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# Statr session 19 and 20

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### Statr session 19 and 20

1. 1. Learning Objectives • Understand the differences between various experimental designs and when to use them. • Compute and interpret the results of a one-way ANOVA. • Compute and interpret the results of a random block design. • Compute and interpret the results of a two-way ANOVA. • Understand and interpret interactions between variables. • Know when and how to use multiple comparison techniques.
2. 2. Introduction to Design of Experiments • Experimental Design – A plan and a structure to test hypotheses in which the researcher controls or manipulates one or more variables.
3. 3. Introduction to Design of Experiments Independent Variable • Treatment variable - one that the experimenter controls or modifies in the experiment. • Classification variable - a characteristic of the experimental subjects that was present prior to the experiment, and is not a result of the experimenter’s manipulations or control. • Levels or Classifications - the subcategories of the independent variable used by the researcher in the experimental design. • Independent variables are also referred to as factors.
4. 4. Independent Variable • Manipulation of the independent variable depends on the concept being studied • Researcher studies the phenomenon under conditions of varying aspects of the variable
5. 5. Introduction to Design of Experiments • Dependent Variable - the response to the different levels of the independent variable • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) – a group of statistical techniques used to analyze experimental designs. - ANOVA begins with notion that individual items being studied are all the same
6. 6. Three Types of Experimental Designs • Completely Randomized Design – subjects are assigned randomly to treatments; single independent variable. • Randomized Block Design – includes a blocking variable; single independent variable. • Factorial Experiments – two or more independent variables are explored at the same time; every level of each factor are studied under every level of all other factors.
7. 7. Completely Randomized Design • The completely randomized design contains only one independent variable with two or more treatment levels. • If two treatment levels of the independent variable are present, the design is the same used to test the difference in means of two independent populations which uses the t test to analyze the data.
8. 8. Completely Randomized Design Machine Operator 1 2 3 Independent Variable 4 Valve Opening Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . Dependent Variable
9. 9. Completely Randomized Design • A technique has been developed that analyzes all the sample means at one time and precludes the buildup of error rate: ANOVA. • A completely randomized design is analyzed by one way analysis of variance (One-Way Anova).
10. 10. One-Way ANOVA: Procedural Overview 𝐻0 : 𝜇1 = 𝜇2 = 𝜇3 = … . = 𝜇 𝑘 𝐻 𝑎 : at least one of the means is different from others 𝑀𝑆𝐶 𝐹= 𝑀𝑆𝐸 If 𝐹 > 𝐹 𝐶 reject 𝐻0 If 𝐹 ≤ 𝐹 𝐶 do not reject 𝐻0
11. 11. Analysis of Variance • The null hypothesis states that the population means for all treatment levels are equal. • Even if one of the population means is different from the other, the null hypothesis is rejected. • Testing the hypothesis is done by portioning the total variance of data into the following two variances: - Variance resulting from the treatment (columns) - Error variance or that portion of the total variance unexplained by the treatment
12. 12. One-Way ANOVA: Sums of Squares Definitions
13. 13. Analysis of Variance • The total sum of square of variation is partitioned into the sum of squares of treatment columns and the sum of squares of error. • ANOVA compares the relative sizes of the treatment variation and the error variation. • The error variation is unaccounted for variation and can be viewed at the point as variation due to individual differences in the groups. • If a significant difference in treatment is present, the treatment variation should be large relative to the error variation.
14. 14. One-Way ANOVA: Computational Formulas • ANOVA is used to determine statistically whether the variance between the treatment level means is greater than the variances within levels (error variance) • Assumptions underlying ANOVA  Normally distributed populations  Observations represent random samples from the population  Variances of the population are equal
15. 15. One-Way ANOVA: Computational Formulas ANOVA is computed with the three sums of squares: • Total – Total Sum of Squares (SST); a measure of all variations in the dependent variable • Treatment – Sum of Squares Columns (SSC); measures the variations between treatments or columns since independent variable levels are present in columns • Error – Sum of Squares of Error (SSE); yields the variations within treatments (or columns)
16. 16. One-Way ANOVA: Preliminary Calculations 1 2 3 4 6.33 6.26 6.44 6.29 6.26 6.36 6.38 6.23 6.31 6.23 6.58 6.19 6.29 6.27 6.54 6.21 6.4 6.19 6.56 6.5 6.34 6.19 6.58 6.22 Tj T1 = 31.59 T2 = 50.22 T3 = 45.42 T4 = 24.92 T = 152.15 nj n1 = 5 n2 = 8 n3 = 7 n4 = 4 N = 24 Mean 6.318000 6.277500 6.488571 6.230000 6.339583
17. 17. One-Way ANOVA: Sum of Squares Calculations
18. 18. One-Way ANOVA: Sum of Squares Calculations
19. 19. One-Way ANOVA: Computational Formulas • Other items □ MSC – Mean Squares Columns □ MSE – Mean Squares Error □ MST – Mean Squares Total • F value – determined by dividing the treatment variance (MSC) by the error variance (MSE) □ F value is a ratio of the treatment variance to the error variance
20. 20. One-Way ANOVA: Mean Square and F Calculations
21. 21. Analysis of Variance for Valve Openings Source of Variance df Between Error Total 3 20 23 SS MS 0.23658 0.078860 0.15492 0.007746 0.39150 F 10.18
22. 22. F Table • F distribution table is in Table A7. • Associated with every F table are two unique df variables: degrees of freedom in the numerator, and degrees of freedom in the denominator. • Statistical computer software packages for computing ANOVA usually give a probability for the F value, which allows hypothesis testing decisions for any values of alpha .
23. 23. A portion of F Table F .05,3, 20 df1 1 df2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 161.45 199.50 215.71 224.58 230.16 233.99 236.77 238.88 240.54 … … … … … … … … … … 18 4.41 3.55 3.16 2.93 2.77 2.66 2.58 2.51 2.46 19 4.38 3.52 3.13 2.90 2.74 2.63 2.54 2.48 2.42 20 4.35 3.49 3.10 2.87 2.71 2.60 2.51 2.45 2.39 21 4.32 3.47 3.07 2.84 2.68 2.57 2.49 2.42 2.37
24. 24. One-Way ANOVA: Procedural Summary   1 2 =3 Rejection Region = 20 Non rejection Region Since F = 10.18 > F = 3.10, reject H0. c = F .05,9,11 = 3.10 Critical Value
25. 25. Multiple Comparison Tests • ANOVA techniques useful in testing hypothesis about differences of means in multiple groups. • Advantage: Probability of committing a Type I error is controlled. • Multiple Comparison techniques are used to identify which pairs of means are significantly different given that the ANOVA test reveals overall significance.
26. 26. Multiple Comparison Tests • Multiple comparisons are used when an overall significant difference between groups has been determined using the F value of the analysis of variance • Tukey’s honestly significant difference (HSD) test requires equal sample sizes  Takes into consideration the number of treatment levels, value of mean square error, and sample size
27. 27. Multiple Comparison Tests • Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) – also known as the Tukey’s T method – examines the absolute value of all differences between pairs of means from treatment levels to determine if there is a significant difference. • Tukey-Kramer Procedure is used when sample sizes are unequal.
28. 28. Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) Test If comparison for a pair of means is greater than HSD, then the means of the two treatment levels are significantly different.
29. 29. Demonstration Example Problem A company has three manufacturing plants, and company officials want to determine whether there is a difference in the average age of workers at the three locations. The following data are the ages of five randomly selected workers at each plant. Perform a one-way ANOVA to determine whether there is a significant difference in the mean ages of the workers at the three plants. Use α = 0.01 and note that the sample sizes are equal.
30. 30. Data from Demonstration Example PLANT (Employee Age) 1 29 27 30 27 28 Group Means nj C=3 dfE = N - C = 12 2 32 33 31 34 30 3 25 24 24 25 26 28.2 5 32.0 5 24.8 5 MSE = 1.63
31. 31. Tukey’s HSD test • Since sample sizes are equal, Tukey’s HSD tests can be used to compute multiple comparison tests between groups • To compute the HSD, the values of MSE, n and q must be determined
32. 32. q Value for ∝ = 0.01 Number of Populations Degrees of Freedom 1 2 3 4 5 90 135 164 186 2 14 19 22.3 24.7 3 8.26 10.6 12.2 13.3 4 6.51 8.12 9.17 9.96 11 4.39 5.14 5.62 5.97 12 4.32 5.04 5.50 5.84 . . ... q = 504 . .01,3,12
33. 33. Tukey’s HSD Test for the Employee Age Data All three comparisons are greater than 2.88. Thus the mean ages between any and all pairs of plants are significantly different.
34. 34. Tukey-Kramer Procedure: The Case of Unequal Sample Sizes
35. 35. Example: Mean Valve openings produced by four operators A valve manufacturing wants to test whether there are any differences in the mean valve openings produced by four different machine operators. The data follow.
36. 36. Example: Mean Valve openings produced by four operators Operator 1 2 3 4 Sample Size 5 8 7 4 Mean 6.3180 6.2775 6.4886 6.2300
37. 37. Example: Tukey-Kramer Results for the Four Operators Pair 1 and 2 Critical Difference .1405 |Actual Differences| .0405 1 and 3 .1443 .1706* 1 and 4 .1653 .0880 2 and 3 .1275 .2111* 2 and 4 .1509 .0475 3 and 4 .1545 .2586* *denotes significant at =.05
38. 38. Randomized Block Design • Randomized block design - focuses on one independent variable (treatment variable) of interest. • Includes a second variable (blocking variable) used to control for confounding or concomitant variables. • A Blocking Variable can have an effect on the outcome of the treatment being studied • A blocking variable is a variable a researchers wants to control but not a treatment variable of interest.
39. 39. Randomized Block Design Independent Variable 1 2 3 4 . . . Blocking Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . Individual Observations
40. 40. Examples: Blocking Variable • In the study of growth patterns of varieties of seeds for a given type of plant, different plots of ground work as blocks. • Machine number, worker, shift, day of the week etc. • Gender, Age, Intelligence, Economic level of subjects • Brand, Supplier, Vehicle etc.
41. 41. Randomized Block Design • Repeated measures design - is a design in which each block level is an individual item or person, and that person or item is measured across all treatments • A special case of Randomized Block Design
42. 42. Randomized Block Design • The sum of squares in a completely randomized design is  SST = SSC + SSE • In a randomized block design, the sum of squares is  SST = SSC + SSR + SSE • SSR (blocking effects) comes out of the SSE  Some error in variation in randomized design are due to the blocking effects of the randomized block design
43. 43. Randomized Block Design Treatment Effects: Procedural Overview • The observed F value for treatments computed using the randomized block design formula is tested by comparing it to a table F value. • If the observed F value is greater than the table value, the null hypothesis is rejected for that alpha value. • If the F value for blocks is greater than the critical F value, the null hypothesis that all block population means are equal is rejected.
44. 44. Randomized Block Design Treatment Effects: Procedural Overview
45. 45. Randomized Block Design: Computational Formulas C SSC = n ( X j  X ) j =1 n SSR = C  ( X i =1 n n i X ) 2 df df SSE =   ( X ij  X i  X i  X ) j =1 i =1 n n SST =   ( X ij  X ) j =1 i =1 SSC MSC = C 1 SSR MSR = n 1 SSE MSE = N  n  C 1 MSC F treatments = MSE MSR = F blocks MSE 2 where: i j C n = = = = 2 R df E df 2 C E = C 1 = n 1 =  C  1 n  1 = N  n  C  1 = N 1 block group (row) a treatment level (column) number of treatment levels (columns) number of observations in each treatment level (number of blocks - rows) X = individual observation X = treatment (column) mean X = block (row) mean ij j i X = grand mean N = total number of observations SSC SSR SSE SST = = = = sum of squares columns (treatment) sum of squares rows (blocking) sum of squares error sum of squares total
46. 46. Randomized Block Design: Tread-Wear Example As an example of the application of the randomized block design, consider a tire company that developed a new tire. The company conducted tread-wear tests on the tire to determine whether there is a significant difference in tread wear if the average speed with which the automobile is driven varies. The company set up an experiment in which the independent variable was speed of automobile. There were three treatment levels.
47. 47. Randomized Block Design: Tread-Wear Example Speed Supplier Slow Medium Fast Block Means ( X ) i 1 4.5 3.1 3.77 2 n=5 3.7 3.4 3.9 2.8 3.37 3 3.5 4.1 3.0 3.53 4 3.2 3.5 2.6 3.10 5 3.9 4.8 3.4 4.03 3.54 4.16 2.98 3.56 Treatment Means( X ) j C=3 N = 15 X
48. 48. Randomized Block Design: Sum of Squares Calculations (Part 1)
49. 49. Randomized Block Design: Sum of Squares Calculations (Part 2)
50. 50. Randomized Block Design: Mean Square Calculations
51. 51. Analysis of Variance for the Tread-Wear Example Source of Variance Treatment Block Error Total SS 3.484 1.541 0.143 5.176 df 2 4 8 14 MS F 1.742 97.45 0.38525 21.72 0.017875
52. 52. Randomized Block Design Treatment Effects: Procedural Summary
53. 53. Randomized Block Design Treatment Effects: Procedural Overview
54. 54. Randomized Block Design: Tread-Wear Example • Because the observed value of F for treatment (97.45) is greater than this critical F value, the null hypothesis is rejected.  At least one of the population means of the treatment levels is not the same as the others.  There is a significant difference in tread wear for cars driven at different speeds • The F value for treatment with the blocking was 97.45 and without the blocking was 12.44  By using the random block design, a much larger observed F value was obtained.
55. 55. Factorial Design (Two way Anova) Column Treatment . . . Row Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cells
56. 56. Two-Way ANOVA: Hypotheses
57. 57. Formulas for Computing a Two-Way ANOVA