting out-of-the-box thinking interpretation of information takes place and was very complex in this case. It required a broad creativity is required at the bestand validation workshops Mobilization, thematic of the participant’s exercise of exploring future perspectives and aMethodological Approach capacity. Studies, scenario planning, workshops, systematic process of questioning "what is going on" and and electronic tools are applied, among others, in "what should we do differently", with the participationThere are some key elements embedded in order to revise and transform mindsets, understand of staff and a range of potential beneficiaries andCGEEs methodological approach. First and most possible futures associated to the main issues. In stakeholders. Figure 2 presents the main ideas andimportant, stakeholders must be involved in the this phase, CGEE intends to build a good decision- designed strategy on how out-of-the-box thinking wasexercise from the very beginning. They must feel making process, making it as comprehensive as implemented at the agency.comfortable and confident to participate in all possible. In the Dissemination Phase the mainphases, irrespective to the complexities involved. recommendations are fine-tuned with decision The turning point to truly revise its mindset was whenTo have them engaged, CGEE’s team must listen, makers in all their aspects and an implementation FINEP was prepared to visualize its challenges andinterpret and understand the client’s needs, strategy is first designed. a feasible strategic position for itself in the future. Indesires and preoccupations and to describe and other words, to define a challenging, yet successful,translate - to all participants, in an understandable Future Vision required a strategy which, on one hand,way - the main objectives and strategic goals taking should balance the knowledge related to the presentinto consideration possibilities, opportunities and and some relevant future possibilities, and on the otherdifferent perspectives. hand, should compare, contrast and merge the internal and external views.
FINEP: Structuringternational actions August 2011 Possible answers How does to FINEP’s challenges FINEP perceive Studies and Externall scenarios possible reflexions about studies futures influence relations Trends to short, middle, and long termsdynamics experts insights Game of change Figure 3 Methodological process for the development of FINEP/SMP situation emerges from the policy environment. The sense of timing is related to the sense of opportunity so as to create initiatives and projects Planning Initial Consolidation Commitment phase phase phase phase in the course of a government mandate. The main challenge is to introduce a long-term perception Negotiation of the proposal Data Collection Final studies Future vision and analysis to elaborate strategic foresight for the and governance model interest of the State. Preliminary diagnosis Future trends and potential Core competencies Initiating the process future impacts on FINEP Second, in the corporate sector, in general, there is Survey (Includes final results of the Strategic objectives doubt about the importance of long-term strategies. GTs, timeline, interviews Presentation and discussion with stakeholders and The sense of timing is driven by the necessity of Preliminary studies of the work plan workshops) Strategic roadmap urgent decision-making. An aptitude can be noted Timeline for a competitive intelligence approach rather than Implementation of Updated diagnosis strategic foresight. But, on the other hand, when a the governance model Benchmarking (Includes final results of the strategic foresight starts to make sense, this kind GTs, benchmarking, SWOT, of stakeholder usually invests in getting involved Interviews surveyand workshops) in the foresight exercise and, afterwards, becomes one of the most active decision makers and takes Mobilization, thematic and validation workshops advantage of the foresight outcomes. Last, the Academia circle has strong barriers in accepting strategic foresight conduction. In this The construction process, shown in Figure stakeholders – around three thousand people-, not case, time is not a problem; the scientific and 3, was participatory and involved internal and only with the process, but also – and mainly – with methodological rigor is more important and it is external stakeholders in a continuous process of its continuity. crucial to get this kind of stakeholder involved. After value addition to the information obtained in the this first moment, the strategic foresight exercise process, always searching for consensus among the This represents an important intangible gain, where becomes an extremely gratifying activity. 8 participants at the various stages of the process. the process was as important as the outcomes. Strategic foresight proved to be a powerful In concluding, the Foresight exercises are usually The planning phase included defining the strategic instrument for long-term planning, counting on exposed to some dangerous traps or milestones management plan methodology and governance a diversity of methods and techniques and, above along their applications. In order to avoid model for managing the process, motivating and all, having flexibility and resilience in its application these situations, it is important to note some mobilizing the workforce. which enabled its adaptation to the specific needs characteristics related to each group: of the study. Some premises oriented the proposal: n Government representatives frequently start The principle of participation that generates making decisions before interpreting what was n Participatory process - the involvement of commitment and the use of methods that rely obtained in the first phase (information and managers, employees, experts and stakeholders simultaneously on evidence, creativity, expertise data gathering), as discussed before. in all stages of the process. and interaction, conferred methodological robustness to the process and provided quality to n Corporate executives may have difficulties n Commitment by the senior management, the results. thinking beyond their business. Foresight regarding the process, the methodology and exercises and innovation strategies are the results obtained. interconnected and it is important to stress the possible influence and impacts from other n Strategies focused on prospective vision and on Lessons learned business segments. the definition of strategic guidelines covering horizons of 5, 10 and 15 years. The case study presented, as well as others prepared n Academia often has difficulties thinking by CGEE, identified three types of decision makers: beyond disciplinary structures. Due to a long n Thinking out-of-the-box, with the stimulus to do government, corporate, and academia. disciplinary tradition of research and learning different things differently. in the academic world, when foresight exercises Their different perspectives must be taken into and innovation strategies are applied to new n Governance model built to contribute to the consideration during the development of the future possibilities in academia, huge efforts development of the plan, validation and foresight study and when communicating its of mindset revision and transformation are application of results and with clear attribution results. Preparation and delivery timing vary needed. of responsibilities between the parties. substantially among government, corporate and academia clients, so it is very important to be aware and respect their timing. The methodological approach assured, through the participatory process, the commitment of First, the Government sector usually desires to an expressive contingent of internal and external make decisions when some problem or urgent
August 2011 industry insightsNew Business PotentialVia Resource Recoveryin the Wastewater Sector BY Datuk Ir. Abdul Kadir Mohd. Din Chief Executive Officer, Indah Water Konsortium Sdn. Bhd. 9 Biosolids Bioffluent Dewatering Biogas
August 2011 Disposed Thickening Biogas Anaerobic Digestion Dewatering Biosolids industry insights Figure 1 Typical Sewage Treatment Process - Activated Sludge System - INTRODUCTION Preliminary Treatment Secondary Treatment Historically, the first thought of sewage treatment dates back to the end of 18th Century when Coarse Grit Removal Grease Anoxic Aeration Clariﬁer septic tanks were introduced in the West. By the Screen Trap Tank Tank nineteenth century sewage treatment methods developed rapidly to meet the needs of basic Raw sanitation. Today, modern and sophisticated Inﬂuent Fine Screen Treated treatment technologies are continuously developed Eﬄuent for the purpose of protection of environmental Pump Sump RAS quality in a cost efficient manner. The key driver Screenings for this trend is the increasing need for a more Scum Sludge Treatment WAS sustainable long term solution in terms of both the Grit economics and the environment. In this regard, the current practice in safe disposal Disposed Thickening Biogas of end products from sewage treatment namely, the effluent and sewage sludge, will no longer be able Anaerobic Digestion to meet the complex environmental challenges of climate and water sensitive futures. For this, the Dewatering Biosolids sewage treatment industry needs to be transformed into a resource harvesting industry. This paper describes the paradigm shift from traditional basic Figure 2 Resource Potential from Sewage Treatment treatment to potential new business model via resource recovery in the sewerage sector. The key Sewage Treatment Plant idea is utilizing the ‘Green Technology’ and ‘Zero10 Waste Concept’ to transform the sewerage industry By-Product into a sustainable and economically attractive model. Eﬄuent Biosolids Biogas The Basic Sewage Treatment Current Fare The typical treatment process flow for a modern Discharge Dispose Flare mechanized activated sludge plant is depicted in Figure 1. Caloriﬁc Value: Methane : 65 - 70% Potential Values BOD < 50 mg/l < 3,500 kcal/kg CO2 : < 25% Basically it involves 2 main components namely: (i) COD < 100 mg/l N < 3%; P < 1%; K < 0.1% N2: < 5% Pre-treatment for grit and grease removal; (ii) Main SS < 100 mg/l Organic Matter < 50% treatment process units where the major organic and solids pollutants are removed via Biological process (ie. secondary treatment). The secondary Fertilizer/ Recycle Water Renewable Energy Renewable Energy treatment process involves a reactor or tank for biological breakdown of organic pollutant by native sewage microbes (i.e. MLSS). This basic secondary treatment technology produces clear effluent that can be discharged into the environment, whilst foot print. The latest being a variation of Sequencing Plausible scenarios were the waste sludge (WAS) is typically stabilized and dewatered into semisolid form (at 15-20% dry solid Batch Reactors, Moving Bed Bioreactor, Membrane Bioreactor, Combination of Anaerobic then created to enable content; also known as biosolids) for disposal to UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) and the identification of landfills. If the stabilization process is involved, Aerobic systems. Although these developments technology priorities that there is anaerobic sludge digestion and biogas is produces high quality treated effluent, the waste produced as well. by-products remains typically disposed unto the is required to support the receiving environment. nation’s vision 2020. More recently technologies are focused on enhancing nutrient removal namely nitrogen and phosphorus as well as in reducing the operating energy requirement of systems as well as smaller
August 2011 industry insights Figure 3 Bioeffluent Reuse example of bio-effluent quality is shown in Figure 3. Treated effluent without any additional Parameters Units Average WHO Std MOH Std • IWK’s Pilot Project – Effluent to Recycle Water treatment was also found to be beneficial to • The results meet the WHO and MOH standard. plant growth, potentially with chlorination such Colour Hazen <5 15 15 application can be widely and applied. Such Turbidity NTU <0.5 5 5 potential needs to be realized as it will greatly Aluminium mg/l <0.01 0.2 0.2 relieve water stress areas and contribute towards Chloride mg/l <1 250 250 sustainable water resources for future. Copper mg/l <0.01 2 1 The potential benefits of biosolids reuse is far H2S mg/l <0.01 0.05 0.05 RO Units reaching. R&D studies has shown there is sufficient Iron mg/l <0.01 0.3 0.3 nutrient content in the biosolids where the typical Manganese mg/l <0.01 0.5 0.1 values of N:P:K average at 3% of the biosoilds whilst its organic matter content is typically more Sodium mg/l 5.58 200 200 than 50% and can contribute to improving soil Sulfate mg/l 1.75 400 400 CMF-S UNIT RO UNIT conditions and nutrient uptake for plant growth TDS mg/l 12.9 1000 1000 (see Figure 4). The energy value contained in Zinc mg/l 0.02 3 5 Advantages of Recycled Bioeffluent System the dry solids is also a potential to be tapped via gasification process. Analysis of typical biosolids Flouride mg/l 0.07 1.5 0.9 • No requirement for advance technology • Low capital cost from IWK plants in Malaysia show the calorific Hardness mg/l <1 30* 500 • Easy installation, operation & maintenance value ranging from 2000 to 3500 kcal/kg. Silica mg/l 0.2 10* 10* • Reliable source, quantity • Low price compare to potable water Another potential is the energy available within biogas generated from anaerobic digestion, at 65% methane composition there is a minimum Figure 4 Biosolids Reuse of 5000kcal/m3 of biogas being generated (Figure 5). For each of these potentials the Green Technology methods and approaches 11 are summarized in Table 1 and Figure 6. Green Technology is envisioned by Malaysia’s Premier Y.A.B. Dato’ Sri Mohd. Najib bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak as one of the emerging drivers Co-composting of Sewage Sludge and Vermicomposting of Municipals Solid Waste Utilisation of Sewage Sludge of economic growth for the nation. The national sewage sludge as Soil Amendment Green Technology Policy was officially launched in July 2009 which defines green technology as "the development and application of products, equipment and systems used to conserve the natural environment and resources, which minimizes and reduces negative impact of human activities”. Hence technology for resource recovery for water, Utilisation of Sewage Biosolids as Fertilizer for Sludge as Fertiliser for Non-Food Crop: Application in nutrients for soil and vegetation and renewable Various Crops Rubber Plantation energy is very much in line with our national BIOSOLIDS aspirations for a green economy that meets the Advantages of Biosolids as a Fertilizer complex demand of the impending carbon neutral and sustainable future. 1. Reduced used of chemical fertilizer 2. No smell, reliable source & quantity 3. Low capital cost, easy installation, operation & maintenance 4. Low price compared to chemical fertilizer Sewage Sludge in 5. Premium quality where biological base enhances soil fertility Forest Rehabilitation & & nutrient uptake Strategies and Way Forward Regeneration The application of Green Technology to produce value and material from sewerage waste by products the potential value for reuse is summarized will have the following benefits:Potential New Business in in Figure 2. Treated effluent can be reusedSewage via Resource Recovery & for landscaping and industrial applications. • Minimize discharge of treated effluent intoGreen Technology Application Local research had identified this potential water courses and reduce potable water and shown that with additional downstream stress.There are three (3) waste byproducts, treated filtration units that can range from • Environmental friendly outlet for Biosolidseffluent, biosolids and biogas that can be converted media based, to membrane and or RO types can whereby disposal to landfill is avoided.for beneficial reuse is as shown in Figure 1 whilst produce bioeffluent for industrial uptake. An
August 2011 industry insights • Biogas as Cheaper source of electricity is Figure 5 Biogas Reuse as Renewable Energy found. • Green house gas emissions is minimized. Typical Biogas Characteristics Towards Green Technology Biogas to • Public satisfaction is eventually achieved Renewable Energy Parameters Units Value when the highest level environmental quality Carbon Dioxide (CO2) % v/v 28 is maintained. • BIOGAS - Valuable source of untapped • Sustainable sewerage development could be energy potential. Oxygen (O2) % v/v <1 achieved. Methane (CH4) % v/v 65 • Sustainable option to reduce Moisture Content % v/v 4 However, there are barriers and challenges to consumption of fossil based electricity; Nitrogen (N2) % v/v 3 successful implementation of Green Technology for resource recovery in the sewerage sector. The • Supports the Government’s target primary barriers and challenges include the lack towards increasing the use of renewable of funding; lack of incentive schemes; lack of energy. economic of scale for immediate implementation of the initiatives, lack of locally acclimatized affordable technology, poor public acceptance of the recycled products. As such, to overcome this, the following strategy and action plans need to be agreed and developed: • Government to provide grant or funds to Biogas Generation Units Power Generation Unit encourage 3R – for new waste minimization and recycling projects. • Implement Pilot Projects to demonstrate Figure 6 Illustration of Green Technology Applications for The Sewerage Sector the use of Green Technology for successful GHG (CO2)12 utilization of sewerage waste products to be implemented. GHG (CO2 and N2O) (Flared) GHG (CO2, N20, CH4) • Allocate Research & Development funds Energy (Electricity) dedicated to encourage innovation in cheaper GHGs (CO2) GHG (Biogas) cleaner production of treated Bioeffluent, fertilizer and renewable energy such as from Biosolids and Biogas. • Intensive and creative public awareness Sewage Sludge Dewatered program to educate the public on recycling WASTEWATER TREATMENT ANAEROBIC METHANE Biosolids SEWAGE SLUDGE of sewerage by-products. Vs Vs Vs • Provide Policy & Guidelines for utilization of WATER RECLAIMATION BIOGAS BIOSOLIDS sewerage beneficial products such as treated Bioeffluent, fertilizer and energy source. • Community engagement to be encouraged Renewable Energy Fuel for via small medium industry entrepreneurship Recycled Bio-Effluent for Power/Electricity Fertilizer; Soil Conditioner; & program and good incentives for Green Landscape & Industry Use Renewable Energy Fuel Technology projects. • More regional plants to be established to provide the economics of scale to generate IWK as the national sewerage services provider Plausible scenarios were • Biosolids and Biogas of critical mass. All regional plants shall be provided with is well positioned to realize such new business then created to enable opportunities for Malaysia. It is envisaged Malaysia anaerobic digestion for sludge treatment. can lead other emerging nations to transform the identification of • Developer shall be encouraged with sewerage services into sustainable model. For a start technology priorities that incentives to build Zero Waste plants. IWK has taken initiative to establish demonstration • Integrated resource management to be projects on bioeffluent reuse with government’s is required to support the advocated, planned and developed for support and is looking into biogas demonstration nation’s vision 2020. implementation. projects at IWK’s regional plants. With further government support the vision of Malaysia as leader in sewerage transformation (Figure 7) for Asia can be realized.
August 2011 industry insights Table 1 Green Technology Methods for Resource Recovery Sewerage Green Technology Valued Added Inherent Values Intervention Required By-Products Applications Products/Applications Water source Purification and Disinfection Membrane filtration, Recycled water for Ultrafiltration Reverse Industries/Landscape Use. Osmosis Treated Effluent Nutrient Source – e.g. Nitrogen Source separation & nutrient Biotransformation and Recycled Nutrient capsules, & Phosphorus; Excess Residual recovery Bioaccumulation using Nutrient Feed Meal for Pharmaceuticals microbes, algae and/or Livestock; Recovered duckweeds pharmaceuticals. Fluidized Bed Reactors Organic Matter ;Macro & Micro Bioconversion Process Composting & Bulk Organic Media Fertilizer Nutrients (i.e. N:P:K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Vermicomposting Fe, Mn);. Fortification and nutrient Mixing and packaging Soil Conditioner Pellets/ supplementation Briquettes; Retail Fertilizer Pellets Energy/Heating Value Conversion to fuel pellets Thermal drying Co-firing fuel for Energy Biosolids Intensive Industry Conversion to Hydrogen gas Gasification Renewable Energy for and eventually to electricity Fuel Cell Technology Power Supply Conversion to Biogas Anaerobic Digestion Renewable Energy for Power Supply 13 Energy/Heating Value Conversion to electricity Biogas Engine & Renewable Energy for Biogas Fuel Cell Technology Power Supply Figure 7 Transformation From a Utility (Brown) Model to a Resource Recovery (Green) ModelSummary and Conclusion Source separationThere is enormous benefit to be gained from Wastewater generationthe application of Green Technology to harvestthe much untapped resources in the seweragesector. For this, we need to transform the mannersewage treatment is being planned and developed Energy Wastewaterin this country. Malaysia needs to leap frog our collection &sewerage services into a zero waste, and product conveyance system Nutrient Waterharvesting based on the waste to wealth model Wastewaterthat is both environmentally and economically conveyance system Wastewatersustainable. With the higher vision of sewage Treated treatment systemas a resource instead of waste, the drive is to Biosolids Disposalestablish green technologies to produce feedstockand by-products that could be used to catalyze Treated Wastewater Biogasdownstream processing to produce value added Disposal Flarematerials which have economic benefits (waste towealth concept). In the future, it is inevitable thatsewage treatment could be a lucrative businesswhen all the stakeholders could appreciate the Energyinherent potential in this industry. Malaysia canestablish a Green Technology Hub and be a leader BROWN ENVIRONMENT GREEN ENVIRONMENTin this waste to wealth concept and strategize itssustainability through zero waste management.
August 2011 BookClub LeARnIng fRoM THe fUTURe: coMPeTITIve foReSIgHT ScenARIoS Liam Fahey/ Robert Randall. Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc Published 1997/11 SUSTAInABLe exceLLence: THe fUTURe of BUSIneSS In A fAST-cHAngIng woRLD Aron Cramer/ Zachary Karabell YoUng PeoPLe, eDUcATIon, AnD SUSTAInABLe DeveLoPMenT: exPLoRIng PRIncIPLeS, PeRSPecTIveS, AnD PRAxIS Peter Blaze Corcoran (Editor), Philip Molo Osano (Editor) • ISBN-10: 9780471303527 • ISBN-13: 978-0471303527 How important is nit to know and learn from the future? Today’s business landscape is changing: Natural14 resources are growing ever more scarce and In recent decades, the world has often been caught expensive. Technology and changing consumer unaware by momentous events–oil shortages expectations are making transparency a fact of life. and gluts, the collapse of the Soviet empire, and The rise of emerging economies creates vast market technology that quickly transformed whole opportunities for companies—and better living industries. The question is, how do we learn to standards for hundreds of millions. anticipate and find opportunities in such sudden • ISBN-10: 9086860931 ISBN-10: 9086860931 crises? In Sustainable Excellence, Aron Cramer and Zachary • ISBN-13: 978-9086860937 Karabell tell the stories of the companies who are The future will always be unpredictable, but with the transforming themselves by responding to these Young people, education and sustainable right techniques, it can be anticipated and managed. paradigm shifts and in the process shaping the future. developement is a collection of 38 essays co- From their work with several international companies, authored by 68 contributors from 25 nations, Learning from the Future reveals how these Cramer and Karabell know firsthand how business representing a diversity of geography, gender, and innovative organizations harness imagination and can successfully grapple with big-picture issues like generation. strategic management techniques to create scenarios resource scarcity, supply chain complexities, and that simulate future opportunities and threats. This the diverse expectations of government and the Young people have an enormous stake in the book makes preparing for unpredictable futures a public. In Sustainable Excellence, they tell the stories present and future state of Earth. Almost half of the practical part of every manager’s job. It shows how of how Coca-Cola and Greenpeace collaborated human population is under the age of 25. If young scenario learning readies companies for industry on a refrigerator that fights climate change, how peoples resources of energy, time, and knowledge and market evolutions and customers′ new needs. companies like Best Buy and Nike are transforming are misdirected towards violence, terrorism, Scenario learning envisions how industry segments the very products they sell to deliver more value to socially isolating technologies, and unsustainable may gain or lose profit potential, how certain consumers with less waste, how GE and Google consumption, civilization risks destabilization. Yet, technologies could dominate a market or fail to created an innovative partnership that is developing there is a powerful opportunity for society if young be accepted, how new trends could propel mass “smart grids” that radically reduce energy use, and people can participate positively in all aspects of markets, what circumstances could derail a merger. how business leaders like Starbucks’ founder and sustainable development. In order to do so young CEO Howard Schultz put sustainable excellence at people need education, political support, resources, To help readers construct truly useful scenarios and the center of his company’s business strategy. skills, and hope. learn from them, this book offers the latest insights of 25 internationally known scenario developers. Through these and other fascinating stories This volume offers a global perspective on Their case studies explore rapid technology Sustainable Excellence makes the case for a different education initiatives by and for young people that innovation, regulatory destabilization, actions by way of doing business – one that will define both promote a transition to sustainability. new or traditional competitors, and investment business success and economic vitality in the 21st opportunities. century.
August 2011 industry insightsGrowing Together –Future Forum 2020A Foresight Project for Natural Fiber BY Dilip Tambyrajah Secretary, The International Natural Fiber Organization Zoetermeer, The Netherlands Dilip.Tambyrajah@wxs.nl 15