Lecture 20 neo-assyrian empire (b)

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Lecture 20 neo-assyrian empire (b)

  1. 1. HISTORY 26 Lecture Twenty: The Neo-Assyrian Empire ( c . 883 - 612 BC)
  2. 2. Causes of the Dark Age ( c . 1200 - 900 BC) <ul><li>Invasions/Migrations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Peoples of the Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Aramaeans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing disparity in wealth between palace and countryside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Habiru </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecological Disaster </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Environment <ul><li>Earthquakes </li></ul><ul><li>A drying of the climate in the north, producing crop failure and famine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grain shipments from Egypt and Ugarit to the Hittites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A shifting of the courses of the Tigris and Euphrates in southern Mesopotamia </li></ul>
  4. 5. Rising from a Dark Age ( c . 1200 - 900 BC) <ul><li>Assyria loses control of northeast Syria to the Aramaeans </li></ul><ul><li>Late 10th century: The beginning of the annual military campaign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kings waged war on behalf of the god Assur and the Assyrian state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assurnasirpal II (883 - 859 BC) and Shalmaneser III (858 - 824 BC) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Shalmaneser III (858 - 824 BC) <ul><li>Campaigned in western Syria and Urartu </li></ul><ul><li>Syria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to wealth and trade routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vassals, “under the yoke of Assur” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urartu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain spoils and reduce a military threat </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Shalmaneser III (858 - 824 BC) <ul><li>Jehu, King of Israel, “under the yoke of Assur” </li></ul>
  7. 9. Assurnasirpal II (883 - 859 BC) The Capital of Kalhu (Nimrud)
  8. 10. Assurnasirpal II (883 - 859 BC) The Palace of Kalhu
  9. 11. Assurnasirpal II (883 - 859 BC) The Palace of Kalhu
  10. 12. Assurnasirpal II (883 - 859 BC) The Palace of Kalhu
  11. 13. Assurnasirpal II (883 - 859 BC) The Palace of Kalhu
  12. 14. Assurnasirpal II (883 - 859 BC) <ul><li>Lamassu </li></ul>
  13. 15. Shamshi-Adad V (823 - 811 BC) <ul><li>Inherited the throne in the midst of rebellion with the help of Babylonia </li></ul><ul><li>The city-states of Syria refuse to pay tribute </li></ul><ul><li>Local governors and officials act independently </li></ul><ul><li>Assyria expanded too quickly; its underdeveloped administration could not function under a weak ruler </li></ul>
  14. 16. Phoenicia (Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, and Arwad)
  15. 17. Phoenician Colonies (Carthage)

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