Lecture 14 kingdom of mitanni (b)

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Lecture 14 kingdom of mitanni (b)

  1. 1. HISTORY 26 Lecture Fourteen: The Kingdom of Mitanni ( c . 1500 - 1350 BC)
  2. 2. Hammurabi’s Babylon
  3. 3. The Old Hittite Kingdom ( c . 1650 - 1500 BC)
  4. 4. The Near East, c . 1500 BC
  5. 5. Mitanni, Land of the Hurrians ( c . 1500 - 1350 BC)
  6. 6. Mitanni, Land of the Hurrians <ul><li>Hurrian: Neither Indo-European nor Semitic </li></ul><ul><li>The Hittite Old Kingdom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital: Hattusa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hattusili and Mursili </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Kingdom of Yamkhad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital: Aleppo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>King Parrattarna of Mitanni </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundaries: Kizzuwatna (west), Nuzi (east), and Terqa (south) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Mitanni, Land of the Hurrians ( c . 1500 - 1350 BC)
  8. 8. Idrimi, King of Alalakh <ul><li>Flees from Aleppo to Emar </li></ul><ul><li>Joins local nomads (the Sutaeans) </li></ul><ul><li>Seizes Alalakh </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes a vassal of Parrattarna </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mitanni, Land of the Hurrians <ul><li>A major rival of Egypt’s 18th Dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict via proxy states in Palestine and Syria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>King Saustatar of Mitanni </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allied to Amenhotep II of Egypt (1426 - 1400 BC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retained control from Alalakh in the west to Nuzi in the east </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seized control of Assur </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Military aristocracy comprised of charioteers called mariyanni (singular, mariyannu ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The beginning of a new form of social stratification </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Decline of Mitanni <ul><li>Amenhotep III of Egypt (1390 - 1353 BC) and king Tushratta of Mitanni </li></ul><ul><li>The rival kingship of Artatama, backed by the Hittite New Kingdom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shuttarna III (Artatama’s son) betrays the Hittites and allies himself with Assyria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Hittites back Kili-Teshub, son of Tushratta </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mitanni becomes a pawn in the growing rivalry of the Hittites and Assyrians </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Near East, c . 1500 BC

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